• A qualitative analysis of psychological processes mediating quality of life impairments in chronic daily headache

      Tenhunen, K.; Elander, James; University of Derby (2005)
      Quality of life impairments are greater in chronic daily headache (CDH) than in episodic headache conditions like migraine. This qualitative interview study aimed to identify psychological processes associated with quality of life impairments among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for CDH. Grounded theory analysis showed that perceived loss of control was the central experience mediating the impact of CDH on quality of life. The results provide explanations for previous quantitative findings about quality of life impairments in CDH, and could inform interventions to reduce the impact of CDH. Further research could also examine the roles played by perceived control in the onset and development of CDH, including possible links with pre-emptive analgesic use.
    • A qualitative analysis of psychological processes mediating quality of life impairments in chronic daily headache

      Tenhunen, Katri; Elander, James; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2005-05-01)
      Quality of life impairments are greater in chronic daily headache (CDH) than in episodic headache conditions like migraine. This qualitative interview study aimed to identify psychological processes associated with quality of life impairments among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for CDH. Grounded theory analysis showed that perceived loss of control was the central experience mediating the impact of CDH on quality of life. The results provide explanations for previous quantitative findings about quality of life impairments in CDH and could inform interventions to reduce the impact of CDH. Further research could also examine the roles played by perceived control in the onset and development of CDH, including possible links with pre-emptive analgesic use.
    • Qualitative research in education

      Wallace, Sue; Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (Sage, 01/01/2012)
      This accessible and practical book is a perfect quick guide for postgraduate researchers in education. Looking at the interdependence of teaching and research, the authors show that a critical and analytical exploration of policies and practices is a necessary part of what we mean by being a 'professional' in education. This co-authored book is structured around a range of methods applicable to educational research and appropriate for use by practitioners at all stages of their professional development. It takes recognisable, 'real life' scenarios as its starting point for each discussion of method, so that readers are able to start from the known and familiar. As well as exploring theoretical aspects of research method, each chapter provides practical tasks and points for discussion and reflection. These approaches, taken together, are designed to build confidence and encourage reader engagement and enjoyment.
    • A qualitative study of the understanding and use of ‘compassion focused coping strategies’ in people who suffer from serious weight difficulties.

      Gilbert, Jean; Stubbs, James; Gale, Corinne; Gilbert, Paul; Dunk, Laura; Thomson, Louise; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Trust; Slimming World; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Biomed Central, 2014-11-11)
      Abstract Background The physical and psychological health problems associated with obesity are now well documented, as is the urgency for addressing them. In addition, associations between quality of life, depression, self-esteem, self-criticism, and obesity are now established indicating a need for a better understanding of the links between self-evaluation, affect-regulation and eating behaviours. Methods Compassion has now been identified as a major source of resilience, helpful self-relating and affect regulation. Thus this study used semi-structured interviews to explore the understanding and experiences of compassion in 2 overweight men and 10 women seeking help for weight problems. The interviews examined people's understandings of compassion, their recall of experiences of compassion in childhood, their current experiences of receiving compassion from others, being compassionate to others, being self-compassionate, and whether they would be compassionate or self-critical for relapses in overeating. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis (Qual Res Psychol, 3: 77-101, 2006). Results Participants saw compassion as related to ‘caring’ and being ‘listened to’. However, their recall of earlier experiences of compassion was of primarily practical help rather than emotional engagement. Typically their response to their own relapse and setbacks were self-criticism, self-disgust and even self-hatred rather than self-caring or understanding. Self-critical/hating responses tend to be associated with poor weight regulation. Conclusions When people with weight problems relapse, or struggle to control their eating, they can become quite self-critical, even self-hating, which may increase difficulties with emotionally coping and maintaining healthy lifestyles and eating habits. Although turning to others for support and compassion, and becoming self-compassionate are antidotes to self-criticism, and are associated with better coping and mental health, many participants did not utilise compassionate strategies – often the opposite. It is possible that interventions that include mindfulness and compassion training could be helpful for these difficulties.
    • Quality Assurance Standards A synthesis of quality standards across partner countries. Summary report.

      Dodd, Vanessa; Hagaseth Haug, Erik; Hooley, Tristram; Neary, Siobhan; International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) (University of Derby, 2019-05)
      This report presents an analysis of a range of transnational and national quality assurance (QA) practices in career guidance within partner countries, 21 quality activities were assessed. The report focuses on identifying the variety of different approaches, the factors that enable these approaches and the impact of these different approaches.
    • Quality Assurance Standards : A synthesis of quality standards across partner countries.

      Dodd, Vanessa; Hooley, Tristram; Haug, E.H.; Neary, Siobhan; International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) (University of Derby, 2019-05)
      This report presents an analysis of a range of transnational and national quality assurance (QA) practices in career guidance within partner countries, 21 quality activities were assessed. The report focuses on identifying the variety of different approaches, the factors that enable these approaches and the impact of these different approaches.
    • Quantifying individual feeding variability: implications for mollusc feeding experiments

      Hanley, M. E.; Bulling, Mark T.; Fenner, M. (2013-05-24)
      1. In order to quantify the level of variability in seedling consumption displayed by individual molluscs, we placed one snail ( Helix aspersa ) in each of 51 trays containing (7-day-old) Taraxacum officinale seedlings for 7 days. 2. Initially, individual snails displayed considerable variability in their consumption of seedlings; however, this variability declined with time. The consumption of seedlings was not related to individual snail mass. 3. A second grazing experiment, using five different snail densities in similar experi- mental conditions to the first, showed that increasing snail number reduced variability within treatment groups. 4. A computer simulation, based on data from the first experiment correctly predicted the basic form of the decline in feeding variability with increasing snail density found in the second. Post hoc changes to the model, based on empirical analysis of the second experiment to account for mutual interference, reduced discrepancies between empirical and model results. 5. This study highlights the consequences that individual feeding behaviour has on feeding trials with molluscs, and provides a simple method by which this variability can be quantified and accommodated within experimental design.
    • Quantitative mapping of alluvial fan evolution using ground-based reflectance spectroscopy

      Ferrier, Graham; Pope, Richard J. J.; University of Hull; University of Derby (2012)
      The ability of field-based reflectance spectroscopy to resolve the relative proportions of Fe-oxides and clays in soils was used to map the composition, relative age and distribution of segments within late Quaternary fan systems in Sfakia, southwest Crete. The spectrometric results demonstrate that luvisols that have formed on the surfaces of fan segments are characterized by distinctive Fe-oxides (types) and clay minerals (species). Furthermore, Fe-oxide and clay concentrations display a clear and consistent trend whereby for each study fan luvisols formed on increasingly proximal fan segments are characterized by a progressive build-up of spectrally distinct secondary iron oxides and clay minerals, which suggests that proximal segments formed first. The relative ages and hence order of formation of segments suggested by the spectral data are strongly supported by an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)-based geochronology which provides a tentative maximum age of 144 ka for the oldest (stage 1) surface and 11.2 ka for the youngest (stage 2C) surface. Moreover, the chronometric data indicate that time intervals of the order 20 to 25,000 years are necessary to generate sufficient differences in pedogenic Fe-oxides and clay concentrations to enable differentiation of fan segments by field spectroscopy. ⺠Field-based reflectance spectroscopy was used to map alluvial fan segments. ⺠Strong relationships between spectral profiles and soil composition were identified. ⺠Fan segments were differentiated using time interval between depositional events. ⺠Age differences of 25,000 years are required to differentiate fan segments.
    • The question of space interrogating the spatial turn between disciplines

      Crouch, David; Nieuwenhuis, Marijn; Crouch, David; University of Derby (Rowman and Littlefield, 2017-10)
      The spatial turn has been deeply influential across the humanities and social sciences for several decades. Yet despite this long term influence most volumes focus mainly on geography and tend to take a Eurocentric approach to the topic. The Question of Space takes a multidisciplinary approach to understanding how the spatial turn has affected a wide range of disciplines. By connecting developments across radically different fields the volume bridges the very borders that separate the academic space. From new geographies through performance, using the internet, politics and the arts, the distinctive chapters undertake conversations that often surprisingly converge in approach, questions and insights. Together the chapters transcend longstanding disciplinary boundaries to build a constructive dialogue around the question of space.
    • Quickening - A digital exhibition at Pickford House

      Templeton-Parker, Christine; Watson, Stephen; Fletcher, Jane; University of Derby (Derby Museums Trust, 2016-11-07)
      Quickening ‘The dream of motion haunts the visual arts from the classical period to the present day.’ (Linda Nead, 2007, The Haunted Gallery: Photography Film and Painting c.1900, Yale University Press, 45)) Quickening is a family of digital portraits, made using the latest RED camera technology. It seeks to tap into all that is uncanny about film and photography, using digital technology to blur the boundaries of the animate and inanimate, the past, and the ‘passed away’. Inspired by nineteenth century ‘photographer of souls’ Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879), Quickening explores the notion of ‘materialisation of the spirit’ as the photographed soul quickens from its arrested moment, to engage with the viewer in the present. Using subtle manipulation of frame speed and colour made possible by the use of RED technology, Quickening experiments with photographic portraiture and narrative, much as Cameron did with the new photographic technologies of her time.
    • R v Hendy: intoxication and diminished responsibility

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Sunderland (2007)
    • Rabbit Chain and Run Rabbit Run

      McNaney, Nicki; University of Derby (Oriel Davies Gallery, 2016-10)
      Rabbit Chain and Run Rabbit Run” (Two Screen-prints) exhibited in the Imaginary worlds exhibition. Imaginary Worlds was an exhibition of artworks by 52 illustration and book artists from Wales, other parts of the UK, Europe and Australia.
    • Rabbit Chain and Run Rabbit Run 1

      McNaney, Nicki; University of Derby (2015-02)
      This work is one of a number of responses that have been inspired by and made about the village that I live in. The village has one remaining farm within the curtilage of the built environment and the villager’s occupations have drastically changed over the years. There was 480 acres under cultivation at the time of the Domesday Book and at one time there was thirty working farms recorded in the village. My images focus on the environment, the evolution of the land without the control of the farming community, and the consequences this has on nature & rural living. Exhibited at University of Derby, Nature Connections exhibition and Art via post exhibition at Arts at the Armory in Somerville, MA. USA
    • Radio 2.0: How Facebook is enhancing audience participation for Irish radio audiences.

      McMahon, Daithi; University of Limerick (Academic Conferences and Publishing International, 2014-07)
      As a traditional mass medium radio is proving its flexibility and resilience in an ever more digitalised mediascape by increasing its presence on one of the fastest growing digital platforms, Facebook. With the radio industry in Ireland as a case study, this project examines the use of Facebook by radio producers and their audiences as a medium for deeper interaction and explores the functions this contact serves for the audience member, for the radio producer, and for society as a whole. Based on recent findings, this doctoral research argues that radio producers are increasingly engaging with their audiences through Facebook for commercial reasons, in an effort to build audience loyalty and grow their audience share in a highly competitive industry. Radio audiences are following their favourite radio programmes on Facebook in growing numbers seeking an enhanced media experience and opportunities to exercise their agency as active audiences and participate in the on-air and online conversations. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that public spheres and virtual communities are created on radio station Facebook pages and that some users build social capital between one another through extended interaction. The convergence of radio with Facebook is thus allowing an old medium to remain competitive at a time when digital media is threatening the traditional mass media.The methodology involves both qualitative and quantitative research methods including interviews with radio producers and audience members combined with a survey of the latter, textual analysis of radio station Facebook pages and a longitudinal content analysis of Facebook interactivity across the Irish radio industry. The project is nearing completion and therefore this paper will present the main findings that demonstrate the capacity of radio as a medium to engage with and profit from the introduction of new digital technologies, particularly Facebook.
    • Rain-fed granite rock basins accumulate a high diversity of dormant microbial eukaryotes

      Velasco-González, Ismael; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Singer, David; Murciano, Antonio; Díez-Hermano, Sergio; Lara, Enrique; Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; Departamento de Genética, Fisiología y Microbiología. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/ José Antonio Novais 12, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UCM, Madrid, Spain; University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-03)
      Rain fed granite rock basins are ancient geological landforms of worldwide distribution and structural simplicity. They support habitats that can switch quickly from terrestrial to aquatic along the year. Diversity of animals and plants, and the connexion between communities in different basins have been widely explored in these habitats, but hardly any research has been carried out on microorganisms. The aim of this study is to provide the first insights on the diversity of eukaryotic microbial communities from these environments. Due to the ephemeral nature of these aquatic environments, we predict that the granitic basins should host a high proportion of dormant microeukaryotes. Based on an environmental DNA diversity survey, we reveal diverse communities with representatives of all major eukaryotic taxonomic supergroups, mainly composed of a diverse pool of low abundance OTUs. Basin communities were very distinctive, with alpha and beta diversity patterns non-related to basin size or spatial distance respectively. Dissimilarity between basins was mainly characterised by turnover of OTUs. The strong microbial eukaryotic heterogeneity observed among the basins may be explained by a complex combination of deterministic factors (diverging environment in the basins), spatial constraints, and randomness including founder effects. Most interestingly, communities contain organisms that cannot coexist at the same time because of incompatible metabolic requirements, thus suggesting the existence of a pool of dormant organisms whose activity varies along with the changing environment. These organisms accumulate in the pools, which turns granitic rock into high biodiversity microbial islands whose conservation and study deserve further attention.
    • Randomized trial of a DVD intervention to improve readiness to self-manage joint pain

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; Morris, John; University of Derby (2011)
      A DVD (digital video disk) intervention to increase readiness to self-manage joint pain secondary to hemophilia was informed by a 2-phase, motivational-volitional model of readiness to self-manage pain, and featured the personal experiences of individuals with hemophilia. The DVD was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in which 108 men with hemophilia completed measures of readiness to self-manage pain (Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire) before and 6 months after receiving the DVD plus information booklet (n = 57) or just the booklet (n = 51). The effect of the DVD was assessed by comparing changes in Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire scores (precontemplation, contemplation, and action/maintenance) between groups. The impact on pain coping, pain acceptance, and health-related quality of life was tested in secondary analyses. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, including all those with complete baseline and follow-up data regardless of use of the intervention, showed a significant, medium- sized, group time effect on precontemplation, with reductions among the DVD group but not the booklet group. Significant use time effects showed that benefits in terms of contemplation and action/maintenance were restricted to those who used the interventions at least once. The results show that low-intensity interventions in DVD format can improve the motivational impact of written information, and could be used to help prepare people with chronic pain for more intensive self-management interventions. The findings are consistent with a 2-phase, motivational-volitional model of pain self-management, and provide the first insights to our knowledge of readiness to self-manage pain in hemophilia.
    • A randomized-controlled pilot trial of an online compassionate mind training intervention to help people with chronic pain avoid analgesic misuse

      Dhokia, Mayoor; Elander, James; Clements, Keith; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020-04-09)
      Problematic use of prescribed and over-the-counter analgesics is widespread and increasing among people with chronic pain, but the availability of preventative and treatment services is limited. We evaluated a 21-day online intervention based on compassionate mind training in a prospective, randomized-controlled trial. The participants were 73 adults with concerns about their use of analgesics for chronic pain conditions. Participants completed measures of analgesic use, misuse and dependence, plus self-criticism and self-reassurance (self-inadequacy, self-reassurance and self-hate), cognitive impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation-seeking and positive urgency) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting) at baseline, post-intervention and 1-week post-intervention follow-up. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomized to compassionate mind training (CMT; n=38) or relaxation music (RM; n=35), both delivered online. No adverse events or safety issues were reported and high participant retention and exercise completion rates showed that the intervention was acceptable to participants. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that by comparison with RM, the CMT group had reduced prescription analgesic use (F=6.123, p=0.015), analgesic dependence (F=14.322, p<.001), self-hate (F=12.218, p<0.001), negative urgency (F=7.323, p=0.006) and lack of perseverance (F=7.453, p=0.001) from baseline to post-intervention, and those improvements were maintained at follow-up. The results show that exercises based on CMT principles and techniques and delivered online can reduce analgesic use, risk of analgesic dependence, and some aspects of self-criticism and impulsivity.
    • Rank perception and self-evaluation in eating disorders

      Cardi, Valentina; Di Matteo, Rosalia; Gilbert, Paul; Treasure, Janet; King's College London; University of Chieti-Pescara; University of Derby; King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychological Medicine, Section of Eating Disorders; London United Kingdom; Department of Neuroscience and Imaging; University of Chieti-Pescara; Chieti Italy; Mental Health Research Unit; University of Derby; Derby United Kingdom; et al. (Wiley, 2014-02-18)
      ABSTRACT Objectives Heightened sensitivity to social comparison and negative self-evaluation have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). This study used behavioral tasks, as well as self-report measures, to examine processing of social rank-related cues and implicit self-concept in participants with EDs. Method Fifty healthy participants (HCs), 46 people with an ED, and 22 people recovered from an ED (REC) undertook an attentional bias task using social rank-related cues and an implicit self-evaluation task. In addition, they completed self-report measures of social comparison, submissive behavior, and shame. Results People with EDs showed vigilance toward social rank-related stimuli and lower implicit positive self-evaluation than HCs. Self-report data confirmed the behavioral findings and showed that people with EDs had higher levels of unfavorable social comparison, submissive behaviors, and external and internal shame than HCs. People who had recovered from an ED showed an intermediate profile between the two groups. Discussion People with EDs have heightened sensitivity to social rank-related cues and impaired self-evaluation at an automatic level of processing. Some of these biases remain in people who have recovered. Interventions which aim to remediate social threat sensitivity and negative bias about self and others might be of benefit in EDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:543–552)
    • Rapid assembly of high-Mg andesites and dacites by magma mixing at a continental arc stratovolcano

      Conway, Chris; Chamberlain, Katy J.; Harigane, Yumiko; Morgan, Daniel; Wilson, Colin; Research Institute of Earthquake and Volcano Geology, Japan; National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan; University of Derby; University of Leeds; Victoria University of Wellington (The Geological Society of America, 2020-06-25)
      Studies of pre-eruptive processes at active volcanoes require precise petrochronological constraints if they are to contribute to hazard assessment during future eruption events. We present petrological and geochemical data, and orthopyroxene diffusion timescales for samples from late Pleistocene high-Mg andesite dacite lavas (Mg#53–69) at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a case study of rapid magma genesis and eruption at a continental arc stratovolcano. Assembly of Ruapehu high-Mg magmas involved the mixing of primitive magmas plus entrained mantle equilibrated olivines with mid-crustal felsic mush bodies, yielding hybridized magmas with ubiquitous pyroxene reverse-zoning patterns. Orthopyroxene Fe-Mg interdiffusion timescales linked to quantitative crystal orientation data show that most lavas erupted <10 days after resumption of crystal growth following magma mixing events. The eruption of lavas within days of mixing events implies that pre-eruptive warnings may be correspondingly short.