• A step to clean energy - Sustainability in energy system management in an emerging economy context

      Mangla, Sachin; Luthra, Sunil; Jakhar, Suresh; Gandhi, Sumeet; Muduli, Kamalakanta; Kumar, Anil; Plymouth Business School (PBS), University of Plymouth, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, United Kingdom; Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Institute of Engineering & Technology (Also Known As Government Engineering College), Nilokheri, 132117, Haryana, India; Operations Management Group, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India; Kirloskar Pneumatic Company Ltd, Pune, Maharashtra, 411013, India; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-09-23)
      Due to high consumption of energy, its associated concerns such as energy security and demand, wastage of resources, and material-energy recovery are leading to the importance of sustainable energy system development. This is a high time to assess the sustainability in energy systems for meeting the requirements of energy with an enhanced economic, ecological, and social performance from a nation context. The energy system plays a significant role in deciding the economic progress of emerging economies such as India, China, Brazil, and Africa. In this paper, an original attempt has been made to list and evaluate important indicators for sustainability assessment of energy systems development and management in an emerging economy especially India. Firstly, based on the analysis of the extant literature and then followed by expert opinion, potential key sustainability assessment indicators for energy systems development and management were identified. Further, grey based Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique to understand the causal interactions amongst indicators and segregate them into cause and effect groups, is used. This work can provide useful aids to decision making bodies, sustainability practitioners and business organisations in selective implementation, monitoring and control of sustainable strategies in energy systems development and management and meeting sustainable development goals of clean energy in a nation context.
    • Icarus, grannies, black holes and the death of privacy: exploring the use of digital networks for career enactment

      Staunton, Tom; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-11-28)
      New perspectives on how digital networks can be understood as an environment for career enactment are explored in this article, in particular, through using critical perspectives on technology, especially in the context of prevailing instrumental perspectives in the majority of the career development literature. Thus, the narratives of people using digital networks for their careers were explored using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The results are captured in three main themes or critical discourses: the speed and scale of digital environments, game-like features of social media interactions and a divide between offline and online worlds. These are presented as sites for critical investigation and are aligned with technological and socio-cultural critical theories.
    • "We've been exploring and adventuring." A investigation into young people's engagement with a semi wild, disused space

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby (APA, 2019-10-24)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with an intervention run by Feral Spaces which was designed to promote a meaningful connection to a disused space. Over the course of three sessions, each lasting two hours, seven young people aged between 11 and 12 years old took part in a range of den building activities in a semi-wild area which was local to them. The sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and an inductive thematic analysis informed by a realist framework was used to analyse the naturalistic data collected. The analysis presents four themes - engaging with the environment, developing a sense of awe and wonder, respect and attachment to the space and a sense of belonging which map out the young people’s growing connection to nature evidenced during the intervention. Within each of these themes the young people’s experiences are discussed in relation to theory of biophilia and the pathways to nature model in order to evaluate their relevance for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand children’s connection with nature and promote it. Furthermore, the positive relationships and emotions experienced during the intervention are explored. It is argued that the community-based intervention developed the young people’s understandings of the natural world and their confidence to engage with it in a personally meaningful way. This had positive implications in terms of supporting the young people’s wellbeing.
    • Which behavioural and exercise interventions targeting fatigue show the most promise in multiple sclerosis? A systematic review with narrative synthesis and meta-analysis

      Harrison, Dr Anthony M.; Safari, Dr Reza; Norton, Dr Sam; Marietta L van der Linden, Dr; Picariello, Dr Federica; Thomas, Dr Sarah; White, Dr Claire; Mercer, Tom; Moss-Morris, Rona; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-08-28)
      Fatigue is a common and highly debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). This meta-analytic systematic review with detailed narrative synthesis examined randomised-controlled (RCTs) and controlled trials of behavioural and exercise interventions targeting fatigue in adults with MS to assess which treatments offer the most promise in reducing fatigue severity/impact. Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases, amongst others, were searched through to August 2018. Thirty-four trials (12 exercise, 16 behavioural and 6 combined; n = 2,434 participants) met inclusion criteria. Data from 31 studies (n = 1,991 participants) contributed to the meta-analysis. Risk of bias (using the Cochrane tool) and study quality (GRADE) were assessed. The pooled (SMD) end-of-treatment effects on self-reported fatigue were: exercise interventions (n = 13) -.84 (95% CI -1.20 to -.47); behavioural interventions (n = 16) -.37 (95% CI -.53 to -.22); combined interventions (n = 5) -.16 (95% CI: -.36 to .04). Heterogeneity was high overall. Study quality was very low for exercise interventions and moderate for behavioural and combined interventions. Considering health care professional time, subgroup results suggest web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for fatigue, balance and/or multicomponent exercise interventions may be the cost-efficient therapies. These need testing in large RCTs with long-term follow-up to help define an implementable fatigue management pathway in MS.
    • Nudge theory: should career development practitioners have a position?

      Moore, Nicki; University of Derby (Career Development Institute, 2019-06-01)
      This article considers the ethical issues of applying nudge theory in the career development sector.
    • Understanding the use of digital technology in the career development sector

      Moore, Nicki; Czerwinska, Karolina; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-12-04)
      This research, funded jointly by the UK’s Career Development Institute and the University of Derby, has been conducted at a time of rapid change in the availability and use of digital technologies. A recommendation to develop digital skills to harness technology is not new and was first suggested by The Careers Profession Task Force (2010). This research aims to determine what progress has been made over the last nine years since the recommendation was made and seeks to determine: • How practitioners and managers use digital technology to deliver career development services • The potential for digital technology to deliver career development services; and • The training needs of career development practitioners so that they can use digital technology to deliver services, innovate solutions and solve problems in service delivery. The knowledge developed through this research will be used to develop professional support and training activities and services to organisations and individual career development practitioners. It will also be used by policy makers in the UK and beyond, who are tasked with the development of modern, cost-effective and client appropriate career development services.
    • Elemental ratios link environmental change and human health

      Paseka, Rachel E.; Bratt, Anika R.; MacNeill, Keeley L.; Burian, Alfred; See, Craig R.; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2019-10-10)
      Humans have fundamentally altered the cycling of multiple elements on a global scale. These changes impact the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with many implications for human health. Most prior studies linking biogeochemical changes to human health have evaluated the effects of single elements in isolation. However, the relative availability of multiple elements often determines the biological impact of shifts in the concentration of a single element. The balance of multiple elements is the focus of ecological stoichiometry, which highlights the importance of elemental ratios in biological function across all systems and scales of organization. Consequently, ecological stoichiometry is a promising framework to inform research on the links between global changes to elemental cycles and human health. We synthesize evidence that elemental ratios link global change with human health through biological processes occurring at two scales: in the environment (natural ecosystems and food systems) and within the human body. Elemental ratios in the environment impact the key ecosystem processes of productivity and biodiversity, both of which contribute to the production of food, toxins, allergens, and parasites. Elemental ratios in diet impact processes within the human body, including the function and interactions of the immune system, parasites, and the non-pathogenic microbiome. Collectively, these stoichiometric effects contribute to a wide range of non-infectious and infectious diseases. By describing stoichiometric mechanisms linking global change, ecological processes, and human health, we hope to inspire future empirical and theoretical research on this theme.
    • A community-based evaluation of population growth and agro-pastoralist resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands

      Karaya, Rebecca; Wernersson, Julia E.V.; Egberth, Mikael; Lokorwa, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gert; Alfred, Burian; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-12-14)
      Human population growth is considered together with climate warming as major driver of change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research on the implications of increased population densities often utilises community knowledge but without incorporating the view of local stakeholders. In this study, we applied a community-centred approach to assess direct and indirect consequences of population growth in drylands of north-western Kenya. Combined social, agricultural and geo-spatial analyses allowed us to identify major system transitions, determine their linkage to population growth and deduce consequences for local livelihoods and community resilience.Community-members reported positive and negative consequences of fourfold population growth since 1974 but evaluated its overall effect as clearly beneficial. This overall positive effect was based on both, positive developments and the successful mitigation of potential system stressors. First, food security was maintained despite high growth rates because a shift from migratory pastoralism to a more labour-intensive agro-pastoralist system helped to increase agricultural productivity. Additionally, land-use changes were linked to land privatisation and improved erosion protection on private land, decoupling population growth from environmental degradation.We detected, however also early warning signs of reduced community resilience as households were unable to fully recover livestock densities after catastrophic events. A population-growth driven reduction in household land-sizes and the decreased monetary value of agricultural production were identified as drivers of this development. The extrapolation of our results to establish a general relationship between population densities, land-use and household resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands suggest that further system transformations will be required to ensure regional food-security.
    • Nutrient deficiencies and the restriction of compensatory mechanisms in copepods

      Burian, Alfred; Grosse, Julia; Winder, Monika; Boschker, Henricus T.S.; Stockholm University; Utrecht University (British Ecological Society, 2017-11-14)
      The flexible regulation of feeding behaviour and nutrient metabolism is a prerequisite for consumers to grow and survive under variable food conditions. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological trade-offs that restrict regulatory mechanisms in consumers to evaluate the consequences of nutrient limitations for trophic interactions. Here, we assessed behavioural and physiological adjustments to nutrient deficiencies in copepods and examined whether energy limitation, food digestibility or co-limitation with a second nutrient restricted compensatory mechanisms. A combination of C-13-labelling and compound-specific stable isotope measurements revealed that copepods compensated nitrogen deficiencies by raising retention efficiencies of amino acids (AA). The costs of higher retention efficiencies were reflected in the doubling of structural fatty acids (FA), probably required for morphological adaptations of the gut. A depletion of highly unsaturated FA in storage lipids and their selective retention suggested that these FA became co-limiting and restricted a further increase in AA retention efficiencies. Copepods feeding on phosphorus-limited algae showed a marked increase in ingestion rates but were not fully able to compensate dietary deficiencies. The increase in ingestion rates was thereby not restricted by higher foraging costs because energy storage in copepods increased. Instead, thicker cell walls of nutrient-limited algae indicated that algal digestion resistance restricted the extent of surplus feeding. The strongly nutrient-specific response of copepods had large implications for recycling rates, growth efficiencies and the potential top-down control at the plant-animal interface. Compensatory mechanisms to mitigate nutrient deficiencies are therefore an essential aspect of trophic interactions and have the potential to alter the structure of food web.
    • Use of environmental management systems to mitigate urban pollution

      Horry, Rosemary; University of Derby; University of West of England (Wiley, 2018-10-16)
      An environmental management system (EMS) is an instrument that can help organizations to manage and positively improve their level of impact on the environment. This chapter provides an overview of the importance for organizations to have an established EMS in place. It employs a series of infamous case studies to highlight where an EMS could have served as a useful means of mitigating pollution events. The chapter identifies a number of organizational benefits of implementing an EMS. All businesses face a challenge in terms of their environmental impacts; environmental work is not just a concern for multinational organizations, which is sometimes how it is viewed. The chapter describes some of the well known pollution incidents and how they were managed. Some of these impacts were mitigated through the use of legislation.
    • Nurses' knowledge and practice of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: an observational study

      Saleh, Mohammad; Papanikolaou, Panos; Nassar, Omayyah; Shaheen, Abeer; Anthony, Denis; The University of Jordan; University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2019-10-25)
      To assess nurses’ knowledge on pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in Jordan, and the frequency of and factors influencing nurses’ implementation of PU prevention and treatment interventions. Highly educated and experienced nurses can provide effective PU care; however, previous studies highlighted poor knowledge and implementation of PU care. Design: A correlational study examining nurses’ knowledge of PU prevention and frequency of PU preventive actions in Jordanian hospitals. Participants were 377 nurses and 318 patients from 11 hospitals. Data were collected to quantify the frequency of nurses’ implementation of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment interventions for patients suffering from PUs and/or at risk of PU development using a self-reported cross-sectional survey and prospective 8-hour observation. For observed PU prevention while type of hospital and number of beds in units were significant it is not known without further work if this is replicable. For observed PU treatment, linear regression analysis revealed significant negative beta values for more than 50 beds in clinical unit (β=-2.49). The study addressed new factors, facilitating the provision of prevention and treatment strategies to PU development, including type of clinical institution and number of beds in clinical unit.
    • Evaluating the impact of lean practices on environmental performance: evidences from five manufacturing companies

      Dieste, M; Panizzolo, R; Garza-Reyes, J. A.; University of Derby; University of Padova, Italy (Taylor and Francis, 2019-10-29)
      Previous evidence suggests that both lean and green production paradigms are focused on waste reduction and that lean practices help organizations to enhance sustainability objectives, and particularly environmental performance. However, the impact of lean practices on the environment is still unclear. This study therefore aims to analyse the relationship between lean and environmental performance in manufacturing with a strong empirical focus. This research was conducted in two main stages: first, an extensive review of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by a multiple case study analysis conducted in five manufacturing companies. Onsite data were collected from the firms during a five years’ time span of research and developing semi-structured interviews. Furthermore, a cross-case analysis was carried out to map the results. Findings indicate that the environmental performance of the companies analysed is generally enhanced in the long-term after the implementation of lean. Moreover, the results from the multiple case study suggest that the environmental performance of the firms under analysis is mainly improved by using JIT and TQM practices in a lean transformation context. The research findings provide further results remarking the possible negative impact of practices such as Kanban deliveries, 5S and TPM on various environmental performance indicators.
    • Pop-up shops for increasing employability and contributing to civil society in times of austerity

      Hill, Inge; Bass, Tina; Coventry University (Springer, 2019-09-24)
      This chapter discusses a learning and teaching unit pop-up shop rooted in experiential learning. This pop-up shop learning activity aims to increase employability and educate young learners how to contribute to civil society. The discussion offers a reflection on how lecturers’ roles are changing in response to the austerity informed UK policies and HE measures. Universities are increasingly required to generate larger numbers of enterprising, employment-ready graduates. Increased monitoring of the efficient use of public spending in HE has seen the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) bringing more focus on employability rates, which in turn help to determine university rankings. These rankings put pressure on HE senior management, which is then passed down through the hierarchy to lecturers. The detailed guidance on how to run pop-up shops offers a pragmatic answer to the outlined challenges to inspire lecturers to develop their learning and teaching strategies. Particular attention is paid to developing reflective skills in learners.
    • Madagascar's escape from Africa: A high-resolution plate reconstruction for the Western Somali Basin and implications for supercontinent dispersal

      Phethean, Jordan; Kalnins, Lara M.; van Hunen, Jeroen; Biffi, Paolo G.; Davies, Richard J.; McCaffrey, Ken J.W.; Durham University; University of Edinburgh; S.G.E.G ENI, Milan, Italy; Newcastle University (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2016-12-29)
      Accurate reconstructions of the dispersal of supercontinent blocks are essential for testing continental breakup models. Here, we provide a new plate tectonic reconstruction of the opening of the Western Somali Basin during the breakup of East and West Gondwana. The model is constrained by a new comprehensive set of spreading lineaments, detected in this heavily sedimented basin using a novel technique based on directional derivatives of free‐air gravity anomalies. Vertical gravity gradient and free‐air gravity anomaly maps also enable the detection of extinct mid‐ocean ridge segments, which can be directly compared to several previous ocean magnetic anomaly interpretations of the Western Somali Basin. The best matching interpretations have basin symmetry around the M0 anomaly; these are then used to temporally constrain our plate tectonic reconstruction. The reconstruction supports a tight fit for Gondwana fragments prior to breakup, and predicts that the continent‐ocean transform margin lies along the Rovuma Basin, not along the Davie Fracture Zone (DFZ) as commonly thought. According to our reconstruction, the DFZ represents a major ocean‐ocean fracture zone formed by the coalescence of several smaller fracture zones during evolving plate motions as Madagascar drifted southwards, and offshore Tanzania is an obliquely rifted, rather than transform, margin. New seismic reflection evidence for oceanic crust inboard of the DFZ strongly supports these conclusions. Our results provide important new constraints on the still enigmatic driving mechanism of continental rifting, the nature of the lithosphere in the Western Somali Basin, and its resource potential.
    • Evidence for basement reactivation during the opening of the Labrador sea from the Makkovik province, Labrador, Canada: insights from field data and numerical models

      Peace, Alexander; Dempsey, Edward; Schiffer, Christian; Welford, J.; McCaffrey, Ken; Imber, Jonathan; Phethean, Jordan; Durham University; Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada; University of Hull; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-08-20)
      The onshore exposures adjacent to modern, offshore passive continental margins may preserve evidence of deformation from the pre-, syn-, and post-rift phases of continental breakup that allow us to investigate the processes associated with and controlling rifting and breakup. Here, we characterize onshore brittle deformation and pre-rift basement metamorphic mineral fabric from onshore Labrador in Eastern Canada in the Palaeoproterozoic Aillik Domain of the Makkovik Province. Stress inversion (1) was applied to these data and then compared to (2) numerical models of hybrid slip and dilation tendency, (3) independent calculations of the regional geopotential stress field, and (4) analyses of palaeo-stress in proximal regions from previous work. The stress inversion shows well-constrained extensional deformation perpendicular to the passive margin, likely related to pre-breakup rifting in the proto-Labrador Sea. Hybrid slip and dilatation analysis indicates that inherited basement structures were likely oriented in a favorable orientation to be reactivated during rifting. Reconstructed geopotential stresses illuminate changes of the ambient stress field over time and confirm the present paleo-stress estimates. The new results and numerical models provide a consistent picture of the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithospheric stress field evolution in the Labrador Sea region. The proto-Labrador Sea region was characterized by a persistent E–W (coast-perpendicular) extensional stress regime, which we interpret as the pre-breakup continental rifting that finally led to continental breakup. Later, the ridge push of the Labrador Sea spreading ridge maintained this general direction of extension. We see indications for anti-clockwise rotation of the direction of extension along some of the passive margins. However, extreme persistent N–S-oriented extension as indicated by studies further north in West Greenland cannot be confirmed.
    • An evaluation of Mesozoic rift-related magmatism on the margins of the Labrador Sea : implications for rifting and passive margin asymmetry.

      Phethean, Jordan; Peace, Alexander; McCaffrey, Ken; Imber, Jonathan; Nowell, Geoff; Gerdes, Keith; Dempsey, Edward; Durham University; Shell International (The Geological Society of America, 2016-09-29)
      The Labrador Sea is a small (~900 km wide) ocean basin separating southwest Greenland from Labrador, Canada. It opened following a series of rifting events that began as arly as the Late Triassic or Jurassic, culminating in a brief period of seafloor spreading commencing by polarity chron 27 (C27; Danian) and ending by C13 (Eocene-Oligocene oundary). Rift-related magmatism has been documented on both conjugate margins of the Labrador Sea. In southwest Greenland this magmatism formed a major coast-parallel dike swarm as well as other smaller dikes and intrusions. Evidence for rift-related magmatism on the conjugate Labrador margin is limited to igneous lithologies found in deep offshore exploration wells, mostly belonging to the Alexis Formation, along with a postulated Early Cretaceous nephelinite dike swarm (ca. 142 Ma) that crops out onshore, near Makkovik, Labrador. Our field observations of this Early Cretaceous nephelinite suite lead us to conclude that the early rift-related magmatism exposed around Makkovik is volumetrically and spatially limited compared to the contemporaneous magmatism on the conjugate southwest Greenland margin. This asymmetry in the spatial extent of the exposed onshore magmatism is consistent with other observations of asymmetry between the conjugate margins of the Labrador Sea, including the total sediment thickness in offshore basins, the crustal structure, and the bathymetric profile of the shelf width. We propose that the magmatic and structural asymmetry observed between these two conjugate margins is consistent with an early rifting phase dominated by simple shear rather than pure shear deformation. In such a setting Labrador would be the lower plate margin to the southwest Greenland upper plate.
    • The Jan Mayen microplate complex and the Wilson cycle

      Schiffer, Christian; Peace, Alexander; Phethean, Jordan; Gernigon, Laurent; McCaffrey, Ken; Petersen, Kenni D.; Foulger, Gillian; Durham University; Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada; Geological Survey of NorwayLeiv; et al. (Geological Society of London, 2018-02-01)
      The opening of the North Atlantic region was one of the most important geodynamic events that shaped the present day passive margins of Europe, Greenland and North America. Although well-studied, much remains to be understood about the evolution of the North Atlantic, including the role of the Jan Mayen microplate complex. Geophysical data provide an image of the crustal structure of this microplate and enable a detailed reconstruction of the rifting and spreading history. However, the mechanisms that cause the separation of microplates between conjugate margins are still poorly understood. We assemble recent models of rifting and passive margin formation in the North Atlantic and discuss possible scenarios that may have led to the formation of the Jan Mayen microplate complex. This event was probably triggered by regional plate tectonic reorganizations rejuvenating inherited structures. The axis of rifting and continental break-up and the width of the Jan Mayen microplate complex were controlled by old Caledonian fossil subduction/suture zones. Its length is related to east–west-oriented deformation and fracture zones, possibly linked to rheological heterogeneities inherited from the pre-existing Precambrian terrane boundaries.
    • A review of Pangaea dispersal and large igneous provinces – In search of a causative mechanism

      Peace, A.L.; Phethean, Jordan; Franke, D.; Foulger, G.R.; Schiffer, C.; Welford, J.K.; McHone, G.; Rocchi, S.; Schnabel, M.; Doré, A.G.; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-07-22)
      The breakup of Pangaea was accompanied by extensive, episodic, magmatic activity. Several Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) formed, such as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). Here, we review the chronology of Pangaea breakup and related large-scale magmatism. We review the Triassic formation of the Central Atlantic Ocean, the breakup between East and West Gondwana in the Middle Jurassic, the Early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic, the Cretaceous separation of India from Antarctica, and finally the formation of the North Atlantic in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. We demonstrate that throughout the dispersal of Pangaea, major volcanism typically occurs distal from the locus of rift initiation and initial oceanic crust accretion. There is no location where extension propagates away from a newly formed LIP. Instead, LIPs are coincident with major lithosphere-scale shear movements, aborted rifts and splinters of continental crust rifted far out into the oceanic domain. These observations suggest that a fundamental reappraisal of the causes and consequences of breakup-related LIPs is in order.
    • This is Derby: dialogic activism

      Jones, Rhiannon; Craig, Tom; Manning-Jones, Alix; Barth, Caroline; Turner, Will; University of Derby; Derby Theatre; Derby County Community Trust (Arts in Society, 2019-06)
      This paper explores the artistic research project "This is Derby" undertaken by University of Derby, Derby County Community Trust and Derby Theatre; the only Learning Theatre in the UK. The project engaged targeted participants living within identified areas of deprivation from the city of Derby. The research aimed to design a dialogic methodology using a "grass roots" approach to provide young people with free art activities. Examples will be provided in the paper of how the research was undertaken, what and how key barriers were identified by both schools and parents; including the lack of cultural integration outside of school time in the UK and the impact of lacks in financial or family support. The paper shares models of best practice whilst highlight the value of having undertaking an artistic and dialogic methodology. The impact of the project is extensively noted within UK contemporary social contexts and as a result of the findings, 9 community hubs and a virtual hub were created. This is Derby was a collaborative research project that has provided essential life skills for young persons in socio economically deprived areas of Derby, resulting in social mobility and new access to the arts. This paper disseminates both the design and impact of the research proposing that dialogic methodologies are an instigator for change in order to enable and empower younger persons. This is Derby has produced dialogic methodology that has actively contributed to the future cultural offering in the city of Derby and impacts on art research.
    • Why higher apprenticeships are critical to business

      Hooley, Tristram; Institute of Student Employers; University of Derby (Open Access Government, 2019-09-06)