• Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea

      Kapadi, Romaana; Elander, James; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-24)
      Primary dysmenorrhea causes menstrual pain that affects women’s quality of life (QoL) and analgesics are only moderately effective. Pain coping and pain acceptance influence QoL among people affected by other chronic pain conditions, so we examined pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of QoL among women with primary dysmenorrhea. 145 women with primary dysmenorrhea completed an online survey including the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), questions about analgesic use, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12), a measure of physical and mental health-related QoL. In multiple regression, pain acceptance predicted better physical and mental QoL, whereas pain coping did not predict mental or physical quality of life. Being married or cohabiting and menstrual pain that was less severe and shorter in duration predicted better physical QoL, and those effects were mediated by pain acceptance. Being older at the onset of painful periods predicted better mental QoL and that effect was also mediated by pain acceptance. More severe menstrual pain and congestive rather than spasmodic dysmenorrhea predicted worse mental QoL but those effects were not mediated by other factors. Analgesic use did not predict physical or mental QoL. The results show the impact that menstrual pain has on women’s quality of life, and suggest that initiatives to increase pain acceptance among women with menstrual pain are worthwhile. More research is needed to understand more fully the factors that influence health-related quality of life among women with menstrual pain.
    • Pain management and symptoms of substance dependence among patients with sickle cell disease

      Elander, James; Lusher, Joanne; Bevan, David; Telfer, Paul; University of Derby (2003)
      Concerns about dependence on prescribed analgesia may compromise pain management, but there was previously little reliable evidence about substance dependence among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We conducted indepth, semi-structured interviews with SCD patients in London, UK, to assess DSM-IV symptoms of substance dependence and abuse. Criteria were applied to differentiate between pain-related symptoms, which corresponded to the DSM-IV symptoms but involved analgesics used to control pain, and non-pain-related symptoms, which involved analgesic use beyond pain management. Pain-related symptoms are informative about how the pattern of recurrent acute pain in SCD may make patients vulnerable to perceptions of drug dependence. Non-pain-related symptoms are informative about more stringently defined dependence on analgesia in SCD. Inter-rater reliability was high, with mean Kappa coefficients of 0.67–0.88. The criteria could be used to assess analgesic dependence in other painful conditions. Pain-related symptoms were more frequent, accounting for 88% of all symptoms reported. When pain-related symptoms were included in the assessment, 31% of the sample met the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, compared with only 2% when the assessment was restricted to non-pain-related symptoms. Qualitative analysis of participants’ descriptions of analgesic use showed that active coping attempts (attempts to anticipate pain and avoid hospital admissions) and awareness of dependence were themes in descriptions of both pain-related and non-painrelated symptoms. Seeking a more normal lifestyle and impaired activities were themes associated with pain-related symptoms. Psychological disturbance was a theme associated with non-pain-related symptoms. The implications are for more responsive treatment of pain in SCD and greater awareness of how patients’ pain coping may be perceived as analgesic dependence. Further research could examine ways that pain-related and non-pain-related symptoms of dependence may be associated with other pain coping strategies and with the outcomes of treatment for painful episodes in hospital.
    • PaintingDigitalPhotography: Synthesis and difference in the age of media equivalence.

      Hilliard, John; Honlold, Astrid; Robinson, Carl; Rosenstein, Tatiana; Rushton, Stephanie; Simson, Henrietta; Speidel, Klaus; Walker, Jame Faure; Weir, Catherine M; Wooldridge, Duncan; et al. (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 01/09/2018)
      We live in a digital age where the mediums of art are inextricably bound to the binary code, and painting and photography are redefined in their interconnected relationship through digital reconfiguration. As digitisation unmoors these mediums from their traditional supports, their modes of production, display and dissemination shift. These changes bring about new ways of creating, and engaging with, artworks. Through this, the innate qualities of the mediums, previously anchored in their analogue nature, are re-evaluated through their connection with “the digital”. Born out of the PaintingDigitalPhotography conference, held at QUAD Derby, UK, in May 2017, this anthology of essays investigates aspects of interconnectivity between painting, digital and photography in contemporary art practices. It contributes to critical discourses around networks of associations by examining where syntheses occur, and differences remain, between these mediums at the beginning of the twenty first century.
    • Paradoxical invitations: challenges in soliciting more information from child witnesses

      Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-15)
      This article analyses how police officers conducting interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses ask witness if they would like to add to what has been said or whether they have any questions. Interviewing guidelines recommend that this be done during interview closure. The data set comprises twenty-seven videotaped interviews. Data are in British English. Using Conversation Analysis, we show that the understanding of interview closure as an appropriate place in which to request for the initiation of a new topic is paradoxical. We also outline practices for soliciting additional information throughout the course of the interview.
    • Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.

      Mills, Alison; Gilbert, Paul; Bellew, Rebecca; McEwan, Kirsten; Gale, Corinne; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Wiley, 2007-09)
      Paranoid beliefs are associated with negative and malevolent views of others. This study, however, explored hostile and compassionate self‐to‐self relating in regard to paranoid beliefs. A total of 131 students were given a series of scales measuring paranoid ideation, forms and functions of self‐criticism, self‐reassurance, self‐compassion and depression. Test scores were subjected to correlation and hierarchical regression analyses to explore the relative contribution of study variables to paranoid beliefs. In this population, paranoid beliefs were associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, especially self‐hating and self‐persecution. Paranoid beliefs were negatively correlated with self‐kindness and abilities to be self‐reassuring. These variables were also associated with depression (as were paranoid beliefs). A hierarchical regression found that self‐hatred remained a predictor of paranoid ideation even after controlling for depression and self‐reassurance. Paranoid beliefs seem to be associated with a critical and even hating experience of self. These inner experiences of self may be profitable targets for therapeutic interventions. 
    • Parental and health professional evaluations of a support service for parents of excessively crying infants

      Bamber, Deborah; Powell, Charlotte; Long, Jaqui; Garratt, Rosie; Brown, Jayne; Rudge, Sally; Morris, Tom; Bhupendra Jaicim, Nishal; Plachcinski, Rachel; Dyson, Sue E.; et al. (Springer Nature/ BMC, 2019-08-22)
      The ‘Surviving Crying’ study was designed to develop and provisionally evaluate a support service for parents of excessively crying babies, including its suitability for use in the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS). The resulting service includes three materials: a website, a printed booklet, and a Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) programme delivered to parents by a qualified professional. This study aimed to measure whether parents used the materials and to obtain parents’ and NHS professionals’ evaluations of whether they are fit for purpose. Parents were asked about participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the materials fully in health service use. Methods: Participants were 57 parents with babies they judged to be crying excessively and 96 NHS Health Visitors (HVs). Parental use and parents’ and HVs’ ratings of the Surviving Crying materials were measured. Results: Thirty four parents reported using the website, 24 the printed booklet and 24 the CBT sessions. Parents mostly accessed the website on mobile phones or tablets and use was substantial. All the parents and almost all HVs who provided data judged the materials to be helpful for parents and suitable for NHS use. If offered a waiting list control group, 85% of parents said they would have been willing to take part in a full RCT evaluation of the Surviving Crying package. Discussion and conclusions: The findings identify the need for materials to support parents of excessively crying babies within national health services in the UK. The Surviving Crying support package appears suitable for this purpose and a full community-level RCT of the package is feasible and likely to be worthwhile. Limitations to the study and barriers to delivery of the services were identified, indicating improvements needed in future research.
    • Parental confidence in managing food allergy: development and validation of the food allergy self-efficacy scale for parents (FASE-P)

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology; School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham UK; Psychology; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK; Psychology; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2015-07-28)
      Background: Food allergy is often a life-long condition that requires constant vigilance in order to prevent accidental exposure and avoid potentially life-threatening symptoms. Parents’ confidence in managing their child’s food allergy may relate to the poor quality of life anxiety and worry reported by parents of food allergic children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the first scale to measure parental confidence (self-efficacy) in managing food allergy in their child. Methods: The Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P) was developed through interviews with 53 parents, consultation of the literature and experts in the area. The FASE-P was then completed by 434 parents of food allergic children from a general population sample in addition to the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Food Allergy Impact Measure (FAIM). A total of 250 parents completed the re-test of the FASE-P. Results: Factor and reliability analysis resulted in a 21 item scale with 5 sub-scales. The overall scale and sub-scales has good to excellent internal consistency (α’s of 0.63-0.89) and the scale is stable over time. There were low to moderate significant correlations with the GSES, FAIM and GHQ12 and strong correlations with the FAQL-PB, with better parental confidence relating to better general self-efficacy, better quality of life and better mental health in the parent. Poorer self-efficacy was related to egg and milk allergy; self-efficacy was not related to severity of allergy. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The FASE-P is a reliable and valid scale for use with parents from a general population. Its application within clinical settings could aid provision of advice and improve targeted interventions by identifying areas where parents have less confidence in managing their child’s food allergy.
    • Parental self-efficacy in managing food allergy and mental health predicts food allergy related quality of life

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology, School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K (2016-03-28)
      Food allergy has been shown to have a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) and can be difficult to manage in order to avoid potentially life threatening reactions. Parental self-efficacy (confidence) in managing food allergy for their child might explain variations in QoL. This study aimed to examine whether self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children was a good predictor of QoL of the family. Methods: Parents of children with clinically diagnosed food allergy completed the Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the GHQ-12 (to measure mental health) and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), which measures perceived likelihood of a severe allergic reaction. Results: A total of 434 parents took part. Greater parental QoL was significantly related to greater self-efficacy for food allergy management, better mental health, lower perceived likelihood of a severe reaction, older age in parent and child and fewer number of allergies (all p<0.05). Food allergy self-efficacy explained more of the variance in QoL than any other variable and self-efficacy related to management of social activities and precaution and prevention of an allergic reaction appeared to be the most important aspects. Conclusions: Parental self-efficacy in management of a child’s food allergy is important and is associated with better parental QoL. It would be useful to measure self-efficacy at visits to allergy clinic in order to focus support; interventions to improve self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children should be explored.
    • Parents’ experiences of having an excessively crying baby and implications for support services

      Garratt, Rosemary; Bamber, Deborah; Powell, Charlotte; Long, Jaqui; Brown, Jayne; Turney, Nicy; Chessman, Jo; Dyson, Sue; St James-Roberts, Ian; De Montfort University; et al. (Mark Allen Group (MAGonline), 2019-03-20)
      Evidence suggests that around 20% of healthy babies cry for long periods without apparent reason, causing significant distress to parents and a range of adverse outcomes. This study explored parents’ experiences of having an excessively crying baby and their suggestions for improved NHS support. Focus groups and interviews with 20 parents identified three key themes: disrupted expectations and experiences of parenthood; stigma and social isolation; seeking support and validation of experience. Parents experienced shock, anxiety and a sense of failure, leading to self-imposed isolation and a reluctance to seek help. Other people’s reactions sometimes reinforced their feelings. Parents need more support, including from health professionals, to cope with excessive crying, and recommendations for this support are given.
    • Participants' productive disruption of a community photo-elicitation project: improvised methodologies in practice

      Vigurs, Katy; Kara, Helen (Taylor and Francis, 2016-08-23)
      This article reports on an attempt to use photo-elicitation to explore contested intergenerational perceptions and experiences of ‘place’ in one English village. Participants actively disrupted the photo-elicitation project and ended up co-creating an enriched research design that allowed them to represent how they experienced ‘place’. The spontaneous, mixed media-elicitation that resulted overturns some of the more straightforward notions that are aligned with photo-elicitation techniques. This article builds on a growing body of critical literature on photo-elicitation and shows how participants’ disruption of a project’s research methods can be both challenging and fruitful in practice. The researcher's flexibility and willingness to work with participants’ alternative approaches proved extremely effective in allowing participants to communicate their ‘imagined geographies’ (Massey & Jess, 1995) and to identify experiences of social inequality. This article explores how the initially problematic in participant involvement can be turned into the productive through the use of 'improvised methodologies'.
    • Participatory arts: Mothers make art to heal minor mental health trauma.

      Watts, Lisa; University of Derby (Mental Health Network, 03/11/2017)
      The course was for twelve weeks, three hours a week, and we had a crèche for the Mothers’ children. The group of women were recruited from playgroups and attended the course wishing to question their experience of birth, parenting and fertility through art. The group was not a co-facilitation group as such, but instead over the duration of the course they brought their skills and knowledge to their individual art practice. Whilst I facilitated the group I was simultaneously in another themed group therapy, as a participant, with an art therapist for women that had experienced minor trauma in the birth or early months of their child.
    • Pastoral care for young people in the workplace.

      Neary, Siobhan; Parker, Gordon; Shepherd, Claire; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2017)
      This research sets out to explore the range and type of support that employers have in place to support young people’s transition from education to the workplace. As well as exploring the traditional support through induction and training we have also examined additional support which we have defined as pastoral care. Emerging from the research with there was a dissatisfaction for young people with the preparation that they had received prior to leaving education. The grievances centred around two key areas: that schools often focus on academic achievement and transition to university rather than to employment; and topics such as making pension arrangements and dealing with tax and NI contributions were reported as not being adequately discussed at school/college. These activities are core parts of working life for everyone and need addressing so that young people understand and can make informed decisions about their financial futures. Young people are generally happy with the support that they receive from employers. Almost one third of the young people surveyed had a mentor or buddy appointed when they started work and all young interviewees stated that they were aware of someone they could go to for pastoral and/or other kinds of support. Although most had not needed to access such support themselves. Sometimes the person offering support was doing so in an ‘official’ capacity, as someone who had been appointed by the employer or was someone in a managerial role. Sometimes, support was provided more informally, by a ‘mate’ or older colleague, which was often reported as the most valuable type of support.
    • Paternity analysis of wild-caught females shows that sperm package size and placement influence fertilization success in the bushcricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera

      Parker, Darren James; Zaborowska, Julia; Ritchie, Michael Gordon; Vahed, Karim; University of Lausanne; University of St Andrews; University of Derby; Centre for Biological Diversity; University of St Andrews; St Andrews KY16 9TH UK; Centre for Biological Diversity; University of St Andrews; St Andrews KY16 9TH UK; Centre for Biological Diversity; University of St Andrews; St Andrews KY16 9TH UK; et al. (Wiley, 2017-04-07)
      In species where females store sperm, males may try to influence paternity by the strategic placement of sperm within the female’s sperm storage organ. Sperm may be mixed or layered in storage organs and this can influence sperm use beyond a ‘fair raffle’. In some insects, sperm from different matings is packaged into discrete packets (spermatodoses) which retain their integrity in the female’s sperm storage organ (spermatheca), but little is known about how these may influence patterns of sperm use under natural mating conditions in wild populations. We examined the effect of the size and position of spermatodoses within the spermatheca and number of competing ejaculates on sperm use in female Dark bushcrickets (Pholidoptera griseoaptera) that had mated under unmanipulated field conditions. Females were collected near the end of the mating season and seven hypervariable microsatellite loci were used to assign paternity of eggs laid in the laboratory. Females contained a median of 3 spermatodoses (range 1-6) and only 6 of the 36 females contained more than one spermatodose of the same genotype. Both the size and relative placement of the spermatodoses within the spermatheca had a significant effect on paternity, with a bias against smaller spermatodoses and those further from the single entrance/exit of the spermatheca. A higher number of competing males reduced the chances of siring offspring for each male. Hence both spermatodose size and relative placement in the spermatheca influence paternity.
    • Paternity and kinship patterns in polyandrous moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax)

      Huck, Maren; Löttker, Petra; Böhle, Uta-Regina; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Abteilung Soziobiologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, Germany; Abteilung für Verhaltensforschung, Universität Bielefeld, Germany; Institut für Neuro- & Verhaltensbiologie, Abt. Verhaltensbiologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany; Arbeitsgruppe Primatengenetik, Deutsches Primatenzentrum (DPZ), Göttingen, Germany (2005)
      We studied patterns of genetic relatedness and paternity in moustached tamarins, small Neotropical primates living in groups of 1–4 adult males and 1–4 adult females. Generally only one female per group breeds, mating with more than one male. Twin birth are the norm. In order to examine the genetic consequences of this mating pattern, DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected from two principal and six neighboring groups. DNA was characterized at twelve microsatellite loci (average: seven alleles/locus). We addressed the following questions: Do all adult males have mating access to the reproductive female of the group? How is paternity distributed across males in a group? Can polyandrous mating lead to multiple paternity? Are nonparental animals more closely related to the breeders than to the population mean? And, are mating partners unrelated? Breeding females mated with all nonrelated males. In at least one group the father of the older offspring did not sire the youngest infant although he was still resident in the group. We also found evidence for multiple paternity in a supposed twin pair. Yet, within each group the majority (67–100%) of infants had the same father, suggesting reproductive skew. Relatedness within groups was generally high (average R 0.31), although both nonrelated males and females occurred, i.e., immigrations of both sexes are possible. Mating partners were never found to be related, hence inbreeding seems to be uncommon. The results suggest that while the social mating system is polyandry, paternity is often monopolized by a single male per group.
    • The Path of Light: ritual music of the Tibetan Bon

      Nicoletti, Martino; University of Derby, School of Art and Design (Bologna, Borgatti Edizioni Musicali, 2008)
      Conceived as an authentic multimedia work, composed by texts, images and an attached musical CD, this book provides an in-depth glance at the ritual music of one of Asia’s most ancient and least known spiritual traditions: Bön, the autochthonous religion of Tibet, which spread throughout the Land of the Snows prior to the introduction of Mahayana Buddhism in about the seventh century C.E. With its wealth of introductory texts and colour photos by the author, this original work – the first devoted to this specific theme – presents a rare selection of chants, music and mantras, most of which are connected with the religious path of Dzogchen, or Great Perfection. Among the tracks recorded live in 2006 at the Nepalese monastery of Triten Norbutse, the CD provides a rare collective performance of the chö, a meditative ritual of self-sacrifice, as found throughout bönpo tradition.
    • Paula McCloskey’ in Loveless, N.S. Contemporary Mamactivist Artists: A Forum on Maternal Activist Art for the Studies in the Maternal Special Issue on The Everyday Maternal Practice: Activist Structures in Creative Work, Summer 2016

      McCloskey, Paula; University of Nottingham (Open Library of Humanities, 2016-12-15)
      This special forum for Studies in the Maternal asks fourteen activist-mother-artists, or “mamactivists”, to respond to the following questions: (1) When and why did you start making activist/political work on the maternal? (2) What reception/reaction did you receive for the work? (3) What is the latest activist/political work you have made on the maternal? (4) What shifts do you see from this first work to this last work? and (5) Why is the maternal, in your opinion, important to activist, engaged, political art today? Responses highlight a range of geographic and cultural perspectives, as well as artistic strategies. One commonality between them is that they take the maternal not as a biological facticity, but a rich feminist site of political intervention.
    • Pax: variations

      Tighe, Carl; University of Derby (IMPress, 2000)
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    • A PDCA-based approach to Environmental Value Stream Mapping (E-VSM)

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Torres Romero, Joseth; Govindan, Kannan; Cherrafi, Anass; Ramanathan, Usha; University of Derby; University of Warwick; University of Southern Denmark; Cadi Ayyad University; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2018-02-03)
      Research into the application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) as a tool to enhance the environmental sustainability performance of operations has been confined to a handful of studies only. Research on this green lean research stream is therefore limited, especially when compared to the vast amount of scholarly research focused on the ‘traditional’ VSM tool. To complement and support the narrow body of knowledge on the application of VSM as tools to improve environmental performance and enhance the effectiveness of its application, this paper proposes an approach, based on the Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) improvement cycle, to systematically implement and conduct Environmental-VSM (E-VSM) studies. The implementation of the proposed method is reported through an action research-based case study conducted in a helical rolling process of one of the mining consumables business units of an international diversified mining and materials multinational company. The results of the case study indicate that the proposed PDCA-based approach to E-VSM can be an effective alternative to improve the green performance of operations. Besides the proposal of this approach, its testing, and expanding the body of knowledge in the green lean field, the paper also contributes by providing a guiding reference for operations managers who may want to make the operations of their organisations more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Finally, this paper also intends to contribute by inspiring researchers and practitioners to broaden the study of the under-researched field which explores the application of VSM for environmental sustainability enhancement.
    • Peanut exposure during pregnancy, breastfeeding and complementary feeding: perceptions of practices in four countries

      Boulay, Annabelle; Gancheva, Vyara; Houghton, Julie; Strada, Anna; Sora, Beatriz; Sala, Roser; Rowe, Gene; University of Exeter; Department of Geography; College of Life and Environmental Sciences; University of Exeter; Exeter UK; Association APPEL EUROPA; Sofia Bulgaria; et al. (Wiley, 2015-01)
      Food allergy is an increasing problem worldwide. Allergy to peanuts is a particular concern, given that this is rarely outgrown and may be associated with life-threatening anaphylaxis. However, it is unclear what factors are responsible for a perceived increase in prevalence rates. One matter on which scientists agree, however, is that exposure to peanuts early in life is significant – although whether early exposure protects or sensitizes to allergy is unclear. There is no significant research that currently records differences in early life exposure either within or between populations. This exploratory study makes a first step in this direction using focus groups conducted in four countries with disparate ‘peanut experiences’ to characterize early exposure in these. The ultimate aim is to help in the development of a survey instrument to attain nationally representative samples of consumers and hence to use the results from this to compare with allergy prevalence data collected in other parts of the European Union-funded ‘EuroPrevall’ project. The results in this study not only reveal considerable similarities across countries (e.g. in terms of lack of knowledge of guidelines; lack of changes in feeding behaviour during/after pregnancy, feelings that diet variety in children is important) but also one or two interesting and potentially important differences, such as increased consumption in Bulgarian (and some Spanish) breastfeeding mothers because of the ability of peanuts to facilitate lactation. Study limitations and future study intentions are also discussed.
    • Pecking Order

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (TES Global Ltd, 2010-02)
      Peter Lennox keeps chickens, and they have taught him a great deal about behaviour, ethics, evolution and the psychopathic nature of modern 'efficiency' More Info: Light-hearted article in Times Higher Education. Co-authored with Edie, Dolly, Gertie and Flo