• The Bacillus subtilis DnaD and DnaB Proteins Exhibit Different DNA Remodelling Activities

      Carneiro, Maria J.V.M.; Turner, Ian J.; Allen, Stephanie; Roberts, Clive J.; Soultanas, Panos; University of Nottingham (Elsevier, 2005-08-05)
      Primosomal protein cascades load the replicative helicase onto DNA. In Bacillus subtilis a putative primosomal cascade involving the DnaD-DnaB-DnaI proteins has been suggested to participate in both the DnaA and PriA-dependent loading of the replicative helicase DnaC onto the DNA. Recently we discovered that DnaD has a global remodelling DNA activity suggesting a more widespread role in bacterial nucleoid architecture. Here, we show that DnaB forms a “square-like” tetramer with a hole in the centre and suggest a model for its interaction with DNA. It has a global DNA remodelling activity that is different from that of DnaD. Whereas DnaD opens up supercoiled DNA, DnaB acts as a lateral compaction protein. The two competing activities can act together on a supercoiled plasmid forming two topologically distinct poles; one compacted with DnaB and the other open with DnaD. We propose that the primary roles of DnaB and DnaD are in bacterial nucleoid architecture control and modulation, and their effects on the initiation of DNA replication are a secondary role resulting from architectural perturbations of chromosomal DNA.
    • Bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations are modified by environmental complexity

      Langenheder, Silke; Bulling, Mark T.; Solan, Martin; Prosser, James I.; Bell, Thomas (2013-05-24)
      Background: With the recognition that environmental change resulting from anthropogenic activities is causing a global decline in biodiversity, much attention has been devoted to understanding how changes in biodiversity may alter levels of ecosystem functioning. Although environmental complexity has long been recognised as a major driving force in evolutionary processes, it has only recently been incorporated into biodiversity-ecosystem functioning investigations. Environmental complexity is expected to strengthen the positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning, mainly because it leads to stronger complementarity effects, such as resource partitioning and facilitative interactions among species when the number of available resource increases. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we implemented an experiment to test the combined effect of species richness and environmental complexity, more specifically, resource richness on ecosystem functioning over time. We show, using all possible combinations of species within a bacterial community consisting of six species, and all possible combinations of three substrates, that diversity-functioning (metabolic activity) relationships change over time from linear to saturated. This was probably caused by a combination of limited complementarity effects and negative interactions among competing species as the experiment progressed. Even though species richness and resource richness both enhanced ecosystem functioning, they did so independently from each other. Instead there were complex interactions between particular species and substrate combinations. Conclusions/Significance: Our study shows clearly that both species richness and environmental complexity increase ecosystem functioning. The finding that there was no direct interaction between these two factors, but that instead rather complex interactions between combinations of certain species and resources underlie positive biodiversity ecosystem functioning relationships, suggests that detailed knowledge of how individual species interact with complex natural environments will be required in order to make reliable predictions about how altered levels of biodiversity will most likely affect ecosystem functioning
    • The bank lending channel and monetary policy rules for Eurozone banks: further extensions

      Apergis, Nicholas; Miller, Stephen; Alevizopoulou, Effrosyni; Curtin University; University of Nevada Las Vegas; University of Piraeus (De Gruyter, 2014-06-12)
      The monetary authorities affect macroeconomic activity through various channels of influence. This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how central bank actions affect the loan supply through its main indicator of policy, the real short-term interest rate. This paper employs the endogenously determined target interest rate, emanating from the European Central Bank’s monetary policy rule, to examine the operation of the bank lending channel. Furthermore, it examines whether different bank-specific characteristics affect how Eurozone banks react to monetary shocks. That is, do sounder banks react more to the monetary policy rule than less-sound banks? The paper finds evidence of an active and statistically and economically significant bank lending channel for the Eurozone between 2000 and 2009.
    • Banking development and energy consumption: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

      Aslan, Alper; Apergis, Nicholas; Topcu, Mert; Nevsehir University; Curtin University; Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University (Elsevier, 2014-06-21)
      Since the late 1990s, much scholarly work has been done in the field of energy economics on the nexus between economic growth and energy consumption. Over the last decade, however, the literature has been recompiled through examining the relationship between energy consumption and a set of variables by referring to the implicit role of economic growth. Based upon finance-energy nexus, this paper attempts to investigate the linkage between the banking development and energy consumption for a panel of seven Middle Eastern countries using panel cointegration and causality techniques over the period 1980–2011. Panel cointegration results show a long-run relationship between energy consumption, income, energy prices and banking sector development indicators. FMOLS (Fully Modified OLS) results reveal that all banking sector indicators affect energy demand positively in the long-run and the impact range falls between 0.169 and 0.396. In terms of causality, there is evidence of a one way short-run relationship from banking expansion to energy consumption while long-run dynamics indicate a bi-directional feedback relationship. These results have some implications for energy and environmental policy. One main implication is that energy conservation policies may be implemented with little or no adverse impact on financial development in the short-run whereas they might become detrimental in the long-run.
    • Barriers in green lean implementation: a combined systematic literature review and interpretive structural modelling approach

      Cherrafi, Anass; Elfezazi, Said; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Benhida, Khalid; Mokhlis, Ahmed; Cadi Ayyad University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017)
      Green Lean has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for organizations to pursue both operational and sustainability excellence. The interest on this approach has rapidly risen in both academic and industry circles. However, despite this interest, very limited research has focused on its implementation, and no research has investigated the barriers that hinder the success of such activity. This study investigates the Green Lean implementation barriers and their contextual relationships and effects on the integration and deployment of this approach. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR), Interpretative Structural Modelling and fuzzy Matriced’ Impacts Croise’s Multiplication Appliqée a UN Classement (MICMAC) analyzes were carried out. Fifteen barriers were extracted from the SLR and then validated in consultation with industry and academic experts. The Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method was used to understand the relationship between the fifteen barriers and to develop a hierarchical model of these. The different barriers were classified into ‘linkage’ and ‘dependent’ barriers by using MICMAC analysis. The results suggested that all the identified barriers play an important role, and hence can equally act as a significant hurdle to the implementation of Green Lean projects. This study can help managers and policy makers in better understanding these barriers. Thus, they can be assisted in managing and prioritizing barriers towards the successful implementation of Green Lean initiatives for better financial and environmental performance.
    • Barriers to innovation in service SMEs: Evidence from Mexico

      Maldonado-Guzman, Gonzalo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Pinzon-Castro, Sandra Yesenia; Kumar, Vikas; The University of Derby (Emerald, 2017)
      Purpose – Specific research related to the study of innovation barriers in service SMEs in the Latin American region is limited. This study thus investigates the effects that external environmental, financial and human barriers have on innovation activities, particularly, within the context of Mexican service SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). Data were collected through an instrument that was developed based on relevant constructs adapted from the literature. The instrument was validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and Composite Reliability Index to ensure the reliability of the theoretical model. The instrument was distributed among service SMEs in the Aguascalientes state of Mexico, from were 308 valid responses were obtained. Findings – In general, the results indicate that all of the three barriers investigated (i.e. external environmental, financial and human) hinder innovation in service SMEs, with the external environmental barrier being the most significant of the three. Practical implications – The findings of this research can inform managers of service SMEs and policy makers when formulating and implementing strategies to reduce innovation barriers. Originality/value – Evidence suggests that specific research related to the study of innovation barriers in service SMEs in the Latin American region is limited. This paper fills this research gap by expanding the limited body of knowledge in this field and providing further evidence on this phenomenon. The study also enables the distinctive characteristics of innovation barriers to be understood within a particular context, expanding in this way the body of knowledge on this field.
    • Baseline coral disease surveys within three marine parks in Sabah, Borneo

      Sweet, Michael J.; Wood, Elizabeth; Miller, Jennifer; Bythell, John C.; University of Derby; School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Marine Conservation Society, Ross-On-Wye, UK; School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (PeerJ Inc., 2015-11-03)
      Two of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide are bleaching and disease. However, there has been a scarcity of research on coral disease in South-East Asia, despite the high biodiversity and the strong dependence of local communities on the reefs in the region. This study provides baseline data on coral disease frequencies within three national parks in Sabah, Borneo, which exhibit different levels of human impacts and management histories. High mean coral cover (55%) and variable disease frequency (mean 0.25 diseased colonies m−2) were found across the three sites. Highest disease frequency (0.44 diseased colonies per m 2) was seen at the site closest to coastal population centres. Bleaching and pigmentation responses were actually higher at Sipadan, the more remote, offshore site, whereas none of the other coral diseases detected in the other two parks were detected in Sipadan. Results of this study offer a baseline dataset of disease in these parks and indicate the need for continued monitoring, and suggest that coral colonies in parks under higher anthropogenic stressors and with lower coral cover may be more susceptible to contracting disease.
    • Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats

      Fratangeli, Francesca; Dondi, Nicolò; Segre Reinach, Marco; Serra, Clara; Sweet, Michael J.; Ponti, Massimo; University of Derby; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy; Reef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy; Reef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy; et al. (PeerJ Inc., 2016-10-25)
      Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.
    • Be your dog

      Bartram, Angela; University of Lincoln (KARST Gallery, Plymouth, 06/11/2016)
      In partnership with the Live Art Development Agency, 'Be Your Dog' is a project that aims to transcend the hierarchies of pet and owner. The project sees humans and their dogs aim to demonstrate a connection with each other based on mirrored actions that demonstrate empathy and equality. This public event is a result of workshops, and you may see pairs sitting or laying together, looking in each others eyes, or involved in small reciprocal actions. Of course this might not happen, as all are collaborators and the dogs will bring their own contribution to the work, but whatever happens you will see collaborating pairs being responsive in whatever way they deem right.
    • Be your dog (workshop)

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (2020-01-17)
      'Be Your Dog' sees participants learn from the behaviour of their dogs by mirroring what they do: walking, laying, barking, drinking, etc. They become dog in essence and learn through empathy, becoming an inter-species pack.
    • A beacon for guidance : how the International Centre for Guidance Studies has been influencing policy and practice for 16 years

      Hyde, C.; University of Derby, iCeGS; East Midlands Oral History Archive (iCeGS University of Derby, 2014-06)
      The publication documents the history of the International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) at the University of Derby. It focuses on how the centre has influenced policy and practice in the careers sector over the last 16 years.
    • The behavior, ecology, and social evolution of New World monkey

      Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Huck, Maren; Department of Anthropology , University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia; German Primate Centre, Department Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology; Department of Anthropology, University of Texas (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
      Compared with other primates, New World monkeys display relatively limited ecological variability. New World monkey anatomy and social systems, however, are extremely diverse. Several unique morphological features (e.g., claws, prehensile tails) and uncommon patterns of social organization (e.g., paternal care, cooperative breeding, female dispersal) have evolved in some platyrrhine species. Social organization and mating patterns include typical harem- like structures where mating is largely polygynous, and large multimale, multifemale groups with promiscuous mating and fi ssion- fusion societies. In addition, some species are socially monogamous and polyandrous. Even closely related species may exhibit strikingly different social organizations, as the example of the squirrel monkeys demonstrates (Mitchell et al. 1991; Boinski et al. 2005b). New World monkey behavior varies within species as well as between them. While the behavior of many species is known from only one study site, intriguing patterns of intraspecific variation are beginning to emerge from observations of populations that sometimes live in close proximity. For example, spider monkeys are often described as showing sex- segregated ranging behavior. Several studies show that males range farther, travel faster, and use larger areas than females, who tend to restrict their habitual ranging to smaller core areas within a group’s large territory (Symington 1988; Chapman 1990; Shimooka 2005). In at least one well- studied population in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, however, males and females both travel over the entire community home range, and different females within the community show little evidence of occupying distinct core areas (Spehar et al. 2010). Similarly, in most well- studied populations of spider monkeys, females disperse and the resident males within a group are presumed to be close relatives—a suggestion corroborated by genetic data for one local population of spider monkeys in Yasuní. Still, in a different local population, males are not closely related to one another, an unexpected pattern if signifi cant male philopatry were common (Di Fiore 2009; Di Fiore et al. 2009). While the causes of this local variation in group genetic structure are not clear, it may be signifi cant that the groups examined likely had different histories of contact with humans. For longlived animals who occupy relatively small social groups, the loss of even a handful of individuals to hunting, or to any other demographic disturbance, can have a dramatic impact on a group’s genetic structure. Intragroup social relationships, in turn, are likely to be infl uenced by patterns of intragroup relatedness and by the relative availability of social partners of different age or sex class (chapter 21, this volume). Thus, historical and demographic contingencies are likely to create conditions where considerable local, intrapopulation variation in social systems exists. Slight changes in ecological conditions may also contribute to variation in the behavior of individuals living in a single population over time. For example, some authors have hypothesized that howler monkey populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations in size and composition in response to several ecological factors, including resource abundance, parasite and predation pressure, and climate (Milton 1982; Crockett & Eisenberg 1986; Crockett 1996; Milton 1996; Rudran & Fernandez- Duque 2003). This variability, not only among populations, but also within populations across time highlights the need for long- term studies. In sum, our understanding of the behavior of New World monkeys has increased dramatically over the past 25 years. This understanding highlights how their behavior varies within populations over time and among populations or species across space. As our knowledge of platyrrhine behavior continues to unfold and is enriched via additional long- term studies, a central challenge will be to explain how these variations arise. It will be important to entertain adaptive explanations while acknowledging that some differences may emerge via stochastic changes in demography (Struhsaker 2008) or nongenetic, relatively short- term, nonadaptive responses to sudden ecological change.
    • The behaviour of interest rate spreads prior to and after the financial crisis: evidence across OECD countries.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Cooray, Arusha; University of Piraeus; University of New South Wales (Wiley, 2018-03-09)
      This study investigates the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on interest rate spreads across OECD countries, using a number of panel methodological approaches, over the 1990–2015 period. We examine the differential impact of the global financial crisis on interest rate spreads by dividing the sample period into two, i.e. the period prior to and after the crisis. Having identified and estimated the impact of a number of drivers on interest rate spreads, the findings document that after the 2008 financial crisis, the sensitivity of spreads to its determinants turn out to be statistically significant and incorporate credit risk to a greater extent. The findings survive a number of robustness checks. The policy implications of the empirical findings are also discussed.
    • Behavioural competencies of sustainability leaders: An empirical investigation

      Knight, Beth; Paterson, Fred; University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Emerald, 2018-05-14)
      Purpose: Our world faces greater environmental, social and governance challenges than ever before and a growing number of organisations are establishing sustainability functions, strategies and plans in an effort to address these complex issues. However, limited research exists on the critical behavioural competencies required to maximise leadership impact on sustainability initiatives. With the stakes so high and the task so complex, this empirical study identifies key behavioural competencies of corporate sustainability leaders and sets out a model for assessing these behavioural competencies. Design: Based on a review of the empirical literature, the study sets out five competency groupings, which informed a hypothesis. This was tested quantitatively via a self-report tool that enabled a quantitative analysis of behavioural competencies. Contributions from 97 participants were triangulated with data collected from colleagues who rated the participants on the same set of competencies. Findings: Ten critical and ten prominent behaviours of Sustainability Leaders in five competency groupings were idenified. The analysis also explored how the business sector, location, years of experience and level of qualification impacted upon the sample Sustainability Leaders’ perceived effectiveness. Research limitiation/implications: The sample size means that the competency model derived from the findings should be seen as propositional and requiring further validation. Impact measures would add considerable robustness to the findings. Practical implications: The research offers a means to better focus and tailor leadership development experiences and as a tool for the recruitment of Sustainability Leaders. Originality/value: The study is based on a robust quantitative approach, and the behavioural competency model developed as a result provides a tool for Sustainability Leaders to map current behaviours and monitor their progress over time. Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; sustainability; leadership; behavioural competency; leadership development Paper type: Research paper
    • Behavioural factors on the adoption of sustainable supply chain practices

      Kumar, Anil; Moktadir, Md. Abdul; Rehman Khan, Syed Abdul; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tyagi, Mrinal; Kazançoğlu, Yiğit; University of Derby; University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, India; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-02-05)
      Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has become a popular research topic among scholars as evidence suggests it has significantly contributed to achieve more environmentally conscious and socially responsible supply chains. Operational excellence (OE), on the other hand, can be achieved by incorporating SSCM practices within existing supply chain operations. However, due to human expertise, involvement and commitment towards excelling at sustainable and operational performance, the effective deployment of SSCM practices now depends on various humanbased behavioural factors (BFs). Human behaviour is dynamic in nature and hence has an effect on the implementation of SSCM practices. Nevertheless, research on BFs in view of SSCM practices is limited. To fill this knowledge gap, this study examines the nature of BFs for SSCM practices towards OE in supply chains, particularly within the context of the footwear industry of Bangladesh. In the first phase, the BFs were identified and determined through a literature review and empirical investigation. In the second phase, the Hesitant Fuzzy DEMATEL method was used to establish the cause-effect relationships among the factors. The influence of group validation by experts and a literature survey, along with managerial implications, was discussed and explained in the third phase of the study. The results suggest that the factor, 'organisation culture' is the most influencing behavioural factor, followed by 'commitment from higher authority'. Both theoretical and practical contributions of the study are drawn from its findings, helping footwear industry managers to more effectively adopt SSCM practices in the supply chain operations of their organisations to achieve OE.
    • Belief–logic conflict resolution in syllogistic reasoning: Inspection-time evidence for a parallel-process model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2008-04-29)
      An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking inspection-time result was an interaction between logic and belief on premise-processing times, whereby belief – logic conflict problems promoted increased latencies relative to non-conflict problems. This finding challenges belief-first and reasoning-first models, but is directly predicted by parallel-process models, which assume that the outputs of simultaneous heuristic and analytic processing streams lead to an awareness of belief – logic conflicts than then require time-consuming resolution.
    • Benchmarking of cleaner production in sand mould casting companies

      Guilherme da Silva, H; Espíndola Ferreira, J.C; Vikas, K; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil; University of the West of England; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-04-29)
      The purpose of this research was to develop new sustainability indicators consistent with the sand mould casting industry, through Benchmarking of Cleaner Production (CP), in order to identify the levels of practice and performance of companies of the casting sector. In addition, a lean manufacturing checklist was specified in order to verify the presence of lean manufacturing techniques employed to eliminate waste towards CP. No previous work was found in the literature that attempts to assess practices and performance of companies performing sand mould casting (a significantly polluting manufacturing process) in the context of cleaner production and lean manufacturing. For the application of this benchmarking, nine companies from the sand mould casting sector were studied, where the profile of each company was analysed through 8 variables and 47 indicators. Data were obtained through face-to-face visits and questionnaire application in the companies, and the data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results obtained were the diagnosis of companies' practices and performance resulting from their position in the benchmarking charts, as well as the identification of the areas in which companies should implement improvements aiming at achieving CP. This research was developed specifically for sand mould casting companies, and each process has its own characteristics. 14 companies that perform sand mould casting were invited to participate in this survey, but unfortunately five companies declined to participate. It is important to diagnose casting companies regarding cleaner production practices, performance and deployment potential. Thus, important negative issues in the company can be identified and, with this information, they can develop actions focused on cases that need more attention. In addition, this work contributes to evaluate the relationship and efficiency of improvement actions developed by companies in the context of both lean manufacturing and cleaner production, aiming to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact. The improvement of practices and performance of a company regarding cleaner production is considered to be beneficial to supply chain management in the context of sustainability, as the other participating companies are likely to seek ways to reduce environmental impact, and the diagnostics provided by this work may also be used by those companies.
    • Beneficial long-term antidiabetic actions of N- and C-terminally modified analogues of apelin-13 in diet-induced obese diabetic mice

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R.; O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; University of Ulster; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK (Wiley, 2017-07-20)
      To investigate the chronic effects of twice-daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and pyroglutamyl (pGlu) apelin-13 amide, on metabolic variables in glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. Groups of mice received twice-daily (9 am and 5 pm) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg). Energy intake, body weight, non-fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, metabolic response to feeding and insulin sensitivity, together with pancreatic hormone content and biochemical variables such as lipids and total GLP-1 were monitored. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and indirect calorimetry were also performed. Administration of apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4 significantly decreased body weight, food intake and blood glucose and increased plasma insulin compared with high-fat-fed saline-treated controls (P < .05 and P < .001), Additionally, all peptide-treated groups exhibited improved glucose tolerance (oral and intraperitoneal), metabolic responses to feeding and associated insulin secretion. (pGlu)apelin-13 amide also significantly improved glycated haemoglobin and insulin sensitivity after 28 days. Both (pGlu)apelin-13 amide and exendin-4 increased bone mineral content and decreased respiratory exchange ratio, whereas only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide increased energy expenditure. All treatment groups displayed reduced circulating triglycerides and increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations, although only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide significantly reduced LDL cholesterol and total body fat, and increased pancreatic insulin content. These data indicate the therapeutic potential of stable apelin-13 analogues, with effects equivalent to or better than those of exendin-4.
    • Beneficial long-term antidiabetic actions of N- and C-terminally modified analogues of apelin-13 in diet-induced obese diabetic mice.

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R.; O'Harte, Finbarr P. M. (Wiley, 2017-07-20)
      AimsThis study investigated the chronic effects of twice daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide, on metabolic parameters in glucose intolerant and insulin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days.Study Design & MethodsGroups of mice received twice daily (09:00 and 17:00 h) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1–39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg). Energy intake, body weight, non-fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, metabolic response to feeding and insulin sensitivity together with pancreatic hormone content and biochemical parameters such as lipids and total GLP-1 were monitored. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) analysis and indirect calorimetry were also performed.ResultsAdministration of apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4 significantly decreased bodyweight, food intake, blood glucose and increased plasma insulin compared with high-fat fed saline treated controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001), Additionally, all peptide treated groups exhibited improved glucose tolerance (oral and ip), metabolic responses to feeding and associated insulin secretion. (pGlu)apelin-13 amide also significantly improved HbA1c and insulin sensitivity after 28 days. Both (pGlu)apelin-13 amide and exendin-4 increased bone mineral content and decreased respiratory exchange ratio (RER), whereas only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide increased energy expenditure. All treatment groups displayed reduced circulating triglycerides and increased GLP-1 concentrations, although only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol, total body fat, and increased pancreatic insulin content.ConclusionThese data indicate the therapeutic potential of stable apelin-13 analogues with effects equivalent to or better than exendin-4.