Now showing items 1-20 of 5187

    • Effect of powder bed fusion laser melting process parameters, build orientation and strut thickness on porosity, accuracy and tensile properties of an auxetic structure in IN718 alloy

      Bahi, S.; Gunputh, U.; Rusinek, A.; Wood, P.; Miguelez, M.H.; Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      In this paper the geometry of an auxetic, re-entrant honeycomb structure made from Inconel 718 (IN718), was optimised with respect to the process parameters of laser melting process using a Renishaw AM250 after which the quasi static behaviour was analysed under tensile loading. Two different PBF process parameters were used with 2 different laser energy densities to manufacture the auxetic structures with 3 different strut thicknesses (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm) in 2 building orientations (XY and ZX plane). A strut thickness of 0.6 mm was found to have the least porosity and the best dimensional accuracy. The latter geometry was then manufactured as part of a tensile test sample which were then tested at a strain rate of 0.001 s−1 after which the stress strain curve, yield stress, structural stiffness, plastic work and Poisson's Ratio were compared. The building directions XY, ZX and XZ of the auxetic structure were investigated, as well as the orientation of the individual cells with respect to the loading direction. XY was found to provide the best mechanical properties and the kinematics of deformation was found to be dependent on the loading direction with respect to the cells direction which resulted in a significant change in Poisson's ratio. Finite Element Analysis was also done in order to compare the stress strain curves and the deformation mode obtained from numerical modelling and experiment, and a good agreement was observed.
    • Emotional faces, visuo-spatial working memory and anxiety

      Maratos, Frances A.; Simione, Luca; Raffone, Antonino; University of Derby; Italian National Research Council; “Sapienza” University of Rome (ECronicon, 2020-03-30)
      Recent research has demonstrated competition for limited cognitive resources, via emotional prioritization, occurs not only during attentional capture, but also extends to visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). However, to what extent VSWM biases are influenced by individual differences such as anxiety has received limited attention. Here, we investigated this using a novel change detection paradigm with memory arrays containing 3, 4 or 5 emotional faces (angry, happy and neutral) and participants (n=41), preselected to be high or low trait anxious. The task of participants was to detect if a probe face, presented in the location of one of the original memory array faces, was the ‘same’ or ‘different’. On ‘no change’ trials results revealed that high anxious participants demonstrated poorer performance for larger set sizes than low anxious participants per se. Additionally, high anxious participants demonstrated a threat bias, whereas low anxious participants trended toward emotion superiority. On ‘change’ trials, change detection altered as a function of expression change; change detection was typically greatest when either the memory or probe face was angry. Results reveal VSWM capacity is modulated by trait anxiety and stimulus threat value, as well as highlight the importance of actively investigating (or controlling for) individual differences.
    • Does anthropometry influence technical factors in competitive mixed martial arts?

      Kirk, Christopher; University of Derby (Termedia, 2018-06-05)
      Purpose. Previous research has found grappling and strikes to the head to be the determining factors for success in MMA, whilst anthropometry in the form of stature and wingspan has been found to have a negligible effect. The current study was designed to determine if a relationship between technique use and anthropometry exists in MMA. The in-competition technique data of 461 elite, professional MMA bouts were compared using Bayes factor t-tests (BF10) to determine which techniques display the highest likelihood of distinguishing between winners and losers. The differences in technique numbers between winners and losers was also compared to the anthropometric differences between winners and losers using either Bayesian Pearson’s r or Bayesian Kendall’s Tau. Simple linear regression (p < 0.05) was used to calculate predictive ability of anthropometrics on chosen fighting techniques. Heavyweight competitors were distinguished by striking only (BF10 = 399 – 10). Light heavyweight, middleweight, featherweight, bantamweight, women’s bantamweight and women’s straw weight competitors were distinguished predominately by striking (BF10 = 791661 – 7) and moderately by grappling (BF10 = 75 – 7). Welterweight, lightweight and flyweight competitors were distinguished by striking techniques (BF10 = 3.533e+6 – 221) to achieve dominant grappling positions (BF10 = 17100 – 50). In turn, it was found that stature and/or wingspan are correlated to and can predict key technique variables at heavyweight, welterweight, lightweight and featherweight. The results provide evidence of which techniques are influenced by the anthropometric differences between competitors, allowing coaches and competitors to make more informed tactical decisions in competition preparation.
    • A review of in-situ grown nanocomposite coatings for titanium alloy implants

      Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Le, Huirong; Pawlik, Marzena; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2020-04-21)
      Composite coatings are commonly applied to medical metal implants in order to improve biocompatibility and/or bioactivity. In this context, two types of titanium-based composite coatings have been reviewed as biocompatible and anti-bacterial coatings. The different composites can be synthesised on the surface of titanium using various methods, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Moving with the smart and nanotechnology, multifunctional nanocomposite coatings have been introduced on implants and scaffolds for tissue engineering with the aim of providing more than one properties when required. In this context, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have been shown to enhance the properties of titanium-based implants as part of nanocomposite coatings.
    • Effect of element wall thickness on the homogeneity and isotropy of hardness in SLM IN718 using nanoindentation

      Abo Znemah, Reem; Wood, Paul; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Zhang, Cheng; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; University of Derby; Medtronic Inc., Tempe, Arizona, US (Elsevier, 2020-07-28)
      In this paper the homogeneity and isotropy of the mechanical hardness of thin-walled Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy samples manufactured by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) were examined using nanoindentation testing. SLM-produced honeycombed samples with wall thicknesses of 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mm respectively were studied by measuring the hardness across the wall thickness, and on the planes parallel and perpendicular to the build direction over the range of depths of 10-2000 nm. The average hardness values close to the edges were 4.0-6.5% lower than the areas away from the them. Interestingly the average hardness dropped by 15.2% with reduction in the cell wall thickness from 0.8 mm to 0.4 mm. Average hardness values were reported to be higher on the plane perpendicular to the build direction compared to the parallel plane. A variable material length scale was proposed in this work to describe the size effects of the microstructure. It was evaluated using the nanoindentation hardness test results and a computational model developed in previous studies by the first author and his co-workers.
    • Performance comparison of resin-infused thermoplastic and thermoset 3D fabric composites under impact loading

      Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Shah, S. Z. H.; Megat-Yusoff, P.S.M.; Karuppanan, S.; Ahmad, F.; Sajid, Z.; Gerard, P.; Sharp, K.; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-07-29)
      In this paper, the impact performance of a novel resin-infused acrylic thermoplastic matrix-based 3D glass fabric composite (3D-FRC) has been evaluated and compared with thermoset based 3D-FRC under single as well as recurring strike low velocity impact (LVI) events. The single impact tests revealed that the thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC exhibits up to 45% reduced damage area and can have up to 20% higher impact load-bearing capacity (peak force). The damage mode characterization showed that damage transition energy required for micro to macro damage transition is 27% higher, and back face damage extension is up to 3 times less for thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC. Meanwhile, the recurring strike impact test highlights that the thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC experiences a 50% less damaged area, better structural integrity, and survived more strikes. The comparison of single and repeated LVI tests have also allowed us to present a design criterion for estimating the safe number of repeated LVI events for a given impact energy. The superior impact resistance of thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC is attributed to their higher interlaminar fracture toughness, a tougher fiber-matrix interface, matrix ductility, and unique failure mechanism of yarn straining, which is not present in thermoset composites.
    • Place confinement, pro-social, pro-environmental behaviors and residents' wellbeing: A new conceptual framework

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Derby; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Frontiers, 2020-08)
      Residents’ wellbeing in the present COVID-19 global health crisis requires a deeper understanding to determine appropriate management strategies to promote sustainable behaviors and contribute to human and planetary health. Residents’ behavior can have a profound influence in contributing to personal and global community’s health by responding effectively to emergency strategies in disease outbreaks such as the Coronavirus. It is evident that an understanding of residents’ behavior(s) pre COVID-19 across fields have relied on over-simplistic models, many of which will need to be revisited. Our interaction with people and nature while respecting social distancing has profound positive impacts on our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing. The current health pandemic has called that people be confined in their homes across many nations as a means to control the spread of the virus and save lives. This calls for research exploring the mechanisms; this paper develops and proposes a conceptual framework suggesting that place confinement promotes pro-social and household pro-environmental behaviors which could become habitual and contribute further to our people’s and our planet’s health. Some evidence shows that human connectedness to place may contribute to engagement in desirable behaviors. Interaction with other members of the household can help create meanings leading to collective actions promoting psychological wellbeing. Promoting hygienic behaviors in the household (frequent hand washing) while at the same time being conscious not to keep the water flowing when not required would contribute to a range of benefits (health, financial, biospheric, altruistic) and promote wellbeing. Engaging in pro-social behaviors may result in positive effects on psychological wellbeing, reducing mental distress giving rise to a sense of attachment and belongingness, trust and overall life satisfaction. Engaging people in low-effort pro-environmental behavior to maintain some levels of physical activity and biological harmony with natural environmental settings (e.g. gardening) may help reduce anxiety and distress. This is the first study exploring the interplay of relationships between place confinement, pro-social behavior, household pro-environmental behaviors, place attachment as a multi-dimensional construct and presenting their relationships to residents’ wellbeing. Behavioral change interventions are proposed to promote lifestyle change for people’s wellbeing and broader societal benefits.
    • Pro-environmental business and clean growth trends for the East Midlands 2020

      Paterson, Fred; Baranova, Polina; Gallotta, Bruno; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-06-01)
      Based on responses to the East Midlands Chamber (EMC) Quarterly Economic Survey (Feb 2020): The percentage of businesses in the East Midlands deriving turnover from low carbon and pro-environmental goods and services has nearly doubled between 2015 and 2020: increasing from 16% in 2015 to 31% in 2020. 36% of businesses say their environmental strategy is strongly linked with their business growth strategy. However, four in ten firms do not feel well informed about support for clean growth and more than a quarter (26%) are not engaging with the clean growth agenda.
    • Development and application of eDNA-based tools for the conservation of white-clawed crayfish

      Troth, Christopher R.; Burian, Alfred; Mauvisseau, Quentin; Bulling, Mark; Nightingale, Jen; Mauvisseau, Christophe; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby; University of Bristol; Fédération de Pêche et de Protection du Milieu Aquatique du Loir-et-Cher, France (Elsevier, 2020-07-30)
      eDNA-based methods represent non-invasive and cost-effective approaches for species monitoring and their application as a conservation tool has rapidly increased within the last decade. Currently, they are primarily used to determine the presence/absence of invasive, endangered or commercially important species, but they also hold potential to contribute to an improved understanding of the ecological interactions that drive species distributions. However, this next step of eDNA-based applications requires a thorough method development. We developed an eDNA assay for the white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes), a flagship species of conservation in the UK and Western Europe. Multiple subsequent in-situ and ex-situ validation tests aimed at improving method performance allowed us to apply eDNA-based surveys to evaluate interactions between white-clawed crayfish, crayfish plague and invasive signal crayfish. The assay performed well in terms of specificity (no detection of non-target DNA) and sensitivity, which was higher compared to traditional methods (in this case torching). The eDNA-based quantification of species biomass was, however, less reliable. Comparison of eDNA sampling methods (precipitation vs. various filtration approaches) revealed that optimal sampling method differed across environments and might depend on inhibitor concentrations. Finally, we applied our methodology together with established assays for crayfish plague and the invasive signal crayfish, demonstrating their significant interactions in a UK river system. Our analysis highlights the importance of thorough methodological development of eDNA-based assays. Only a critical evaluation of methodological strengths and weaknesses will allow us to capitalise on the full potential of eDNA-based methods and use them as decision support tools in environmental monitoring and conservation practice.
    • Rutting resistance of asphalt pavement mixes by Finite Element modelling and optimisation

      Phuong Ngo, Chau; Nguyen, Van Bac; Nguyen, Thanh Phong; Bay Pham, Ngoc; Le, Van Phuc; Hung Nguyen, Van; University of Transport and Communications, Campus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; University of Derby (Bilingual Publishing Co., 2020-01-14)
      Asphalt pavement rutting is a major safety concern and is one of the main distress modes of asphalt pavement. Research into asphalt pavement mixes that provide strong resistance for rutting is considered of great significance as it can help provide extended pavement life and significant cost savings in pavement maintenance and rehabilitation. The objectives of this study are to develop numerical models to investigate the rutting of asphalt concrete pavements and to find optimal design of asphalt pavement mix for rutting resistance. Three-dimensional Finite Element models were first developed to simulate both the axial compression and wheel track testing in which a visco-elastic-plastic material model was used to predict the rutting of the asphalt concrete pavements. A strain hardening creep model with the material parameters developed from experimental testing was employed to model the time-dependent characteristics of the asphalt concrete pavements. The results were validated against the previous experimental wheel track test results of different pavement mixes. Finally, optimisation techniques using the Design Of Experiments method were applied to the simulation rutting results by varying creep parameters to identify their effects on rutting resistance in order to obtain an optimal asphalt pavements mixes. The results of this paper clearly demonstrate an efficient and effective experimental-numerical method and tool set towards optimal design for asphalt concrete pavements for rutting resistance.
    • Disrupting resilient criminal networks through data analysis: The case of Sicilian Mafia

      Cavallaro, Lucia; Ficara, Annamaria; De Meo, Pasquale; Fiumara, Giacomo; Catanese, Salvatore; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Song, Wei; Liotta, Antonio; University of Derby; niversity of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-08-05)
      Compared to other types of social networks, criminal networks present particularly hard challenges, due to their strong resilience to disruption, which poses severe hurdles to Law-Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). Herein, we borrow methods and tools from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to (i) unveil the structure and organization of Sicilian Mafia gangs, based on two real-world datasets, and (ii) gain insights as to how to efficiently reduce the Largest Connected Component (LCC) of two networks derived from them. Mafia networks have peculiar features in terms of the links distribution and strength, which makes them very different from other social networks, and extremely robust to exogenous perturbations. Analysts also face difficulties in collecting reliable datasets that accurately describe the gangs’ internal structure and their relationships with the external world, which is why earlier studies are largely qualitative, elusive and incomplete. An added value of our work is the generation of two real-world datasets, based on raw data extracted from juridical acts, relating to a Mafia organization that operated in Sicily during the first decade of 2000s. We created two different networks, capturing phone calls and physical meetings, respectively. Our analysis simulated different intervention procedures: (i) arresting one criminal at a time (sequential node removal); and (ii) police raids (node block removal). In both the sequential, and the node block removal intervention procedures, the Betweenness centrality was the most effective strategy in prioritizing the nodes to be removed. For instance, when targeting the top 5% nodes with the largest Betweenness centrality, our simulations suggest a reduction of up to 70% in the size of the LCC. We also identified that, due the peculiar type of interactions in criminal networks (namely, the distribution of the interactions’ frequency), no significant differences exist between weighted and unweighted network analysis. Our work has significant practical applications for perturbing the operations of criminal and terrorist networks.
    • Experimental and numerical study on soot formation in laminar diffusion flames of biodiesels and methyl esters

      Tian, Bo; Anxiong, Liu; Chong, Cheng Tung; Fan, Luming; Ni, Shiyao; Jo-Han, Ng; Stelio, Rigopoulos; Kai, Luo; Hochgreb, Simone; University of Derby; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-05)
      Biodiesel and blends with petroleum diesel are promising renewable alternative fuels for engines. In the present study, the soot concentration generated from four biodiesels, two pure methyl esters, and their blends with petroleum diesel are measured in a series of fully pre-vapourised co-flow diffusion flames. The experimental measurements are conducted using planar laser induced-incandescence (LII) and laser extinction optical methods. The results show that the maximum local soot volume fractions of neat biodiesels are 24.4% - 41.2% of pure diesel, whereas the mean soot volume fraction of neat biodiesel cases was measured as 11.3% - 21.3% of pure diesel. The addition of biodiesel to diesel not only reduces the number of inception particles, but also inhibits their surface growth. The discretised population balance modelling of a complete set of soot processes is employed to compute the 2D soot volume fraction and size distribution across the tested flames. The results show that the model also demonstrates a reduction of both soot volume fraction and primary particle size by adding biodiesel fuels. However, it is not possible to clearly determine which factors are responsible for the reduction from the comparison alone. Moreover, analysis of the discrepancies between numerical and experimental results for diesel and low-blending cases offers an insight for the refinement of soot formation modelling of combustion with large-molecule fuels.
    • Fuzzy rule-based industry 4.0 maturity model for manufacturing and supply chain management operations

      Caiado, R.G.G.; Scavarda, L.F.; Gavião, L.O.; Ivson, P; de Mattos Nascimento, D.L.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro; Escola Superior de Guerra, Brazil; Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-07-30)
      Industry 4.0 (I4.0) aims to link disruptive technologies to manufacturing systems, combining smart operations and supply chain management (OSCM). Maturity models (MMs) are valuable methodologies to assist manufacturing organizations to track the progress of their I4.0 initiatives and guide digitalization. However, there is a lack of empirical work on the development of I4.0 MMs with clear guidelines for OSCM digitalization. There is no I4.0 MM with an assessment tool that addresses the imprecision brought by human judgment and the uncertainty and ambiguity inherent to OSCM evaluation. Here we develop a fuzzy logic-based I4.0 MM for OSCM, through a transparent and rigorous procedure, built on a multi-method approach comprising a literature review, interviews, focus groups and case study, from model design to model evaluation. To provide a more realistic evaluation, fuzzy logic and Monte Carlo simulation are incorporated into an I4.0 self-assessment readiness-tool, which is connected with the model architecture. The proposed model has been validated through a real application in a multinational manufacturing organization. The results indicate that the approach provides a robust and practical diagnostic tool, based on a set of OSCM indicators to measure digital readiness of manufacturing industries. It supports the transition towards I4.0 in OSCM domain, by holistically analyzing gaps and prescribing actions that can be taken to increase their OSCM4.0 maturity level.
    • Foreign policy and EU-Africa relations: From the European security strategy to the EU global strategy

      Masters, Lesley; Landsberg, Chris; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
      In November 2017 the fifth EU-Africa summit took place in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. It presented an opportunity to showcase the EU’s ‘new’ approach to international affairs, the Global Strategy (2016). As the most recent contribution to the EU’s foreign policy framework there has been a burgeoning body of analysis considering its content (what has changed, and what has stayed the same). But what does the Global Strategy really mean for the EU’s external relations? The challenge of foreign policy is that what is set out in rhetoric often finds a different form in practice. This chapter argues that it is the divergence between the stated EU foreign policy principles and what happens in practice that has resulted in cooling EU-Africa relations. Even where policy priorities convergence, as in the role of multilateralism in the promotion of principles and norms, in practice the EU and AU differ on how this should be approached. While the EU Global Strategy looks to reconcile foreign policy gaps through ‘principled pragmatism’, given the inward-looking nature of the strategy and the AU’s own emphasis on developing its international agency, EU-AU relations will continue to be adrift.
    • Politics, social and economic change and crime: exploring the impact of contextual effects on offending trajectories

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-11)
      Do government policies increase the likelihood that some citizens will become persistent criminals? What is the role of other organisations and institutions in mediating offending over the life-course? Using concepts derived from criminology (such as the idea of a ‘criminal career’, an individual’s repeated, longitudinal sequence of offending), and concepts such as the life-course from sociology, this paper assesses the outcome of macro-level economic policies on individuals’ engagement in crime from age 10 to 30. Whilst many studies have explored the impact of 1980s ‘New Right’ governments on welfare spending, housing and the economy, few studies in political science, sociology or criminology have directly linked macro-economic policies to individual offending careers. Employing individual-level longitudinal data, we track a sample of Britons born in 1970 from childhood to adulthood, examining their offending trajectories between ages 10 and 30, and hence through a period of dramatic economic and social change in the UK throughout the early-1980s, during which the economy was dramatically restructured. As such, we are primarily concerned with the effects of economic policies on an individual’s repeated offending. Using data from the British 1970 Birth Cohort Study, we develop a model that incorporates individuals, families and schools, and which takes account of national-level economic policies (which were driven by New Right political ideas) and which, we argue, shaped individual offending careers. Our paper suggests that processes of economic restructuring were a key causal factor in offending during this period. This broader framework also emphasises the importance of considering political and economic forces in criminal careers and related research. The paper therefore encourages criminologists to draw upon ideas from political science when developing explanations of offending careers, and shows how the choices over the political management of the economy encourage individual-level responses.
    • The adoption of environmentally sustainable supply chain management: Measuring the relative effectiveness of hard dimensions

      Choudhary, Sangita; Kumar, Anil; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Nadeem, Simon Peter; University of Derby; BML Munjal University, Gurgaon, India; Government Polytechnic Jhajjar, Jhajjar, India (Wiley, 2020-07-28)
      Adopting green practices in supply chains contribute towards protecting the environment. For the successful adoption of Environmentally Sustainable Supply Chain Management (ESSCM), the dimensions related to technology, strategy and policy etc., termed as hard dimensions in the scholarly literature, play a significant role. However, the independent influence of these dimensions on ESSCM has not been previously studied. Therefore, the present study aims to fill this gap and evaluate the effectiveness of these dimensions. To do this, the most significant dimensions are identified through a thorough literature review and experts’ inputs. To determine their priority and cause-effect relationship, a combined approach of Best Worst Method (BWM) and Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is used. The analysis indicates that ‘Total Quality Management’, and ‘Technologies for Cleaner Production’, are the most important causal dimensions and provides several insights to the decision-makers to formulate robust business strategies to the adoption of ESSCM.
    • Police interview of suspects in China: developments and analyses

      Zeng, Fanging; Huang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; University of China; Keele University; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-13)
      This paper investigates the power dynamics in police interviews with suspects in China by examining a real-life sample. It first overviews some recent developments and legislation in China regarding police interviewing of suspects, followed by outlining the linguistic and psychological research which the analyses are based upon. The interviews are examined using critical discourse analysis that reveals the high-power position of the Chinese police in suspect interviews. However, the large proportion of open questions found in the interviews is encouraging, as this suggests that the regulations outlawing use of evidence obtained by torture or other illegal means is taking effect. This paper is the very first to empirically examine actual Chinese police interviews with suspects, providing valuable insights for theories and practice.
    • CRT-BIoV: A cognitive radio technique for blockchain-enabled internet of vehicles

      Rathee, Geetanjali; Farhan, Ahmad; Kurugollu, Fatih; Azad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Razi; Imran, Muhammad; Jaypee University of Information Technology, India; University of Derby; University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan; King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (IEEE, 2020-07-23)
      Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) is considered as a viable solution on Internet of Vehicle (IoV) where objects equipped with cognition make decisions intelligently through the understanding of both social and physical worlds. However, the spectrum availability and data sharing/transferring among vehicles are critical improving services and driving safety metrics where the presence of Malicious Devices (MD) further degrade the network performance. Recently, a blockchain technique in CRN-based IoV has been introduced to prevent data alteration from these MD and allowing the vehicles to track both legal and illegal activities in the network. In this paper, we provide the security to IoV during spectrum sensing and information transmission using CRN by sensing the channels through a decision-making technique known as \textit{Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)}, a technique that evokes the trust of its Cognitive Users (CU) by analyzing certain predefined attributes. Further, blockchain is maintained in the network to trace every activity of stored information. The proposed mechanism is validated rigorously against several security metrics using various spectrum sensing and security parameters against a baseline solution in IoV. Extensive simulations suggest that our proposed mechanism is approximately 70% more efficient in terms of malicious nodes identification and DoS threat against the baseline mechanism.
    • Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-07-28)
      Shinrin-yoku (forest-bathing), immersing oneself in nature using one's senses, has been receiving increased attention internationally. While most of the existing studies have focused on physical health, this systematic review and meta-analysis examined the mental health benefits of shinrin-yoku (i.e., depression, anxiety, anger), using the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registery: BLINDED). Articles in English were retrieved on research databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Of 481 articles retrieved, twenty met the inclusion criteria (eight non-randomised and twelve randomised controlled trials). All studies were conducted in Asia and Europe and used a variety of different bathing approaches (e.g., breathing, walking, yoga). While noting a need for more rigorous research and more extensive follow-up assessments, the findings indicate that shinrin-yoku can be effective in reducing negative mental health symptoms in the short-term (large effects, g> .80); particularly, the effects on anxiety were largest. Overall, forest bathing improved depression, anxiety and anger in the short-term but there were a number of moderators of the effects. More careful examination of shinrin-yoku practices are needed; longer follow-up with participants from a range of countries along with greater examination of potential mechanisms of action are needed for shinrin-yoku to be accepted into mainstream interventions.
    • A framework to achieve sustainability in manufacturing organisations of developing economies using Industry 4.0 technologies’ enablers

      Yadav, G; Kumar, Anil; Luthra, S; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, V; Batista, L; Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, India; London Metropolitan University; Ch. Ranbir Singh State Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jhajjar, Haryana, India; University of Derby; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-07-07)
      Sustainability has emerged as one of the most important issues in the international market. Ignorance of sustainability aspects has led many manufacturing organisations to face huge financial losses. It has been observed that developed nations have successfully achieved sustainability in their manufacturing sectors. However, the rate of sustainability adoption in developing nations is significantly poorer. The current business trend offers new technologies such as the Internet of Things, Big data analytics, Blockchain, Machine learning, etc. These technologies can be termed under the Industry 4.0 paradigm when considered within a manufacturing context. It is significant to notice that such new technologies directly or indirectly contribute to sustainability. So, it is necessary to explore the enablers that facilitate sustainability adoption. This study aims to develop a framework to improve sustainability adoption across manufacturing organisations of developing nations using Industry 4.0 technologies. Initially, the enablers that strongly influence sustainability adoption are identified through a literature review. Further, a large scale survey is conducted to finalise the Industry 4.0 technologies’ enablers to be included in the framework. Based on the empirical analysis, a framework is developed and tested across an Indian manufacturing case organisation. Finally, Robust Best Worst Method (RBWM) is utilised to identify the intensity of influence of each enabler included in the framework. The findings of the study reveal that managerial and economical, and environmental enablers possess a strong contribution toward sustainability adoption. The outcomes of the present study will be beneficial for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers.