• Cognitive control in belief-laden reasoning during conclusion processing: An ERP study

      Luo, Junlong; Liu, Xin; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Zhang, Entao; Xiao, Xiao; Jia, Lei; Yang, Qun; Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Qinglin; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-06)
      Belief bias is the tendency to accept conclusions that are compatible with existing beliefs more frequently than those that contradict beliefs. It is one of the most replicated behavioral findings in the reasoning literature. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have provided a new perspective and have demonstrated neural correlates of belief bias that have been viewed as supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias. However, fMRI studies have tended to focus on conclusion processing, while ERPs studies have been concerned with the processing of premises. In the present research, the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control were studied among 12 subjects using high-density ERPs. The analysis was focused on the conclusion presentation phase and was limited to normatively sanctioned responses to valid–believable and valid–unbelievable problems. Results showed that when participants gave normatively sanctioned responses to problems where belief and logic conflicted, a more positive ERP deflection was elicited than for normatively sanctioned responses to nonconflict problems. This was observed from −400 to −200 ms prior to the correct response being given. The positive component is argued to be analogous to the late positive component (LPC) involved in cognitive control processes. This is consistent with the inhibition of empirically anomalous information when conclusions are unbelievable. These data are important in elucidating the neural correlates of belief bias by providing evidence for electrophysiological correlates of conflict resolution during conclusion processing. Moreover, they are supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias that propose conflict detection and resolution processes as central to the explanation of belief bias.
    • Event-related potentials support a dual process account of the Embedded Chinese Character Task.

      Yin, Yue; Yu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhou, Shujin; Tang, Xiaochen; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Luo, Junlong; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai Jiaotong University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-10-29)
      Tests of the principles of dual process theory are typically conducted in the reasoning and judgement/decision-making literature. The present study explores dual process explanations with a new paradigm – the Embedded Chinese Character Task (ECCT). The beauty of this task is that it allows the contrast of automatic and deliberate processes without the potential for conflict. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to investigate the time course of automatic (Type 1) and deliberative (Type 2) processes on the ECCT. Thus we explored whether there were differences in processing speed in neural activation. The ECCT requires the extraction of one Chinese character from another, which requires either an automatic strategy reliant on knowledge of Chinese character formation and meaning (based on the radical), or a deliberative strategy using the shape of the components of the character (based on the stroke). Participants judged whether character elements were included or excluded in test characters. Faster response time were observed when judging 'inclusion relations' on automatic problems supporting the proposal that they required a Type 1 process. In line with the behavioral results, the hypothesized faster automatic process showed the rapid differentiation of N2 and P3b components between inclusion and exclusion responses, while no difference was shown for deliberative problems. Thus, neural differences in processing were shown between automatic and deliberate problems, and automatic processing was faster than deliberate processing.
    • Exploring the experience of novelty when viewing creative adverts: An ERP study.

      Zhou, Shujin; Yin, Yue; Yu, Tingting; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Luo, Junlong; Shanghai Normal University; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2018-04-09)
      The electrophysiological correlates of experiencing novelty in creative advertising were studied in 28 healthy subjects using event-related potentials. Participants viewed images that were difficult to interpret until a description was presented providing either a creative description (CD) featuring an unexpected description of the image based on the original advertisement, or a normal description (ND), which was a literal description of the image (and served as a baseline condition). Participants evaluated the level of creativity of the description. The results showed that the N2 amplitude was higher for CDs than for NDs across middle and right scalp regions between 240 and 270 ms, most likely reflecting conflict detection. Moreover, CDs demonstrated greater N400 than NDs in a time window between 380 and 500 ms, it is argued that this reflects semantic integration. The present study investigates the electrophysiological correlates of experiencing novelty in advertising with ecologically valid stimuli. This substantially extends the findings of earlier laboratory studies with more artificial stimuli.
    • The neural correlates of belief-bias inhibition: The impact of logic training

      Luo, Junlong; Tang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Entao; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2014-09-27)
      Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the brain activity associated with response change in a belief bias paradigm before and after logic training. Participants completed two sets of belief biased reasoning tasks. In the first set they were instructed to respond based on their empirical beliefs, and in the second – following logic training – they were instructed to respond logically. The comparison between conflict problems in the second scan versus in the first scan revealed differing activation for the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, cerebellum, and precuneus. The scan was time locked to the presentation of the minor premise, and thus demonstrated effects of belief–logic conflict on neural activation earlier in the time course than has previously been shown in fMRI. These data, moreover, indicated that logical training results in changes in brain activity associated with cognitive control processing.