• A cyclin-binding motif in human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E1^E4 is necessary for association with CDK–cyclin complexes and G2/M cell cycle arrest of keratinocytes, but is not required for differentiation-dependent viral genome amplification or L1 capsid protein expression

      Knight, Gillian L.; Pugh, Alice G.; Yates, Emma; Bell, Ian; Wilson, Regina; Moody, Cary A.; Laimins, Laimonis A.; Roberts, Sally (2013-03-20)
      The G2/M arrest function of human papillomavirus (HPV) E4 proteins is hypothesized to be necessary for viral genome amplification. Full-length HPV18 E1^E4 protein is essential for efficient viral genome amplification. Here we identify key determinants within a CDK-bipartite consensus recognition motif in HPV18 E1^E4 that are critical for association with active CDK–cyclin complexes and in vitro phosphorylation at the predicted CDK phosphorylation site (threonine 23). The optimal cyclin-binding sequence (43RRLL46) within this E4 motif is required for G2/M arrest of primary keratinocytes and correlates with cytoplasmic retention of cyclin B1, but not cyclin A. Disruption of this motif in the E4 ORF of HPV18 genomes, and the subsequent generation of stable cell lines in primary keratinocytes revealed that this motif was not essential for viral genome amplification or L1 capsid protein induction. We conclude that the HPV18 E4 G2/M arrest function does not play a role in early vegetative events.
    • A Guide to instrumentalism: Initial teacher education in the lifelong learning sector

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (01/01/2011)
      This paper provides a critique of the competence based approach to teacher education in the Learning and Skills Sector. This critique is made at a time of consultation of proposed developments to the current standards, which are due for implementation from 2012 and which will involve only minor changes. The existing, Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) standards were introduced in September 2006 following withdrawal of the old FENTO standards (FENTO, 1999) which had been subject to criticism that they did not meet the needs of trainee teachers and did not adequately reflect the developmental nature of Initial Teacher Education (ITE). The revised standards were intended to reflect this developmental process, and to contribute raising standards and the professionalisationof the sector (DfES/Standards Unit 2004); however, even before their introduction concerns were raised about over-regulation (Lucas, 2004:49). Despite a significant level of investment in the new standards, what eventually emerged has been subject to even greater criticism than the FENTO standards (e.g. see Lucas, 2007; Finlay et al 2007; Gleeson and James, 2007 and Simmons and Thompson 2007). Key features in this criticism have been the narrow concept of learning and skills, and the lack of recognition of both the wider dimensions of professional practice and the importance of knowledge. Contextualised within this literature, this paper argues that the detailed and prescriptive competency based structure of contemporary teacher training in the FE sector, together with wider regulation such as Ofsted and LLUK endorsement requirements, is productive of teachers who are instrumental and conformist but who lack the knowledge to engage with the concerns for social justice which are fundamental to working in the FE sector. In turn, these teachers deliver an instrumental and competency based vocational curriculum which, the paper argues, is complicit with other systems and structures in education in the reproduction of labour and of social class. The paper also draws on literature addressing issues around assessment (Ecclestone, 2010) and professionalism (e.g. Gleeson and James, 2007; Bathmaker, 2006) as well as class based critiques of the FE system which draw on work by, amongst others, Avis, (2007), Atkins (2009) and Colley (2006). The arguments in this paper are also supported by a deconstruction of the current standards. This deconstruction has been used to identify what is and is not supported or promoted by the standards in the context of education and wider notions of professionalism and to problematise them in the context of contemporary literature.
    • A micro investigation into electro discharge machining industrial applications processing parameters and product surface profile using Piezoelectric ultrasonic feed drive

      Shafik, Mahmoud; Abdalla, H. S.; Wilmshurst, Tim; University of Derby; University of East London (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011-08)
    • A novel chemically modified analogue of xenin-25 exhibits improved glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing properties.

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Irwin, Nigel; Hasib, Annie; Martin, Christine M.; McClean, Stephen; Bhat, Vikas K.; NG, Ming T.; Flatt, Peter R.; Gault, Victor A. (Elsevier, 2016-01-21)
      BACKGROUND: Xenin-25 is a K-cell derived gut peptide with insulin-releasing activity which is rapidly degraded following release into the circulation. We hypothesized that substitution of all naturally-occurring Lys and Arg residues with Gln would lead to prolonged enzyme resistance and enhanced biological efficacy.METHODS: Peptide stability was assessed using murine plasma, in vitro insulin-releasing actions evaluated in BRIN-BD11 cells and acute glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing actions examined in high fat fed mice. For sub-chronic studies, a range of metabolic parameters and pancreatic histology were assessed in high fat fed mice which had received saline vehicle or xenin-25(gln) twice-daily for 21days.RESULTS: In contrast to native xenin-25, xenin-25(gln) was resistant to plasma-mediated degradation and significantly stimulated insulin secretion in BRIN-BD11 cells. Acute administration of xenin-25(gln) in high fat fed mice significantly reduced blood glucose and increased plasma insulin concentrations. Twice-daily administration of xenin-25(gln) in high fat fed mice did not affect food intake, body weight or circulating insulin concentrations but significantly decreased blood glucose from day 9 onwards. Furthermore, glucose tolerance, glucose-mediated insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and GIP-stimulated insulin-release were significantly enhanced in xenin-25(gln)-treated mice. Pancreatic immunohistochemistry revealed decreased alpha cell area with increased beta cell area and beta-to-alpha cell ratio in xenin-25(gln)-treated mice. In addition, xenin-25(gln) exerted similar beneficial actions in ob/ob mice as demonstrated by reduced blood glucose, superior glycaemic response and glucose-mediated insulin release.CONCLUSIONS: Xenin-25(gln) is resistant to plasma-mediated degradation and exerts sustained and beneficial metabolic actions in high fat fed and ob/ob mice.GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Glutamine (gln)-modified analogues of xenin may represent an attractive therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.
    • A systematic review of electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in people with spinal cord injuries.

      Liu, Liang Q.; Moody, Julie; Dyson, Sue E.; Traynor, Michael; Gall, Angela (Maney Publishing, 2014-06-26)
      Context: Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer benefit to pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in spinal cord injuries (SCI). However, clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. Objectives: To critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on ES for PU prevention and treatment in SCI. Method: Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included, 9/27 studies were RCTs. Six RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all eleven therapeutic studies. Two types of ES modalities were identified in therapeutic studies (surface electrodes, anal probe), 4 types of modalities in preventive studies (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular electrical stimulation implant). Conclusion: The methodological quality of the studies was poor, in particular for prevention studies. A significant effect of ES on enhancement of PU healing is shown in limited Grade I evidence. The great variability in ES parameters, stimulating locations and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard approach for PU therapy or prevention. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters and conduct more rigorous trials.
    • A systematic review of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer care in spinal cord injuries.

      Liu, Liang Q.; Moody, Julie; Dyson, Sue E.; Traynor, Michael; Gall, Angela (2014-09-02)
      Introduction and Aim Pressure ulcer (PU) is one of the most common secondary complications following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer the benefit to pressure ulcer care in SCI. However, to date, the clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. This systematic review was therefore conducted to identify the updated evidence, and to pinpoint the scope of the feasibility of future studies implementing electrical stimulation for PU management in SCI. The overall aim of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on neuromuscular ES for the prevention and treatment of PU in spinal cord injuries. Material and Method Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to 2013. A Free-text and keyword/MESH terms search of five databases (Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.), in addition to manual searches of other resources and retrieved articles was undertaken on 18th July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control studies and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of neuromuscular ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring the effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-seven studies were included in this review, 9/27 studies were RCTs. Six of RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all therapeutic studies. The evidence of long-term benefit of ES for pressure ulcer prevention is uncertain. Five types of ES modalities (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular electrical stimulation implant and anal probe) were identified in this review. Conclusion The great variability in the parameters and locations of ES application and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard therapeutic approach for PU therapy or prevention. The methodological quality of the studies was generally poor, in particular for those prevention studies. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters and conduct more rigorous trials.
    • Ability to receive compassion from others buffers the depressogenic effect of self-criticism: A cross-cultural multi-study analysis

      Hermanto, Nicola; Zuroff, David C.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Kelly, Allison C.; Matos, Marcela; Gilbert, Paul; Koestner, Richard; McGill University; University of Waterloo; University of Coimbra; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-04-29)
      Self-criticism has been shown to be a vulnerability factor that can lead to and maintain depression. We examined the moderating effect of fear of receiving compassion from others on the positive association between self-criticism and depression. Self-report measures were administered to four separate samples (total N = 701) varying in age (students and community adults) and cultural context (Canada, England, and Portugal). Two different measures of self-criticism and of depression were administered to investigate the generalizability of results. Self-criticism, depression, and fear of compassion from others were positively related to one another in all samples. As predicted, fear of compassion from others exerted a moderating effect on the relationship between self-criticism and depression. Low fear of compassion from others weakened the depressogenic effect of self-criticism, while high fear of compassion from others exacerbated the effect. Thus, a self-critic's ability to be open and responsive to care and support from others protected against depression. The aggregate moderating effect across the four studies was of medium size (d + = .53) and highly significant, indicating a robust phenomenon. Implications for working with self-critical depressed patients are discussed.
    • Academic freedom and the diminished subject

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2009)
    • The academics vs the bureaucracy

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (spiked Ltd., 2016-09-21)
      Why the Stern Review of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) could mean the end of the university as we know it.
    • Academics’ understandings of the authorial academic writer: a qualitative analysis of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-22)
      Research on authorial identity has focused almost exclusively on the attitudes and beliefs of students. This paper explores how academics understand authorial identity in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 professional academics and analysed using thematic analysis, identifying themes at two levels. At the semantic level was a main theme called ‘the authorial writer’, with five subthemes: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’, ‘ownership and attachment’, ‘authorial thinking’, and ‘authorial goals’. At the latent level were two integrative themes: ‘tacit learning’ and ‘negotiating identities’. The semantic subthemes represent attributes that could be targets for pedagogic interventions. The integrative themes suggest processes in the development of authorial identity, which can inform more effective teaching. By identifying attributes and processes associated with authorial identity, these findings help towards a psychological understanding of authorial identity, informing development of more effective pedagogy to help students improve their academic writing and avoid plagiarism.
    • The acceptability of iterative reconstruction algorithms in head CT: An assessment of sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) vs. filtered back projection (FBP) using phantoms

      Harris, Matine; Huckle, John; Anthiny, Denis; Charnock, Paul; University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2017-05-31)
      Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging investigation for many neurologic conditions with a proportion of patients incurring cumulative doses. Iterative reconstruction (IR) allows dose optimization, but head CT presents unique image quality complexities and may lead to strong reader preferences. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the relationships between image quality metrics, image texture, and applied radiation dose within the context of IR head CT protocol optimization in the simulated patient setting. A secondary objective was to determine the influence of optimized protocols on diagnostic confidence using a custom phantom. METHODS AND SETTING: A three-phase phantom study was performed to characterize reconstruction methods at the local reference standard and a range of exposures. CT numbers and pixel noise were quantified supplemented by noise uniformity, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), high- and low-contrast resolution. Reviewers scored optimized protocol images based on established reporting criteria. RESULTS: Increasing strengths of IR resulted in lower pixel noise, lower noise variance, and increased CNR. At the reference standard, the image noise was reduced by 1.5 standard deviation and CNR increased by 2.0. Image quality was maintained at </=24% relative dose reduction. With the exception of image sharpness, there were no significant differences between grading for IR and filtered back projection reconstructions. CONCLUSIONS: IR has the potential to influence pixel noise, CNR, and noise variance (image texture); however, systematically optimized IR protocols can maintain the image quality of filtered back projection. This work has guided local application and acceptance of lower dose head CT protocols.
    • The accordian and the deep bowl of spaghetti: Eight researchers' experiences of using IPA as a methodology

      Wagstaff, Chris; Jeong, Hyeseung; Nolan, Maeve; Wilson, Tony; Tweedlie, Julie; Phillips, Elly; Senu, Halia; Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby (2014-06-16)
      Since 1996 Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has grown rapidly and been applied in areas outside its initial “home” of health psychology. However, explorations of its application from a researcher's perspective are scarce. This paper provides reflections on the experiences of eight individual researchers using IPA in diverse disciplinary fields and cultures. The research studies were conducted in the USA, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the UK by researchers with backgrounds in business management, consumer behaviour, mental health nursing, nurse education, applied linguistics, clinical psychology, health and education. They variously explored media awareness, employee commitment, disengagement from mental health services, in-vitro fertilisation treatment, student nurses' experience of child protection, second language acquisition in a university context, the male experience of spinal cord injury and academics experience of working in higher education and women’s experiences of body size and health practices. By bringing together intercultural, interdisciplinary experiences of using IPA, the paper discusses perceived strengths and weaknesses of IPA.
    • Accounting information and excess stock returns: the role of the cost of capital – new evidence from US firm-level data

      Apergis, Nicholas; Artikis, George; Eleftheriou, Sofia; Sorros, John; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus (Taylor & Francis, 2011-10-20)
      The goal of this article is to investigate the impact of accounting information on the cost of capital as well as how the latter influences excess returns. The analysis has certain novelties: first, it extends prior works by investigating how certain components of accounting information affect stock returns through its direct effect on the cost of capital by incorporating influential components of accounting information; second, it makes use of a sample of 330 US manufacturing firms spanning the period 1990Q1 to 2009Q2, while it makes use, for the first time in this literature, of the methodology of panel cointegration. The empirical findings display that accounting information affects directly the firm's cost of capital. This, in turn, tends to exert a negative effect on the firm's excess stock returns, an empirical documentation not captured in case researchers attempt to directly link the cost of capital and excess stock returns.
    • Accounting standards convergence dynamics: International evidence from club convergence and clustering

      Apergis, Nicholas; Christou, Christina; Hassapis, Christis; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Cyprus (Emerald, 2014-10-28)
      This paper aims to explore convergence of accounting standards across worldwide adopted measures to investigate whether countries that have not completely adopted International Accounting Standards across the globe have displayed a tendency to act so. The new panel convergence methodology, developed by Phillips and Sul (2007), is employed. The empirical findings suggest that countries form distinct convergent clubs, albeit on a limited prevalence, yielding support to the notion that on a global basis firms and countries have initiated processes that will eventually lead them to a uniform pattern of employing common accounting standards.
    • Acromegaly, Mr Punch and caricature.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (1996-09)
      The origin of Mr Punch from the Italian Pulcinella of the Commedia dell'arte is well known but his feature, large hooked nose, protruding chin, kyphosis and sternal protrusion all in an exaggerated form also suggest the caricature of an acromegalic. This paper looks at the physical characteristics of acromegaly, the origin of Mr Punch and the development of caricature linking them together in the acromegalic caricature that now has a life of its own.
    • Across the decades (60 years).

      Basi, Philip Ranjit; University Of Derby (2016-08)
      2015 was the 60th year that the Derby West Indian Community Association (DWICA) has been delivering services to the Black and Culturally Diverse Community. DWICA acknowledged that the “DIAMOND” anniversary this was a milestone that should be celebrated. Through a funding application process DWICA successfully secured project financial resources from Heritage Lottery Fund to deliver a project called “Across the Decades” which showcased the achievements made by DWICA over the past sixty (60) years. This project was the foundation for the organisation to collated and document it’s’ legacy detailing the contributions made by the pioneering African Caribbean community coming to the city Derby, in the main from the Caribbean. In addition document the following (2nd & 3rd) generation’s contribution towards community development in Derby.
    • Acting alone

      Hunt, Ava; Branson, Tilly; University of Derby (2016)
      Acting Alone was written and performed by Ava Hunt with dramaturgy and direction by Tilly Branson. This creative and artistic research used autobiographical solo performance explored social/political engagement through the creation and structure of the performer/audience relationship. The piece used autobiographical, verbatim and documentary theatre approaches demonstrating the complexities of being an artist making applied theatre. The piece enquired into the risks of taking direct action or experiencing the fear and humiliation of inaction. Retelling Hunt’s experience in a refugee camp watching a piece of Playback Theatre performed by Palestinian theatre company – The Freedom Theatre, this witnessed event was returned to throughout against other intertwining narratives: presenting historical/heroic characters (Irena Sendler and Rachel Corrie) who took direct action, together with verbatim accounts of people that Hunt met in Israel and Palestine e.g. an outspoken UN Lawyer, a young Israeli soldier from Birmingham. The piece also contains four simple folk tales that are told to help to illustrate the historical and political complexities of the Israeli/Palestinian conflict in an accessible form. Primarily, the piece explores human rights issues from a by-stander/international perspective by weaving participation throughout into a performance provocation, a space in which the audience were invited to cross the dramaturgical divide and engage in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict posing the question - can one person make a difference? Originally commissioned by Amnesty International Wirksworth, this applied theatre practice: Acting Alone toured throughout the UK and internationally performing to a thousand people in different communities, countries and contexts including the Edinburgh Fringe Festival as part of the Just Festival at St Johns Church, where it received critical reviews including: Five Stars from TV Bomb 2016: “Acting Alone .. ingeniously goes against audiences’ expectations regarding both the theatre art-form itself and the handling of the overly yet ineffectively debated topic of the sufferings of Palestinians.” Audiences engaged positively in the discourse created by this artistic research although for some the Israeli/Palestinian conflict is highly controversial and accusations of the piece being unbalanced were received, and the authenticity of the material questioned. Branson and Hunt responded to audience feedback where appropriate recognising that autobiographical and verbatim theatre offers alternative narratives offering audiences insight into Palestinian people’s experiences that are not widely reported. However, when critical reviews such as British Theatre Guide 2016 - Keith Mckenna said “….a thoughtful play given an engaging performance by Ava Hunt…..Theatre can help ensure that those suffering injustice are not isolated. The solidarity of those inside Palestine and those beyond make sure that those wanting change are not acting alone.” The tour enabled valuable primary data to be collected to support the research question creating discourse for audiences to enquire into the by-stander role as part of an international community.
    • Acting alone

      Hunt, Ava; Branson, Tilly; Scott, Ivan; University of Derby (2016)
      Acting Alone is a practice-as-research solo performance (ACE funded; Amnesty International Derbyshire commission) which toured nationally/ internationally during (2014-2016). An autobiographical provocation inspired by the Israeli/Palestinian conflict based on Hunt’s experience of witnessing Playback theatre in the West Bank. The performance presented this human rights conflict to international audiences asking - can one person make a difference? Historical characters, who acted heroically, against the unheroic acts of Hunt in Palestine where woven throughout. This immersive piece created a strong performer/audience relationship which created powerful moments, during the performance, of audience participation e.g. joining in, helping, with small tasks contributing to the storytelling, leading to the final transformative moment when the audience would be invited to complete the show by crossing the dramaturgical divide. Acting Alone performed to multi-faith communities, studio theatres, non-theatre venues, schools, and at the Just Festival Edinburgh Fringe (receiving 5 star reviews) . The artistic and creative design of Acting Alone was inspired by Boal’s Forum Theatre, where audiences, as Spect-actors, are invited to rehearse a revolutionary act challenging their oppression, however, Acting Alone explored the role of the by-stander or the tritagonist. The tritagonist position is neither protagonist nor antagonist but opens up the third role exploring the agency of the international community. Performances and papers were presented and performed at academic conferences in UK, Ireland, New Zealand, USA and Sweden where Dr Rand (Massey University New Zealand) presented a paper to the IFTR conference inspired by the production entitled: Re-Enacting Palestine and the Performance of Credibility. Detailed responses from audiences (over one thousand) demonstrated discourse, political activism as well as controversial commentary including accusations of falsification and anti-Semitism. Enquiry into the by-stander or tritagonist role through audience/performer immersion, highlighted this new area of knowledge and practice which will be developed in Hunt’s forthcoming PhD.
    • Acting Alone - Can one person make a difference?

      Hunt, Ava; Tilly Branson; Ivan Stott; University of Derby; Andy Purves (2015-11)
      Acting Alone is artistic research using solo performance, autobiographical, verbatim and documentary theatricals. Exploring the Israeli/Palestinian conflict through interwoven stories, the piece asks questions of the audience: Can one person actually make a difference? In 2014 Amnesty International (Derbyshire) commissioned Ava Hunt to create a provocation in response to the renewed confliction and humanitarian crises in Gaza. In its exploration of the complex situation faced by those living in Palestine, Acting Alone challenged the theatrical conventions most often experienced by audiences. Using immersive and participatory invitations, the piece encouraged the audience to interact and to cross the dramaturgical divide creating an ending where no-one, including the performer, knows the resolution. This artistic research builds on Hunt’s enquiry and work with artists and educators working in the West Bank, where she worked with children at the Aida Refugee Camp with Dr. Abedelfattah Absourer whose belief and commitment in the use of the arts in the community is to inspire ‘the beautiful resistance’. The performance offered a creative response to this ongoing war, oppression and abuse of human rights opening up a discourse of what is our responsibility and what action is possible from an international community perspective – a performative of hope.