• Activities of daily life still cause problems for many older and physically impaired people.

      Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Design For All Institute of India, 2012)
      Activities of Daily Life (ADL) are those activities that are fundamental to maintaining independence. Without being able to do them, people can become dependent on others or simply not live their lives in the way that they would wish to. A survey of 50 older and disabled people found that surprising numbers were unable to fulfil the level of independence in ADL that they wished to. For all the advances in the recent age in technology and equipment design, these basic activities are still proving too difficult for a sizeable percentage of the older/disabled population. As the population ages, pressure will come to bear on designers to consider the needs of older/disabled people more fully, to meet the needs of the shifting market trends.
    • Age friendly kitchens: a study based on social history and ergonomics

      Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Lawton, Clare; Peace, Sheila; Percival, John; Loughborough University (Helen Hamlyn Research Centre (Royal College of Art), 2011)
      The kitchen is an important space in the home serving many purposes both functional and social. The need was identified to chart social changes experienced by older people in relation to the kitchen and to understand current issues and problems of kitchen usage. Two interviews were conducted with 40 older participants (aged between 61 and 91) living in a variety of British housing types in Loughborough and Bristol. The first interview recorded their experience of the kitchen throughout their lives, and the second on the contemporary kitchen and how well it meets their needs. This paper focuses on the second interview. It was found that problems of reaching, bending and stretching, dexterity and sight were all relatively common while for specific tasks, problems with ironing, cleaning and shopping were the most frequent. Categorisation of participants’ likes and dislikes about their kitchens were recorded highlighting the most important issues for the participants. The paper reports on coping strategies used by older people in their kitchens which help to promote inclusive design social inclusion throughout the life course.
    • 'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN

      Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2004)
      In order to support the practice of ‘design for all’within the design community two key areas have been identified that are critical to success. The first is the provision of accurate and relevant data on the target users, in this case people of all shapes, sizes, ages and abilities. The second is the efficient and effective support in the use of these data during concept generation and product development. A database of individual people was created including their 3D anthropometry and functional abilities. Data sets for individuals are kept intact, a radical departure from the traditional approach which involves effectively ‘dismembering’people to create tables of percentiles for every dimension of interest. This database is accessed by HADRIAN, our CAD-based design tool, which is integrated with the SAMMIE CAD human modelling system. Using this system, proposed designs of products or services can be automatically evaluated for each individual in the database, based upon criteria set by the designer (e.g. access, reach, vision, mobility and strength). The tool can identify which individuals will be ‘designed in’or ‘designed out’and can support the designer in modifying the proposed design to achieve a greater percentage of people accommodated.
    • Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Clientelism, community and collaboration: loyalism in nineteenth-century colonial India.

      Godsmark, Oliver; Gould, William; Loughborough University; University of Leeds (Boydell and Brewer, 2014-05)
      Loyalism in Britain and Ireland, which was once seen as a crude reaction against radicalism or nationalism, stimulated by the elite and blindly followed by plebeians, has recently been shown by historians to have been, on the contrary, a politically multi-faceted, socially enabling phenomenon which did much to shape identity in the British Isles. This book takes further this revised picture by considering loyalism in the wider British World. It considers the overall nature of loyalism, exploring its development in England, Ireland and Scotland, and goes on to examine its manifestation in a range of British colonies and former colonies, including the United States, Canada, India, Australia and New Zealand. It shows that whilst eighteenth-century Anglo-centric loyalism had a core of common ideological assumptions, associational structures and ritual behaviour, loyalism manifested itself differently in different territories. This divergence is explored through a discussion of the role of loyal associations and military institutions, loyalism's cultural and ritual dimensions and its key role in the formation of political identities. Chronologically, the book covers a pivotal period, comprehending the American and French Revolutions, the 1798 Irish rebellion and Irish Union, the Canadian rebellions of 1837, and Fenianism and Home Rule campaigns throughout the British World.
    • A computer aided ergonomics tool to support accessible transport design

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2005)
      Accessible design is being promoted through concepts such as ‘Design for All’. This is an approach to design that aims to maximise the accessibility of a product, environment, or service through the provision of a solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. To support a ‘Design for All’ approach a computer aided design and analysis tool called HADRIAN has been developed. Initial developments addressed the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users together with a means of using the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. This paper details some of this initial development together with the current focus for the HADRIAN system, namely that of transport design. The novel aspect of this research moves the focus away from isolated design problems such as the accessible design of a train or taxi, onto the concept of the journey and the system of design problems that must be addressed in order to create truly accessible transport.
    • Computer visualization for theatre: 3D modelling for designers

      White, Christine; Carver, Gavin; Loughborough University; University of Kent (Focal Press, 2003)
      Theatre designers using 3D software for computer visualisation in the theatre will find this book both a guide to the creative design process as well as an introduction to the use of computers in live performance. Covering the main software packages in use: Strata Studio Base, 3D Studio Max and 3D Studio Viz, the book provides techniques for 3D modelling alongside creative ideas and concepts for working in 3D space. Projects are provided to sharpen your awareness and digital skills as well as suggested further reading to broaden the scope of your theatrical and design knowledge. This book is both a useful day to day reference as well as an inspirational starting point for implementing your own ideas. The authors are experienced trainers in the field and understand the pitfalls to be avoided as well as the possibilities to be explored using computer visualisation for designing theatre space. They provide insightful hands on descriptions of techniques used in the development of performance projects set in the wider context of design considerations. The book is highly informative about the technology of computer visualisation providing examples of working practice applicable to all software.
    • Constraint modelling in 'design for all'

      Case, Keith; Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (CIT Press, 2003)
      Design for All', or Inclusive Design, is an approach to the design of products and workplaces that aims to maximise suitability for a wide range of consumers/workers. In particular attempts are made to include elderly and disabled consumers/workers without stigmatising the product or in any other way detracting from its attractiveness to younger more able-bodied users. The interest in Design for All stems from the increasing number of elderly and disabled people in western societies, the considerable economic power that they command and pressure from a wide variety of legislative forces. Research has recently been completed that provides a new basis for the application of ergonomics through computer aided design based on multivariate techniques using anthropometric and other data related to individuals rather than populations. The design tool created (known as HADRIAN) is briefly described. This tool is capable of assessing the percentage of the individuals that are able to perform a task whether this be in a domestic or industrial environment. However, it is not capable of suggesting design changes to improve this percentage accommodation, and hence ongoing research is concerned with ‘design synthesis’. The design synthesis approach uses a constraint modeller (SWORDS, which has been used elsewhere in many design and industrial applications) to search a potentially infinite design space to find sets of spatial characteristics of the design that maximise the user accommodation. This design synthesis approach is presented in this paper and described by a case study.
    • The contribution that a co-design approach can make to idea generation for workplace travel plans

      Ross, Tracy; Mitchell, Val; May, Andrew; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Universities' Transport Study Group (UTSG), 2013)
      This study proposed the cooperative processes of ‘co-design’ as a means by which to increase ‘active’ participation in the early stages of workplace travel plan development. In particular, the research takes a first step towards a quantitative comparison of solutions/ideas generated using a co-design approach versus the more traditional methods normally used in travel planning by comparing the number, originality, breadth and type of ideas generated. One group of staff took part in a co-design study and another in a non-co-design study. The main findings were that co-design techniques appear to: encourage a greater number of ideas overall, a greater number of ideas that are innovative in the specific organisational context and different types of idea (particularly ones that tend towards more psychological-based interventions). However both approaches are similar in terms of the global innovativeness of the ideas they generate which was generally low.
    • Design and evaluation: end users, user datasets and personas

      Marshall, Russell; Cook, Sharon; Mitchell, Val; Summerskill, Steve; Haines, Victoria; Maguire, Martin C.; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society, 2013-04-08)
      Understanding the needs and aspirations of a suitable range of users during the product design process is an extremely difficult task. Methods such as ethnographic studies can be used to gain a better understanding of users needs, but they are inherently time consuming and expensive. The time pressures that are evident in the work performed by design consultancies often make these techniques impractical. This paper contains a discussion about the use of 'personas', a method used by designers to overcome these issues. Personas are descriptive models of archetypal users derived from user research. The discussion focuses on two case studies, the first of which examines the use of personas in the car design process. The second examines the use of personas in the field of 'inclusive design', as demonstrated by the HADRIAN system. These case studies exemplify the benefits 'data rich' personas contribute as opposed to 'assumption based' personas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.
    • A design ergonomics approach to accessibility and user needs in transport

      Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out into the area of accessibility and 'design for all'. The Accessibility and User Needs in Transport (AUNT-SUE) project was initiated to develop and test sustainable policies and practice that would deliver effective socially inclusive design and operation in transport and the public realm. Loughborough University's role in the project focuses on the provision of data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. These needs have led to the development of the authors' inclusive design tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These data include size, shape, capability, preferences and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport related tasks. These are partnered with a simple task analysis system. The system supports the construction of a task linked to a CAD model of a design to be evaluated. The task is then carried out by the virtual individuals in the database. Accessibility issues are reported by the system allowing excluded people to be investigated. Thus HADRIAN supports designers and ergonomists in attempting to 'design for all' by fostering empathy with the intended users, meeting their data needs through an accessible and applicable database and providing a means of gaining some of the feedback possible with a real user trial at a much earlier stage in the design process.
    • 'Design for all': methods and data to support designers

      Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Ruth Elise Sims, 2003)
      If designers are to meet the needs of the growing population of older and disabled people then data on size, shape, posture and capabilities will be increasingly important. This thesis details a methodology for the collection of anthropometry, joint constraints, reach range, postural capability and task specific information, to create a unique database of `individuals'. These data were then used in the development of a computer-based design tool (HADRIAN), to allow design professionals to estimate the percentage of people who could be accommodated by a design. Having complete data sets for individuals is vital to enable multivariate analysis, as opposed to traditional univariate percentile data. Following a review of the literature two interview surveys were conducted with 32 design professionals and 50 older and disabled people. The majority of designers were aware of the philosophy of `design for all', but rarely considered the approach due to perceived time and financial costs. With respect to older and disabled people it was found that nearly all experienced problems completing basic activities of daily life, and that improvements to existing designs could improve quality of life. Activities such as being able to cook a meal, and use the bath were reported as being particularly important. Firstly, a pilot study was conducted with 8 participants to assess the different data collection options. Data were then collected on 100 people, with the majority being older and/or disabled, and encompassing a wide range of capabilities. From these data it was possible to see that the anthropometric data showed a range beyond 15` and 99`h percentile for each dimension when compared to existing anthropometry data, and a breadth of variation in task specific behaviours. Validation trials were then conducted to compare the actual task performance of 10 of the 100 `individuals' with that predicted by HADRIAN, with postures and task capabilities being correctly predicted for open-access reach-and-lift tasks. This gives some confidence that it is possible to predict postures and capabilities from the data collected.
    • Development and evaluation of task based digital human modeling for inclusive design

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      HADRIAN is a digital human modeling (DHM) system that is currently under development as part of an EPSRC funded project in the UK looking at accessible transport. The system is a partner tool to the long established SAMMIE DHM system and aims to address issues with the lack of applicability of DHM tools to inclusive or universal design problems. HADRIAN includes a database of 102 manikins based directly upon data taken from real people, many of whom are older or with disabilities and who span a broad range of anthropometry, age, and joint mobility. This database is combined with a task analysis tool that provides an automated means to investigate the accessibility of a workstation or environment. This paper discusses the issues and subsequent refinement of the tool that resulted from validation using an ATM design case study. In addition the results from a second validation are presented. This second study examines the accessibility of a Docklands Light Railway station in London. The results highlight that whilst physical simulations can be made with a generally good degree of accuracy there are still many opportunities to be explored in the cognitive and emotional areas that can be used to inform designers of accessibility issues during virtual assessments.
    • Discursive categories and desire: feminists negotiating relationships

      White, Christine; Loughborough University (Routledge, 1997)
      This original and intriguing collection explores the pressures exerted upon language in the expression of romantic and sexual desire. Simultaneously, it reveals the ways in which language itself exerts its own constraints on the subject's capacity to express desire. The contributors, while using the approaches and methods of empirical linguistics, engage directly with issues of relevance in gender studies and cultural studies. They examine and probe: * language used to mediate romantic and sexual desire * language used by the media to represent intimacy and desire * attitudes and assumptions about romantic and sexual desire embodied in English * implications for the construction of romantic and sexual identity
    • Empirical investigation of the impact of using co-design methods when generating proposals for sustainable travel solutions

      Mitchell, Val; Ross, Tracy; May, Andrew; Sims, Ruth; Parker, Christopher J.; Loughborough University (Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, 2015-12-29)
      This paper presents an empirical comparison of idea generation within the context of reducing the number of single occupancy car journeys to and from a UK university campus. Separate co-design and consultative groups were matched with respect to 1) creativity when problem solving, 2) normal commuting mode and 3) intention to adopt sustainable behaviours. The co-design group generated a significantly greater number of innovative ideas than the consultative group (using an email based methodology); however this was due to the greater number of total ideas (rather than the higher proportion of innovative ideas) generated by this group. The co-design group was able to think more systemically about potential solutions and generate proposals that were not either linked to their own commute mode, or aligned with any one specific mode of transport. The findings suggest that co-design offers benefits as a process for idea generation within the sustainable travel context as it promotes idea generation and a more holistic perspective on the problem and potential solutions.
    • Evaluation of a multi-disciplinary back pain rehabilitation programme—individual and group perspectives

      Baird, Andrew; Worral, Lisa; Haslam, Cheryl; Haslam, Roger A.; Loughborough University (2008-02-16)
      To evaluate the impact of a multi-disciplinary back pain rehabilitation programme using a combination of individual and group change data. A total of 261 consecutive patients attending an assessment session for the back pain rehabilitation programme completed the SF-36 health survey questionnaire. The patients were requested to complete the questionnaires again at programme completion and at the 6-month follow-up. The Reliable Change Index was used to define 'clinical significance' in terms of the assessment of individual change. Half of those patients considered to be suitable for the programme subsequently completed it. In group terms, non-completers scored lower than completers on all SF-36 scales. Statistically significant improvements were evident for those completing the programme (all scales at P < 0.000), with improvement maintained at follow-up. In individual terms, 'clinical significance' was exceeded most frequently in the Physical Functioning and Role Physical scales. Whilst some participants lost previous improvements between completion and follow-up, others improved over this same time period. The majority of those completing the programme showed improvement in at least one scale. Adding assessment of individual change to traditional group change measures provides greater insight into the impact a rehabilitation programme has upon participants' quality of life. Whilst the programme is clearly effective for those who complete it, work is required to limit post-programme deterioration and improve uptake
    • Evolution of high-Arctic glacial landforms during deglaciation.

      Midgley, Nicholas G.; Tonkin, Toby N.; Graham, David, J.; Cook, Simon J.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; Loughborough University; University of Dundee (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
      Glacial landsystems in the high-Arctic have been reported to undergo geomorphological transformation during deglaciation. This research evaluates moraine evolution over a decadal timescale at Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard. This work is of interest because glacial landforms developed in Svalbard have been used as an analogue for landforms developed during Pleistocene mid-latitude glaciation. Ground penetrating radar was used to investigate the subsurface characteristics of moraines. To determine surface change, a LiDAR topographic data set (obtained 2003) and a UAV-derived (obtained 2014) digital surface model processed using structure-from-motion (SfM) are also compared. Evaluation of these data sets together enables subsurface character and landform response to climatic amelioration to be linked. Ground penetrating radar evidence shows that the moraine substrate at Midtre Lovénbreen includes ice-rich (radar velocities of 0.17 m ns−1) and debris-rich (radar velocities of 0.1–0.13 m ns−1) zones. The ice-rich zones are demonstrated to exhibit relatively high rates of surface change (mean thresholded rate of −4.39 m over the 11-year observation period). However, the debris-rich zones show a relatively low rate of surface change (mean thresholded rate of −0.98 m over the 11-year observation period), and the morphology of the debris-rich landforms appear stable over the observation period. A complex response of proglacial landforms to climatic warming is shown to occur within and between glacier forelands as indicated by spatially variable surface lowering rates. Landform response is controlled by the ice-debris balance of the moraine substrate, along with the topographic context (such as the influence of meltwater). Site-specific characteristics such as surface debris thickness and glaciofluvial drainage are, therefore, argued to be a highly important control on surface evolution in ice-cored terrain, resulting in a diverse response of high-Arctic glacial landsystems to climatic amelioration. These results highlight that care is needed when assessing the long-term preservation potential of contemporary landforms at high-Arctic glaciers. A better understanding of ice-cored terrain facilitates the development of appropriate age and climatic interpretations that can be obtained from palaeo ice-marginal landsystems.
    • From reading minds to social interaction: respecifying Theory of Mind

      Childs, Carrie; Loughborough University (2013-08)
      The aim of this paper is to show some of the limitations of the Theory of Mind approach to interaction compared to a conversation analytic alternative. In the former, mental state terms are examined as words that signify internal referents. This study examines children’s uses of ‘I want’ in situ. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes. ‘I want’ constructions are shown to be interactionally occasioned. The analysis suggests that (a) a referential view of language does not adequately account for how mental state terms are used in talk, (b) the dominant methodology for examining children’s understanding of ‘desires’ is based on several problematic assumptions. It is concluded that participation in interaction is a social matter, a consideration that is obscured by Theory of Mind and its favoured methods.
    • 'Getting hired' is just part of it

      Grant, Korin; Hooley, Tristram; Loughborough University; The Careers and Employment Agency (Higher Education Careers Services Unit, 2017-11)
    • Graduate career handbook: A supplementary guide to the handbook for providing career support and employability programmes

      Hooley, Tristram; Grant, Korin; University of Derby; Loughborough University (Crimson and Trotman, 2017)
      We have written this guide for both academics who are delivering employability modules within the curriculum and career and employability professionals who may be working in the curriculum, delivering services centrally, running skills awards and/or providing workshops and advice and guidance.