• Development and validation of the satisfaction with treatment for pain questionnaire (STPQ) among patients with sickle cell disease

      Bij, Deepali; Kapadi, Romaana; Schofield, Malcolm B.; Osias, Arlene; Khalid, Nosheen; Kaya, Banu; Telfer, Paul; Elander, James; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-06-23)
      A brief measure of patient satisfaction with treatment for pain is needed to help improve the treatment of painful episodes caused by sickle cell disease (SCD), especially during and after the transition from paediatric to adult care. Focus groups of 28 adolescent and adult patients were consulted about the content, clarity and relevance of 30 potential items, resulting in an 18-item version. This was validated by analysing questionnaire responses from 120 patients aged 12-53 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and item analysis indicated five subscales with high internal reliability: ‘Communication and Involvement’ (6 items, α=0.87); ‘Respect and Dignity’ (3 items, α=0.82); ‘Pain Control’ (3 items, α=0.91); ‘Staff Attitudes and Behaviour’ (4 items, α=0.88); and ‘Overall Satisfaction’ (2 items, α=0.85); plus a Total Satisfaction score (18 items, α=0.96). High negative correlations with the Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire, a measure of problem experiences, indicated good convergent validity. Lower satisfaction scores among patients aged over 18 years, those admitted via the emergency department, those treated by non-specialist hospital staff, and those reporting more breakthrough pain indicated good concurrent validity. The questionnaire provides a convenient brief measure that can be used to inform and evaluate improvements in healthcare for adolescent and adult patients with SCD, and could potentially be adapted for other painful conditions.
    • Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea

      Kapadi, Romaana; Elander, James; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-24)
      Primary dysmenorrhea causes menstrual pain that affects women’s quality of life (QoL) and analgesics are only moderately effective. Pain coping and pain acceptance influence QoL among people affected by other chronic pain conditions, so we examined pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of QoL among women with primary dysmenorrhea. 145 women with primary dysmenorrhea completed an online survey including the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), questions about analgesic use, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12), a measure of physical and mental health-related QoL. In multiple regression, pain acceptance predicted better physical and mental QoL, whereas pain coping did not predict mental or physical quality of life. Being married or cohabiting and menstrual pain that was less severe and shorter in duration predicted better physical QoL, and those effects were mediated by pain acceptance. Being older at the onset of painful periods predicted better mental QoL and that effect was also mediated by pain acceptance. More severe menstrual pain and congestive rather than spasmodic dysmenorrhea predicted worse mental QoL but those effects were not mediated by other factors. Analgesic use did not predict physical or mental QoL. The results show the impact that menstrual pain has on women’s quality of life, and suggest that initiatives to increase pain acceptance among women with menstrual pain are worthwhile. More research is needed to understand more fully the factors that influence health-related quality of life among women with menstrual pain.
    • Patient-reported factors associated with degree of pain medication dependence and presence of severe dependence among spinal outpatients

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Bateman, Antony H; University of Derby; Royal Derby Spinal Centre, Royal Derby Hospital (Future Medicine Ltd, 2021-11-03)
      To identify risk factors for pain medication dependence. Chronic spinal pain outpatients (n=106) completed the Leeds Dependence. Questionnaire (LDQ) and measures of potential risk factors. Participants with high (n=3) and low (n=3) dependence were interviewed. Mean LDQ score was 11.52 (SD 7.35) and 15/106 participants (14.2%) were severely dependent (LDQ ≥20). In linear regression, pain intensity (β=0.313, p<0.001), being disabled by pain (β=0.355, p<0.001), borrowing pain medication (β=0.209, p=0.006), and emergency phone calls or clinic visits (β=0.169, p=0.029) were associated with degree of dependence across the range of LDQ scores. In logistic regression, pain intensity (p=0.001) and borrowing pain medication (p=0.004) increased the odds of severe dependence. Interviewees described how their pain influenced their pain medication use and one described pain medication addiction. Interventions to reduce pain intensity and pain-related disability may reduce pain medication dependence.
    • A systematic review of evidence about the role of alexithymia in chronic back pain

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Bateman, Antony H.; University of Derby; Royal Derby Spinal Centre, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton NHS Foundation Trust (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-01)
      Individuals with alexithymia struggle to make sense of their emotions. Alexithymia has been associated with a range of physical illnesses, but may influence different illnesses differently, so to understand the role of alexithymia in illness it is important to focus on specific conditions. This article reviews evidence from ten reports published between 2000 and 2018 of studies with samples of adults with chronic back pain that used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). The studies were conducted in Germany, Israel, Italy, Russia, Turkey and the USA. Eight studies involved clinical samples and two involved public transit workers. Studies that compared participants with high and low alexithymia consistently found associations with measures of pain. The findings show that more severe alexithymia plays a role in the experience of chronic back pain, and support the incorporation of alexithymia-related elements in interventions to help people with chronic back pain improve their emotional regulation and reduce their pain-related distress.
    • Using patient feedback to adapt intervention materials based on acceptance and commitment therapy for people receiving renal dialysis

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Coyne, Emma; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas M.; Stalker, Carol; Mitchell, Kathryn; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11-15)
      Theory-based intervention materials must be carefully adapted to meet the needs of users with specific physical conditions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been adapted successfully for cancer, chronic pain, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and a range of other conditions, but not so far for people receiving renal haemodialysis. This paper presents findings from a study to adapt ACT-based intervention materials specifically for renal dialysis. Draft written materials consisting of four stories depicting fictitious individuals who used ACT-related techniques to help overcome different challenges and difficulties related to dialysis were adapted using a systematic patient consultation process. The participants were 18 people aged 19 to 80 years, with chronic kidney disease and receiving renal dialysis. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit participants’ views about how the content of the draft materials should be adapted to make them more realistic and relevant for people receiving renal dialysis and about how the materials should be presented and delivered to people receiving renal dialysis. The interview transcripts were analysed using a qualitative adaptation of the Delphi method in which themes are used as a framework for translating feedback into proposals for modifications. The analysis of patient feedback supported the use of patient stories but suggested they should be presented by video and narrated by real dialysis patients. They also indicated specific adaptations to make the stories more credible and realistic. Participant feedback was translated into proposals for change that were considered along with clinical, ethical and theoretical factors. The outcome was a design for a video-based intervention that separated the stories about individuals from the explanations of the specific ACT techniques and provided greater structure, with material organised into smaller chunks. This intervention is adapted specifically for people receiving renal dialysis while retaining the distinctive theoretical principles of ACT. The study shows the value of consulting patients in the development of intervention materials and illustrates a process for integrating patient feedback with theoretical, clinical and practical considerations in intervention design.