• Group singing improves quality of life for people with Parkinson’s: an international study

      Irons, J. Yoon; Hancox, Grenville; Vella-Burrows, Trish; Han, E-Y; Chong, H-J; Sheffield, David; Stewart, Donald E; University of Derby; Sing to Beat Parkinson's, Cantata Canterbury Trust; Canterbury Christ Church University, Kent; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-05)
      Group singing has been reported to enhance quality of life (QoL) and mental health in older people. This paper explored whether there are differences in the effects of group singing intervention on people with Parkinson’s (PwPs) in Australia, UK and South Korea. The study included PwPs (N = 95; mean age = 70.26; male 45%) who participated in a standardised 6-month weekly group singing programme. Parkinson’s health-related QoL measure (PDQ39) and mental health assessment (DASS) were administered at baseline and follow-up. ANOVAs were performed with significance set as p < .05. ANOVAs revealed main effects of Time on the Stigma and Social Support subscales of PDQ39; both showed a small but significant improvement over time. However, the social support reduction was moderated by country; social support was improved only in South Korean participants. The reduction in stigma was greater than previously reported minimal clinically important differences, as was the social support reduction in South Korean participants. In terms of mental health, ANOVAs revealed that the scores of Anxiety and Stress domains of DASS significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test with small effect sizes. This first international singing study with PwPs demonstrated that group singing can reduce stigma, anxiety and stress and enhance social support in older adults living with Parkinson’s. The findings are encouraging and warrant further research using more robust designs.
    • A group singing program improves quality of life: An international study

      Irons, J. Yoon; Hancox, Grenville; Vella-Burrows, Trish; Han, E-Y; Chong, H-J; Sheffield, David; Stewart, Donald E; Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-06-05)
      People with Parkinson’s (PwPs) may experience stigma, isolation, stress and anxiety due to the chronic nature of Parkinson’s. Complementary therapies, including singing, have been reported to impact positively on quality of life (QoL) in PwPs. This paper reports on an international trial of Sing to Beat Parkinson’s®, a community group singing program, involving PwPs from Australia, the UK, and South Korea on QoL and mental well-being. PwPs (N=95; mean age=70.26; male 45%) participated in a standardized 6-month weekly group singing program, which included breathing exercises, vocal warm-ups and preferred song singing. PDQ39 and modified DASS21 were administered at baseline and follow-up to assess QoL and mental well-being, respectively. MANOVA and ANOVAs were performed with significance set as p<.05. MANOVA showed statistically significant multivariate effects of Time, Country, Time by Country and Time by Gender interactions on QoL. Follow-up univariate ANOVAs revealed main effects of Time on Stigma and Social Support domains of QoL; both improved. Further, MANOVA revealed a multivariate effect of Time on mental well-being; anxiety and stress significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test. This first international singing study with PwPs demonstrated that group singing enhanced some aspects of quality of life and mental well-being. Participating in a weekly group singing program for a 6-month period impacted positively on social support, and feeling stigmatized, as well as reductions in anxiety and stress. The findings are encouraging and warrant further research using more robust designs that include comparator groups.
    • Growth and development in wild Owl Monkeys (Aotus azarai) of Argentina

      Huck, Maren; Rotundo, Marcelo; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; University of Pennsylvania; Fundacion ECO; Centro de Ecologia Aplicada del Litoral, CONICET (2011)
      Life history predicts that in sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, males should reach sexual maturity later than females (or vice versa if females are the larger sex). The corresponding prediction that in sexually monomorphic species maturational rates will differ little between the sexes has rarely been tested. We report here sex differences in growth and development to adulthood for 70 female and 69 male wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). In addition, using evidence from natal dispersal and first reproduction (mean: 74 mo) for 7 individuals of known age, we assigned ages to categories: infant, 0–6 mo; juvenile, 6.1–24 mo; subadult, 24.1–48 mo; adult >48 mo. We compared von Bertalanffy growth curves and growth rates derived from linear piecewise regressions for juvenile and subadult females and males. Growth rates did not differ between the sexes, although juvenile females were slightly longer than males. Females reached maximum maxillary canine height at ca. 2 yr, about a year earlier than males, and females’ maxillary canines were shorter than males’. Thus apart from canine eruption and possibly crown–rump length, the development of Azara’s owl monkeys conforms to the prediction by life history that in monomorphic species the sexes should develop at similar paces.
    • Growth rate and extinction amongst Plio-Pleistocene bivalve molluscs of the western and eastern North Atlantic region

      Clarke, Abigail; Featherstone, Aaron; Heywood, Daniel; Thornton, Luke; Richardson, Kathryn; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; University of Derby (2017-07-03)
    • Growth rate, extinction and survival amongst late Cenozoic bivalves of the North Atlantic

      Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Clarke, Abigail; Featherstone, Aaron C.; Heywood, Daniel J.; Richardson, Kathryn E.; Spink, Jack O.; Thornton, Luke A.H.; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-12)
      Late Cenozoic bivalve extinction in the North Atlantic and adjacent areas has been attributed to environmental change (declines in temperature and primary production). Within scallops and oysters—bivalve groups with a high growth rate—certain taxa which grew exceptionally fast became extinct, while others which grew slower survived. The taxa which grew exceptionally fast would have obtained protection from predators thereby, so their extinction may have been due to the detrimental effect of environmental change on growth rate and ability to avoid predation, rather than environmental change per se. We investigated some glycymeridid and carditid bivalves—groups with a much lower growth rate than scallops and oysters—to see whether extinct forms from the late Cenozoic of the North Atlantic grew faster than extant forms, and hence whether their extinction may also have been mediated by increased mortality due to predation. Growth rate was determined from the cumulative width of annual increments in the hinge area; measurements were scaled up to overall shell size for the purposes of comparison with data from living species. Growth of the extinct glycymeridid Glycymeris subovata was at about the same rate as the slowest-growing living glycymeridid and much slower than in late Cenozoic samples of extant G. americana, in which growth was at about the same rate as the fastest-growing living glycymeridid. Growth of extinct G. obovata was also slower than G. americana, and that of the extinct carditid Cardites squamulosa ampla similarly slow (evidently slower than in the one living carditid species for which data are available). These findings indicate that within bivalve groups whose growth is much slower than scallops and oysters, extinction or survival of taxa through the late Cenozoic was not influenced by whether they were relatively fast or slow growers. By implication, environmental change acted directly to cause extinctions in slow-growing groups, rather than by increasing susceptibility to predation.
    • Guest talk: Be your dog.

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (Live Art Development Agency, 16/05/2018)
      Shaun Caton’s Prancing Poodles and Preposterous Pugs is a visual tour through some of his extraordinary collection of vintage and historic photographs, and an illustrated talk exploring the animal as performer for the camera, live audience, and the collective creative imagination. Looking at bizarre photographs of animals both dead and alive, Shaun will evince their forgotten stories and pinpoint the human relationships within a performance context. Jack Tan’s Four Legs Good is a live revival of the medieval animal trials, where animals who had committed some offence were charged in court, prosecuted and defended by barristers, and sentenced in full hearings before a judge. In advance of the first sitting of the Animal Court at Compass Festival 2018 in Leeds, Jack will give a presentation about the Animal Court and offer advice to all dogs present who may have fallen foul of the law on how to bring or defend a case. Angela Bartram’s Be Your Dog explores relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner in response to Donna Haraway’s concept that two companions are necessary for a functional co-species co-habitation. The project saw participants and their dogs attend workshops to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection, and strategies for dog and human to be equals with each other and to test if it is possible to establish a non-hierarchical pack. She will talk about Be Your Dog and her other work with animals including the significance of dog/human cohabitation at the end of life, using dog walking as a way to engage community, and giving access to animal theory to animals themselves. Artist and researcher Sibylle Peters will facilitate conversations.
    • The Gypsy and Traveller communities’ housing dispute against the Localism Tenet – Social and Cultural definition of Gypsy and Traveller status and gender issues

      Tracada, Eleni; Spencer, Siobhan; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby, College of Engineering and Technology; Derbyshire Gypsy Liaison Group; University of Derby, iCeGS (CREA & Giovanni Michelucci Foundation, 2014-12)
    • Habitat structure mediates biodiversity effects on ecosystem properties

      Godbold, J. A.; Bulling, Mark T.; Solan, Martin (2013-05-24)
      Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations in a model marine benthic system to investigate the effects of species composition, resource heterogeneity and patch connectivity on ecosystem properties at both the patch (bioturbation intensity) and multi-patch (nutrient concentration) scale. We show that allowing fauna to move and preferentially select patches alters local species composition and density distributions, which has negative effects on ecosystem processes (bioturbation intensity) at the patch scale, but overall positive effects on ecosystem functioning (nutrient concentration) at the multi-patch scale. Our findings provide important evidence that community dynamics alter in response to localized resource heterogen- eity and that these small-scale variations in habitat structure influence species contributions to ecosystem properties at larger scales. We conclude that habitat complexity forms an important buffer against dis- turbance and that contemporary estimates of the level of biodiversity required for maintaining future multi-functional systems may need to be revised.
    • Habitat suitability, corridors and dispersal barriers for large carnivores in Poland

      Huck, Maren; Jędrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Borowik, Tomasz; Miłosz-Cielma, Małgorzata; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Nowak, Sabina; Mysłajek, Robert W.; Mammal Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences; Association for Nature "Wolf" (2010)
      Carnivores are often particularly sensitive to landscape fragmentation. Ecological corridors may help to connect local populations, ensuring gene flow and retaining viable meta-populations. We aimed to establish habitat suitability models for two large carnivores in Poland, the grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 and the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758, based on ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA). Secondly, we calculated least cost paths (LCPs) based on cost values obtained from ENFA. Thirdly, we determined structures that might act as barriers, thus diminishing the value of the corridor unless appropriate conservation measures are taken. We compared some of the results with actual dispersal data of four lynx in eastern Poland. Results indicate that both species are highly marginalised. Less habitat that is currently available in Poland is suitable for lynx than for wolves. We determined a total of 76 LCPs. Comparison of these theoretical corridors with actual dispersal routes suggests that the traits of calculated LCPs are mostly within the range of those of real routes. We highlight a variety of features that might act as barriers, such as major roads (including planned highways), urbanized areas, and large un-forested areas. We give suggestions where concerted conservation efforts (eg wildlife passages) might be particularly well-directed.
    • The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (IOS Press, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out at Loughborough University in the UK into the areas of 'design for all' and accessible transport. The research addresses two common needs for designers and ergonomists working towards developing more inclusive products and environments, namely data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool that has been developed to support designers in their efforts to develop products that meet the needs of a broader range of users. Currently HADRIAN is being expanded to support transport design. This includes data on an individual's ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. The subsequent use of this data will be supported either through a task analysis system that will allow a designer to evaluate a design for a part of the transport infrastructure (ticket barrier, train carriage etc.), or alternatively allow the designer or an end user to evaluate a whole journey. The 'journey planner' feature of the HADRIAN tool will compare an individual's physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands placed upon that individual by the mode(s) of transport available and the route options selected. It is envisaged that these developments will prove extremely useful to users, designers, planners and all those involved with transport use and implementation.
    • HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2005)
      HADRIAN is a computer aided design tool, developed to support designers in their efforts to ‘design for all’. Combining a database of individuals together with a task analysis tool HADRIAN provides a virtual group of 100 people, ready to perform a user trial at any point throughout a product’s design. Developed initially to predict design inclusion for localised design problems such as those experienced in a kitchen environment, HADRIAN is now being developed to include transport data as part of the AUNT-SUE project. AUNT-SUE is a transport related project that is funded as part of the EPSRC’s Sustainable Urban Environment programme. The project addresses policy making through to design and implementation in its aims to support effective socially inclusive design and operation of transport systems. Part of the AUNT-SUE project addresses exclusion faced by people whilst making a typical journey including: the inability to access adequate route-finding and timetabling information, problems accessing transport infrastructure (bus/tram stops, cycle routes, railway stations etc.), getting on and off transport, and managing interchanges between different transport types. This paper discusses the development of the relationship between HADRIAN and AUNTSUE. Initial work focuses on additional data for the database covering transport related tasks. Later work will focus on improving the task analysis capability of HADRIAN whilst integrating the transport related functionality. Ultimately the project also provides the opportunity to further develop HADRIAN towards the needs of designers developing products that maximise social inclusion.
    • HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all"

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2003)
      The arguments for a Design for All or Inclusive Design approach to product, environment or service design are clear and well understood. In order to address the underlying issues it is vitally important that designers are educated, informed and supported in the principles of Design for All, with appropriate and applicable data, and with the tools and techniques to employ this data in their design activity. This paper introduces our approach to supporting the designer in a Design for All philosophy. The main focus of this approach is our computer aided design and analysis tool HADRIAN. HADRIAN provides our sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities together with a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’. The system has been developed to build empathy with the target population. In addition, the system provides a relatively simple, yet powerful, method of obtaining a form of user feedback and insight normally only attainable through expensive prototypes mock-ups and user trials. This feedback is also provided at a much earlier stage of the design process. HADRIAN is the result of a three year EPSRC funded project that was part of the EQUAL initiative. This project concluded in October 2002 but the development of HADRIAN is ongoing.
    • HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This article describes research into the area of ‘design for all’. The research addresses two common needs for designers working towards developing inclusive products and environments, namely, data on users that are accessible, valid and applicable, and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. The approach taken is through the development of a combined database and inclusive human modelling tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people, the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These individuals provide a browsable resource spanning size, shape, capability, preferences, and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport-related tasks. This is partnered with the development of a simple, CAD-based task analysis system. Tasks are carried out by the virtual individuals in the database and accessibility issues are reported, allowing excluded people to be investigated in order to understand the problems experienced and solutions identified. HADRIAN is also being expanded to include a more accessible journey planner that provides accessibility information to both end users and transport professionals. Together, HADRIAN allows more informed choices to be made either in travelling, or in the designing of products and environments.
    • HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (Chalmers University, 2006)
      HADRIAN was created to make a step-function change in the way that inclusive design is accepted and integrated within design practice. Tables of percentile data have now been replaced by holistic databases of individuals covering a wide range of sizes and abilities. Whilst the initial research focussed on physical and behavioural issues related to anthropometry and biomechanics, our current data collection also includes simple emotional and cognitive data within the tool. Details of HADRIAN are presented, including our ‘journey planner’ that is being developed that will compare an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will be placed upon that individual during the envisioned journey. If the journey is unachievable or very difficult, then that person is likely to feel socially excluded. It is intended that the planner will identify a suitable alternative route and/or choice of transport mode. Designers will also be able to use the planner to assess inclusive design issues for existing and new facilities.
    • Haemophilia

      Elander, James; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05)
      Haemophilia A and haemophilia B are inherited bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies in blood clotting factor proteins. This chapter gives an overview of evidence about psychological aspects of haemophilia, including inheritance, adherence to treatment, quality of life, and pain management.
    • Hand on heart

      McNaney, Nicki; University of Derby (29/09/2017)
      An Illustration created for Rankin Photography Studio, to promote British Heart Foundation, “World Heart Day” An international art project with creatives from around the world, to raise awareness of the global fight against heart disease through the use of social media.
    • Handbook of vocational education and training

      Stuart, Rebecca; McGrath, Simon; Mulder, Martin; Papier, Joy; University of the Western Cape; Wageningen University; University of Nottingham (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
      This handbook brings together and promotes research on the area of vocational education and training (VET). It analyzes current and future economic and labor market trends and relates these to likely implications for vocational education and training. It questions how VET engages with the growing power of human development approaches and with the sustainable development agenda. Equity and inclusion are discussed in a range of ways by the authors and the consideration of the construction of these terms is an important element of the handbook. It further addresses both the overall notion of system reform, at different scales, and what is known about particular technologies of systems reform across a variety of settings. Vocational learning and VET teacher/trainer education are discussed from a comparative perspective. National and comparative experiences are also shared on questions of equity and efficiency in funding in terms of those that fund and are funded, and for a range of funding methodologies. As well as reviewing existing gaps, this handbook is looking forward in identifying promising new directions in research and environment.
    • The hands of Beuys and Heidegger

      Baker, Steve; University of Derby (Whitechapel Gallery/ MIT Press, 2016)
    • Harmonious architecture and kinetic linear energy

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (montpellier.archi.fr, 2013-07-05)
    • Has Ambisonics come of age?

      Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Institute of Acoustics, 2008-11)
      Ambisonics was developed in the 1970’s as a flexible, psycho-acoustically aware system1. Developed at the same time as Quadraphonics2, Ambisonics is an often mis-understood system that was far ahead of it’s time. Due to the ubiquity of surround sound equipment in modern computers and interest in live surround events becoming more widespread, is the time, finally, right for Ambisonics to come into its’ own? In this paper, the definition of what makes a system Ambisonic is clarified with reference made to the traditional energy and velocity vector theory, higher order systems and use in both the live and domestic environment. More recent developments by the author are discussed with respect to irregular Ambisonic decoder design (such as for the ITU 5.1 speaker array) and analysis using Head Related Transfer Function data showing the extra insight this can give into the performance of one, seemingly similar, decoder design over another. The freely available suite of VST plug-ins (comprising of decoders, panners and an Ambisonic reverb) created using this technology are also presented, with case studies of their use in student projects at the University of Derby.