• Habitat structure mediates biodiversity effects on ecosystem properties

      Godbold, J. A.; Bulling, Mark T.; Solan, Martin (2013-05-24)
      Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations in a model marine benthic system to investigate the effects of species composition, resource heterogeneity and patch connectivity on ecosystem properties at both the patch (bioturbation intensity) and multi-patch (nutrient concentration) scale. We show that allowing fauna to move and preferentially select patches alters local species composition and density distributions, which has negative effects on ecosystem processes (bioturbation intensity) at the patch scale, but overall positive effects on ecosystem functioning (nutrient concentration) at the multi-patch scale. Our findings provide important evidence that community dynamics alter in response to localized resource heterogen- eity and that these small-scale variations in habitat structure influence species contributions to ecosystem properties at larger scales. We conclude that habitat complexity forms an important buffer against dis- turbance and that contemporary estimates of the level of biodiversity required for maintaining future multi-functional systems may need to be revised.
    • Habitat suitability, corridors and dispersal barriers for large carnivores in Poland

      Huck, Maren; Jędrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Borowik, Tomasz; Miłosz-Cielma, Małgorzata; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Nowak, Sabina; Mysłajek, Robert W.; Mammal Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences; Association for Nature "Wolf" (2010)
      Carnivores are often particularly sensitive to landscape fragmentation. Ecological corridors may help to connect local populations, ensuring gene flow and retaining viable meta-populations. We aimed to establish habitat suitability models for two large carnivores in Poland, the grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 and the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758, based on ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA). Secondly, we calculated least cost paths (LCPs) based on cost values obtained from ENFA. Thirdly, we determined structures that might act as barriers, thus diminishing the value of the corridor unless appropriate conservation measures are taken. We compared some of the results with actual dispersal data of four lynx in eastern Poland. Results indicate that both species are highly marginalised. Less habitat that is currently available in Poland is suitable for lynx than for wolves. We determined a total of 76 LCPs. Comparison of these theoretical corridors with actual dispersal routes suggests that the traits of calculated LCPs are mostly within the range of those of real routes. We highlight a variety of features that might act as barriers, such as major roads (including planned highways), urbanized areas, and large un-forested areas. We give suggestions where concerted conservation efforts (eg wildlife passages) might be particularly well-directed.
    • The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (IOS Press, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out at Loughborough University in the UK into the areas of 'design for all' and accessible transport. The research addresses two common needs for designers and ergonomists working towards developing more inclusive products and environments, namely data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool that has been developed to support designers in their efforts to develop products that meet the needs of a broader range of users. Currently HADRIAN is being expanded to support transport design. This includes data on an individual's ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. The subsequent use of this data will be supported either through a task analysis system that will allow a designer to evaluate a design for a part of the transport infrastructure (ticket barrier, train carriage etc.), or alternatively allow the designer or an end user to evaluate a whole journey. The 'journey planner' feature of the HADRIAN tool will compare an individual's physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands placed upon that individual by the mode(s) of transport available and the route options selected. It is envisaged that these developments will prove extremely useful to users, designers, planners and all those involved with transport use and implementation.
    • HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2005)
      HADRIAN is a computer aided design tool, developed to support designers in their efforts to ‘design for all’. Combining a database of individuals together with a task analysis tool HADRIAN provides a virtual group of 100 people, ready to perform a user trial at any point throughout a product’s design. Developed initially to predict design inclusion for localised design problems such as those experienced in a kitchen environment, HADRIAN is now being developed to include transport data as part of the AUNT-SUE project. AUNT-SUE is a transport related project that is funded as part of the EPSRC’s Sustainable Urban Environment programme. The project addresses policy making through to design and implementation in its aims to support effective socially inclusive design and operation of transport systems. Part of the AUNT-SUE project addresses exclusion faced by people whilst making a typical journey including: the inability to access adequate route-finding and timetabling information, problems accessing transport infrastructure (bus/tram stops, cycle routes, railway stations etc.), getting on and off transport, and managing interchanges between different transport types. This paper discusses the development of the relationship between HADRIAN and AUNTSUE. Initial work focuses on additional data for the database covering transport related tasks. Later work will focus on improving the task analysis capability of HADRIAN whilst integrating the transport related functionality. Ultimately the project also provides the opportunity to further develop HADRIAN towards the needs of designers developing products that maximise social inclusion.
    • HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all"

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2003)
      The arguments for a Design for All or Inclusive Design approach to product, environment or service design are clear and well understood. In order to address the underlying issues it is vitally important that designers are educated, informed and supported in the principles of Design for All, with appropriate and applicable data, and with the tools and techniques to employ this data in their design activity. This paper introduces our approach to supporting the designer in a Design for All philosophy. The main focus of this approach is our computer aided design and analysis tool HADRIAN. HADRIAN provides our sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities together with a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’. The system has been developed to build empathy with the target population. In addition, the system provides a relatively simple, yet powerful, method of obtaining a form of user feedback and insight normally only attainable through expensive prototypes mock-ups and user trials. This feedback is also provided at a much earlier stage of the design process. HADRIAN is the result of a three year EPSRC funded project that was part of the EQUAL initiative. This project concluded in October 2002 but the development of HADRIAN is ongoing.
    • HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This article describes research into the area of ‘design for all’. The research addresses two common needs for designers working towards developing inclusive products and environments, namely, data on users that are accessible, valid and applicable, and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. The approach taken is through the development of a combined database and inclusive human modelling tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people, the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These individuals provide a browsable resource spanning size, shape, capability, preferences, and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport-related tasks. This is partnered with the development of a simple, CAD-based task analysis system. Tasks are carried out by the virtual individuals in the database and accessibility issues are reported, allowing excluded people to be investigated in order to understand the problems experienced and solutions identified. HADRIAN is also being expanded to include a more accessible journey planner that provides accessibility information to both end users and transport professionals. Together, HADRIAN allows more informed choices to be made either in travelling, or in the designing of products and environments.
    • HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (Chalmers University, 2006)
      HADRIAN was created to make a step-function change in the way that inclusive design is accepted and integrated within design practice. Tables of percentile data have now been replaced by holistic databases of individuals covering a wide range of sizes and abilities. Whilst the initial research focussed on physical and behavioural issues related to anthropometry and biomechanics, our current data collection also includes simple emotional and cognitive data within the tool. Details of HADRIAN are presented, including our ‘journey planner’ that is being developed that will compare an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will be placed upon that individual during the envisioned journey. If the journey is unachievable or very difficult, then that person is likely to feel socially excluded. It is intended that the planner will identify a suitable alternative route and/or choice of transport mode. Designers will also be able to use the planner to assess inclusive design issues for existing and new facilities.
    • Haemophilia

      Elander, James; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05)
      Haemophilia A and haemophilia B are inherited bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies in blood clotting factor proteins. This chapter gives an overview of evidence about psychological aspects of haemophilia, including inheritance, adherence to treatment, quality of life, and pain management.
    • Hand on heart

      McNaney, Nicki; University of Derby (29/09/2017)
      An Illustration created for Rankin Photography Studio, to promote British Heart Foundation, “World Heart Day” An international art project with creatives from around the world, to raise awareness of the global fight against heart disease through the use of social media.
    • Handbook of vocational education and training

      Stuart, Rebecca; McGrath, Simon; Mulder, Martin; Papier, Joy; University of the Western Cape; Wageningen University; University of Nottingham (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
      This handbook brings together and promotes research on the area of vocational education and training (VET). It analyzes current and future economic and labor market trends and relates these to likely implications for vocational education and training. It questions how VET engages with the growing power of human development approaches and with the sustainable development agenda. Equity and inclusion are discussed in a range of ways by the authors and the consideration of the construction of these terms is an important element of the handbook. It further addresses both the overall notion of system reform, at different scales, and what is known about particular technologies of systems reform across a variety of settings. Vocational learning and VET teacher/trainer education are discussed from a comparative perspective. National and comparative experiences are also shared on questions of equity and efficiency in funding in terms of those that fund and are funded, and for a range of funding methodologies. As well as reviewing existing gaps, this handbook is looking forward in identifying promising new directions in research and environment.
    • The hands of Beuys and Heidegger

      Baker, Steve; University of Derby (Whitechapel Gallery/ MIT Press, 2016)
    • Harmonious architecture and kinetic linear energy

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (montpellier.archi.fr, 2013-07-05)
    • Has Ambisonics come of age?

      Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Institute of Acoustics, 2008-11)
      Ambisonics was developed in the 1970’s as a flexible, psycho-acoustically aware system1. Developed at the same time as Quadraphonics2, Ambisonics is an often mis-understood system that was far ahead of it’s time. Due to the ubiquity of surround sound equipment in modern computers and interest in live surround events becoming more widespread, is the time, finally, right for Ambisonics to come into its’ own? In this paper, the definition of what makes a system Ambisonic is clarified with reference made to the traditional energy and velocity vector theory, higher order systems and use in both the live and domestic environment. More recent developments by the author are discussed with respect to irregular Ambisonic decoder design (such as for the ITU 5.1 speaker array) and analysis using Head Related Transfer Function data showing the extra insight this can give into the performance of one, seemingly similar, decoder design over another. The freely available suite of VST plug-ins (comprising of decoders, panners and an Ambisonic reverb) created using this technology are also presented, with case studies of their use in student projects at the University of Derby.
    • The Hastings sound fountain.

      Locke, Caroline; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent Unviersity (FACT, Liverpool, 2015-07)
      I am interested in ‘Performing data’, revealing data to an audience in various embodied forms - sometimes slowly, sometimes live – to elicit emotions, engage the imagination, and to inspire an audience to reflect. Making links to our natural world and exposing the beauty of it is of high priority to me, as an artist and I am keen to find innovative ways of communicating scientific and environmental research to a public audience. The Hastings Sound Fountain at FACT was controlled by data being sent LIVE from Hastings Pier. A sensor on the end of the pier is recording the rise and fall of the sea level and the levels trigger the rise and fall in the sound frequencies being sent to the Fountain. As the sensor tracks the rise and fall of the sea, frequencies sweep through the Sound Fountain, causing ripples and waves on the water surface. A visualisation of the live data and footage of the sea beneath the sensor can be projected or viewed on a monitor close to the fountain.
    • Head space and Dark days.

      McNaney, Nicki; University of Derby (Broken Grey Wires, 26/02/2018)
      Broken Grey Wires is an ongoing investigation into art and mental health by developing a dialogue with leading contemporary artists. Two screen-printed illustrations,Head Space and Dark Days are included in an artist book Psycho published by Broken Grey Wires.
    • Health behaviour convergence: evidence from fractional (long memory) convergence and British microdata.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Wiley, 2017-03-05)
      This paper uses a fractional methodology to assess convergence in terms of differences in health quality measures, based on six primary criteria, across the English regions. Hence, it uses the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing database and the retrospective interviews from 16,894 participants, aged 50+, with data from three waves–2004/5, 2006/7 and 2008/9, to establish that health quality is characterized by divergences across six health quality criteria. When the overall sample is differentiated through income, education and employment, the evidence favors convergence, indicating that certain socioeconomic factors impose a uniform behavioral attitude of the population toward health quality criteria.
    • Health care expenditure and environmental pollution: a cross-country comparison across different income groups

      Apergis, Nicholas; Bhattacharya, Mita; Hadhri, Walid; University of Derby; Monash University; UAQUAP, Higher Institute of Management (Springer, 2020-01-03)
      This paper investigates the long-run dynamics between health care expenditure and environmental pollution across four global income groups. The analysis uses data from 178 countries, spanning the period 1995–2017. Panel estimations are employed with unobserved heterogeneity, temporal persistence, and cross-sectional dependence using a model with common correlated effects. The findings document that the health care expenditure is a necessity for all sub-groups. We established that a 1% increase in national income increased health expenditure by 7.2% in the full sample, and 9.3%, 8.6%, 6.8% and 2.9% for low, low-middle, upper-middle and high-income groups, respectively, while a 1% increase in CO2 emissions increased health expenditure by 2.5% in the full sample, and 2.9%, 1.2%, 2.3% and 2.6% across these four income groups. We recommend that coordinated approach is needed in setting policy goals both in energy and health sectors in mitigating the negative effects of pollution. Our findings indicate that low-carbon emissions and energy efficient health care services will significantly reduce future health care expenses.
    • Health expenses and economic growth: convergence dynamics across the Indian States

      Apergis, Nicholas; Padhi, Puja; University of Piraeus; IIT Bombay (Springer, 2013-11)
      In this paper we explore convergence of real per capita output and health expenses across the Indian States. The new panel convergence methodology, developed by Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75:1771–1855, 2007), is employed. The empirical findings suggest that these States form distinct convergent clubs, exhibiting considerable heterogeneity in the underlying growth and health expenses factors. These findings should help policy makers in designing appropriate growth-oriented and/or health sector programs and setting priorities in their implementation.
    • Health, fitness, and responses to military training of officer cadets in a Gulf Cooperation Council country.

      Blacker, Sam D.; Horner, Fleur E.; Brown, Peter I.; Linnane, Denise M.; Wilkinson, David M.; Wright, Antony; Bluck, Les J.; Rayson, Mark P.; Optimal Performance Limited (2011-12)
      To quantify the health, fitness, and physiological responses to military training of Officer Cadets from a Gulf Cooperation Council country.
    • Hearing Without Ears

      McKenzie, Ian; Lennox, Peter; Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Georgia Institute of Technology, 22/06/2014)
      We report on on-going work investigating the feasibility of using tissue conduction to evince auditory spatial perception. Early results indicate that it is possible to coherently control externalization, range, directionality (including elevation), movement and some sense of spaciousness without presenting acoustic signals to the outer ear. Signal control techniques so far have utilised discrete signal feeds, stereo and 1st order ambisonic hierarchies. Some deficiencies in frontal externalization have been observed. We conclude that, whilst the putative components of the head related transfer function are absent, empirical tests indicate that coherent equivalents are perceptually utilisable. Some implications for perceptual theory and technological implementations are discussed along with potential practical applications and future lines of enquiry.