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Controlled antenatal thyroid screening II: Effect of treating maternal suboptimal thyroid function on child cognition.Hales, Charlotte; Taylor, Peter N.; Channon, Sue; Paradice, Ruth; McEwan, Kirsten; Zhang, Lei; Gyedu, Michael; Bakhsh, Ameen; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Muller, Ilaria; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2018-01-15)Context and Objective The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment of suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in intelligence quotient (IQ) at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5 years and included children from normal gestational thyroid function (normal-GTF) mothers. Design, Setting, and Participants One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children’s IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition UK), long-term memory, and motor function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF. Logistic regression explored the odds and percentages of an IQ < 85 in the groups. Results There was no difference in IQ < 85 between children of mothers with normal-GTF and combined SGTF, i.e., treated and untreated (fully adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52, 2.51]; P = 0.731). Furthermore, there was no significant effect of treatment [untreated OR = 1.33 (95% CI 0.53, 3.34); treated OR = 0.75 (95% CI 0.27, 2.06) P = 0.576]. IQ < 85 was 6.03% in normal-GTF, 7.56% in treated, and 11.22% in untreated groups. Analyses accounting for treated-SGTF women with free thyroxine > 97.5th percentile of the entire CATS-I cohort revealed no significant effect on a child’s IQ < 85 in CATS-II. IQ at age 3 predicted IQ at age 9.5 (P < 0.0001) and accounted for 45% of the variation. Conclusions Maternal thyroxine during pregnancy did not improve child cognition at age 9.5 years. Our findings confirmed CATS-I and suggest that the lack of treatment effect may be a result of the similar proportion of IQ < 85 in children of women with normal-GTF and SGTF.