• Xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL]: a novel long-acting acylated analogue of xenin-25 with promising antidiabetic potential

      Gault, Victor A.; Martin, Christine M.; Flatt, Peter R.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Irwin, Nigel (Springer, 2015-06-01)
      AIMS: Xenin-25 is co-secreted with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) from intestinal K-cells following a meal. Xenin-25 is believed to play a key role in glucose homoeostasis and potentiate the insulinotropic effect of GIP.METHODS: This study investigated the effects of sub-chronic administration of the stable and longer-acting xenin-25 analogue, xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] (25 nmol/kg), in diabetic mice fed with a high-fat diet.RESULTS: Initial studies confirmed the significant persistent glucose-lowering (p < 0.05) and insulin-releasing (p < 0.05) actions of xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] compared with native xenin-25. Interestingly, xenin-25 retained significant glucose-lowering activity in GIP receptor knockout mice. Twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] for 14 days had no significant effect on food intake or body weight in high-fat-fed mice. Non-fasting glucose and insulin levels were also unchanged, but overall glucose levels during an i.p. glucose tolerance and oral nutrient challenge were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] treatment. These changes were accompanied by significant improvements in i.p. (p < 0.05) and oral (p < 0.001) nutrient-stimulated insulin concentrations. No appreciable changes in insulin sensitivity were observed between xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] and saline-treated high-fat mice. However, xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] treatment restored notable sensitivity to the biological actions of exogenous GIP injection. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were not altered by 14-day twice-daily treatment with xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL]. In contrast, ambulatory activity was significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) increased during the dark phase in xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] mice compared with high-fat controls.
    • Xestospongia testudinaria nighttime mass spawning observation in Indonesia.

      RÖTHIG, Till; VOOLSTRA, Christian R; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology; Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (The Japanese Coral Reef Society, 2016-10-13)
    • Yaoundé-like virus in resident wild bird, Ghana

      Williams, Richard A. J.; Vázquez, Ana; Asante, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sánchez-Seco, María Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend; et al. (Academic journals, 2012-03-09)
      Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA; further testing revealed that the amplified sequence was Yaoundé virus (YAOV), or closely related to it. YAOV is an apparently rare Flavivirus closely related to medically important human pathogens Japanese Encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. It is known only from West Africa. This is the first detection from Ghana, and only the second detection from a bird. Samples were negative for alphaviruses and Influenza A virus.
    • Year-long monitoring of physico-chemical and biological variables provide a comparative baseline of coral reef functioning in the central Red Sea.

      Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G.; Voolstra, Christian R.; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (2016-11-09)
    • 'Yellow syndrome' in scleractinian corals throughout Bintan Riau District, Kepulauan Province, Indonesia.

      Johan, Ofri; Budianto, Agus; Sweet, Michael J.; Research Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture; Research Center for Oceonography-Indonesian Institute for Science; University of Derby (Center for Fisheries Research and Development, 2017-06)
      Coral disease surveys were conducted in Bintan, Kepulauan Riau Province. The purpose was to identify the abundance of corals showing signs of Yellow Syndrome (YS) disease and to describe similar pathological signs to that of AYBD throughout Bintan District. Three belt transects (2 m x 50 m in size) were set up to determine the abundance of coral reef attacked by YS disease. Line intercept transects were used to determine the percentage of live corals in the surveyed areas. The survey showed that the YS disease syndrome attacked 8 different genera i.e. Acropora, Montipora, Porites, Pavona, Turbinaria, Favia, Platygyra, and Favites. The highest attack happened at Mapur Island (0.06 kol/m2 ) on Porites lutea, Turbinaria peltata, T. mesenterina, Acropora bruggemanni, and Pavona frondifera. The survey also indicated that there may have been at least two types of YS i.e. the first type caused by a boring and/or over-growing sponge species and the second type caused by a kind of pathogenic microbe. Regardless the causal agent of YS, the severity of YS attack on coral urged immediate action to be undertaken and should include initial microscopic and histology examinations. Based on this initial microscopic and histology examinations it was found out that YS bears a close resemblance to the Arabian Yellow Band Disease. This study, however, argued that the word “disease” may have been incorrectly used without identifying a specific causal agent.
    • You anorak!: the Doctor Who experience and experiencing Doctor Who

      Forde, Teresa; University of Derby (Intellect, 2013)
    • You're hired! Graduate career handbook: Maximise your employability and get a graduate job

      Hooley, Tristram; Grant, Korin; University of Derby; Loughborough University (Crimson and Trotman, 2017)
      You’re Hired! Graduate Career Handbook is the complete guide to career planning and job hunting for students and graduates, offering vital guidance on how to discover your potential, maximise your employability, and kick-start your career.  The book is organised in simple chapters designed to help you address the various issues you experience as you move through university and into work, uniquely starting from your first year at uni and taking you through to your first days at work and beyond. Topics include: self-reflection, career planning, job research, networking, recruitment practices, employability skills, making the most of your degree, postgraduate study, Plan B, and how to make a good first impression at work and build your career over time. Whether you have your heart set on a particular job, have a few ideas about possible lines of work, or simply don’t know where to start, this book is for you. If you know what you want to do, it offers vital guidance on how to achieve your ambition and land your dream job; if you don’t have a clue, it will help you work out what your next step should be.  With handy tips, checklists and real-life examples throughout, this guide will help you to supercharge your career and get the graduate job you want!
    • Young white British men and knife-carrying in public

      Palasinski, Marek; Riggs, Damien; University of Derby (Springer, 2012-07-06)
      Whilst quantitative research to date gives us some indication of the prevalence at which knife-carrying occurs among young British men, there have been few explanations for why it occurs, and for what the relationship might be between broader social issues of control and power and the behaviours of young men themselves. Drawing on interviews with 16 young white British men, the present paper explores the ways in which the sample accounted for knife-carrying. Two interpretative repertoires were identified: (1) attributions of blame to authorities for a lack of protection and a subsequent justification of knife-carrying, and (2) discussions of masculinity in relation to knife-carrying. The findings suggest that what is required are policy and practice responses that take into account the symbolic functions of knives for young white men, and which recognise the dilemmatic bind that such men are caught in when they attempt to negotiate competing demands of protection and control.
    • Younger women’s experiences of deciding against delayed breast reconstruction post-mastectomy following breast cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Holland, Fiona G.; Archer, Stephanie; Montague, Jane; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2014-12-16)
      Most women do not reconstruct their breast(s) post-mastectomy. The experiences of younger women who maintain this decision, although important to understand, are largely absent in the research literature. This interview-based study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the experiences of six women, diagnosed with primary breast cancer in their 30s/40s, who decided against delayed reconstruction. Findings reported here focus on one superordinate theme (decision-making) from a larger analysis, illustrating that the women’s drive to survive clearly influenced their initial decision-making process. Their tenacity in maintaining their decision is highlighted, despite non-reconstruction sometimes being presented negatively by medical teams. Patient-centred support recommendations are made.
    • The Youth Guarantee and lifelong guidance

      Borbély-Pecze, Tibor Bors; Hutchinson, Jo; National Labour Office, Hungary; University of Derby, iCeGS (European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network, 2013-10)
      The European Youth Guarantee is an initiative to help link young people aged 16 - 14 to the labour market across all member states. The paper is a Concept Note commissioned by the policy network to explore how guidance activities are being implemented in a range of ways across national youth support programmes and includes practical evidence from 17 member countries. The paper contends that successful and sustainable implementation of the Youth Guarantee Initiative can only be secured through effective integration of lifelong guidance practice into national programmes.
    • Youth transitions, VET and the making of class: changing theorisations for changing times?

      Atkins, Liz; Avis, James; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 19/07/2017)
      The paper places youth transitions and VET within the global policy context in which economic competiveness is hegemonic. It compares research from the 1970s/80s, which explored young peoples lived experiences of VET and youth training schemes with contemporary work on similar themes. It argues that there are continuities and discontinuities in the conditions that young people face in their transitions to waged labour. Continuities can be seen in constructions of working class youth, but also by the way in which policy views the economy as characterised by upskilling. This is called into question when set against the existence of significant numbers of low waged, low skilled jobs in the English economy. There are also discontinuities that are the result of changes in class and employment structures. As a result precariousness has become ubiquitous with this existing in tandem with labour that is surplus to the requirements of capital. The paper re-considers youth transitions and re-evaluates the notion of serendipity, suggesting these concepts need to be rethought and reworked in current conditions.
    • Youth Transitions, VET and the ‘making’ of class: changing theorisations for changing times?

      Avis, James; Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (Taylor & Francis, 2017-07-19)
      The paper places youth transitions and vocational education and training (VET) within the global policy context in which economic competiveness is hegemonic. It compares research from the 1970s/80s, which explored young peoples’ lived experiences of VET and youth training schemes with contemporary work on similar themes. It argues that there are continuities and discontinuities in the conditions that young people face in their transitions to waged labour. Continuities can be seen in constructions of working class youth, but also by the way in which policy views the economy as characterised by upskilling. This is called into question when set against the existence of significant numbers of low-waged, low-skilled jobs in the English economy. There are also discontinuities that are the result of changes in class and employment structures. As a result, precariousness has become ubiquitous, with this existing in tandem with labour that is surplus to the requirements of capital. The paper reconsiders youth transitions and re-evaluates the notion of serendipity, suggesting these concepts need to be rethought and reworked in current conditions.
    • ‘Youth Working’ youth workers: Filling the student support void

      Howell, T.J.; University of Derby (TAG, 2018-06-28)
      Initial findings from a replication of the the Krause and Coates (2008) study to examine the seven scales of student engagement. Recruitment to undergraduate youth work programmes are at risk, with programmes closing and many of those left struggling with unsustainably low numbers. However, numbers of younger applicants is growing. They are acquiring suitable experience from a range of sources, including the NCS model of recruiting from within, leaves school and college leavers with sufficient youth work experience to start a programme, albeit with limited life experience. Furthermore, there has been a spike of under graduate students who want to purse a career in youth work, after positive experiences of receiving youth work interventions, compounded by increasing numbers of applicants with support needs, including learning difficulties and a wide spectrum of mental health needs. Mature applicants still apply wihtout formal qualifications, and all students have to unlearn their experiences of schooling to maximise the transformational potential of undergraduate yoth work study. This session will explore the seven scales of engagement, loosely transition; peer to peer support; academic engagement; on line engagement; student to staff relationships and beyond class / social engagement. These were explored through the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis to explore the difference between the experience of the first year students , comparing those who identify as with support needs and those who do not after the first half of their first year of study. There are implications for living the values of the National Occupational Standard in the delivery of undergraduate programmes. There are implications for designing induction activities across the year, and qualitative feedback on a first year residential. Crucially there are implications for sustainable workloads of academics with significant time pressure to deliver teaching and learning and generating REF-able research. Join this session and hear the initial findings from this small-scale qualitative study, and work through the challenges nationally navigating the socially just commitment to social mobility, the range of support needs presenting at HEIs nationwide and propose how to generate best practice while remaining value driven and committed gatekeepers to the professional qualification. Is it acceptable to recruit students with limited resilience yet potential and maintain standards? How do we effectively promote engagement for first years? What are the implications for recruitment, programme delivery and workload planning?
    • Youth, migration and identity in Cuba since 1959

      Luke, Anne; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-08-15)
      In Cuba, the issue of migration cannot be disaggregated from the relationship with the US and, specifically, the issues of migration from socialist Cuba to its larger neighbour. Such migration is an important element of the political relationship between the two countries, but is also a key factor in the definition of Cuban identity. This chapter will present two case studies of the intersection of migration and youth in Cuba after 1959 and will explore the relationship between these cases and the contemporary polemic on migration. The relationship between island-based Cubans and the Cuban diaspora and very notion of national identity and the right to self-define as Cuban are woven into narratives of international relations as the intimate level of family relations come into contact (and conflict) with high politics. Young Cubans experience migration not only as migrants but also from the island where such migration has become part of the Cuban imagined identity. The repeated moral panics over young people who do not work or study over the Revolutionary period coupled with the heightened focus on young people as key agents in the revolutionary process creates a specific set of circumstances which allow for a definition of Cuban identity which is fluid and in flux, but which, given the new (though fragile) reality of a closer relationship with the USA, has sought and continues to seek to incorporate migration into a reflective understanding of the revolutionary process.
    • The zoo of the giraffe women: a journey among the Kayan of Northern Thailand

      Nicoletti, Martino; University of Derby, School of Art and Design (Vajra Publications - Kathmandu, 2013)
      In a village in the far north of Thailand, under the stunning light of a tropical sun, surreal women impeccably wearing their ethnic attire, smiling and motionless, offer themselves to the cameras of voracious tourists. Adorned with gorgeous necklaces of shining brass coils, they are the famous “giraffe women”, the epithet commonly used to define members of the Kayan tribe originally from eastern Burma. The vivid contrast between the myths narrating the origin of this ethnic group and their current condition as refugees from the civil war in their homeland provides an outstanding and sharp testimony to life in Thailand’s “human zoos”. A wide selection of photographs taken by the author using primitive vintage cameras from the early 1900s and a poignant short video, shot with Super-8 film, enrich the volume, visually amplifying the unique mood of the written account.
    • Untitled

      Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Hogberg, Dan; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Springer Verlag, 2009)
      Anthropometric data are often described in terms of percentiles and too often digital human models are synthesised from such data using a single percentile value for all body dimensions. The poor correlation between body dimensions means that products may be evaluated against models of humans that do not exist. Alternative digital approaches try to minimise this difficulty using pre-defined families of manikins to represent human diversity, whereas in the real world carefully selected real people take part in ‘fitting trials’. HADRIAN is a digital human modeling system which uses discrete data sets for individuals rather than statistical populations. A task description language is used to execute the evaluative capabilities of the underlying SAMMIE human modelling system as though a ‘real’ fitting trial was being conducted. The approach is described with a focus on the elderly and disabled and their potential exclusion from public transport systems.