Now showing items 1-20 of 3687

    • On some results concerning the polygonal polynomials.

      Andrica, Dorin; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Babeș-Bolyai University; University of Derby (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca., 2019-02-13)
      In this paper we define the $n$th polygonal polynomial $P_n(z) = (z-1)(z^2-1)\cdots(z^n-1)$ and we investigate recurrence relations and exact integral formulae for the coefficients of $P_n(z)$ and for those of the Mahonian polynomials $Q_n(z)=(z+1)(z^2+z+1)\cdots(z^{n-1}+\cdots+z+1)$. We also explore numerical properties of these coefficients, unraveling new meanings for old sequences and generating novel entries to the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS). Some open questions are also formulated.
    • Endemicity and climatic niche differentiation in three marine ciliated protists

      Williams, Richard, A.J.; Owens, Hannah, L; Clamp, John; Peterson, A Townsend; Warren, Alan; Martin-Cereceda, Mercedes; Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82, Kalmar, Sweden; Biodiversity Institute, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; Department of Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707, USA; Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK; Department of Genetics, Physiology and Microbiology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 2018-07-18)
      The biogeographic pattern of single‐celled eukaryotes (protists), including ciliates, is poorly understood. Most marine species are believed to have a relatively high dispersal potential, such that both globally distributed and geographically isolated taxa exist. Primary occurrence data for three large, easily identified ciliate species, Parafavella gigantea, Schmidingerella serrata, and Zoothamnium pelagicum, and environmental data drawn from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's World Ocean Atlas were used to estimate each species’ spatial and environmental distributions using Maxent v3.3.3k. The predictive power of the models was tested with a series of spatial stratification studies, which were evaluated using partial receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Differences between niches occupied by each taxon were evaluated using background similarity tests. All predictions showed significant ability to anticipate test points. The null hypotheses of niche similarity were rejected in all background similarity tests comparing the niches among the three species. This article provides the first quantitative assessment of environmental conditions associated with three species of ciliates and a first estimate of their spatial distributions in the North Atlantic, which can serve as a benchmark against which to document distributional shifts. These species follow consistent, predictable patterns related to climate and environmental biochemistry; the importance of climatic conditions as regards protist distributions is noteworthy considering the effects of global climate change.
    • Molecular identification of papillomavirus in ducks

      Williams, Richard, A.J.; Tolf, Conny; Waldenström, Jonas; Linnaeus University (Nature Research, 2018-06-14)
      Papillomaviruses infect many vertebrates, including birds. Persistent infections by some strains can cause malignant proliferation of cells (i.e. cancer), though more typically infections cause benign tumours, or may be completely subclinical. Sometimes extensive, persistent tumours are recorded– notably in chaffinches and humans. In 2016, a novel papillomavirus genotype was characterized from a duck faecal microbiome, in Bhopal, India; the sixth papillomavirus genotype from birds. Prompted by this finding, we screened 160 cloacal swabs and 968 faecal samples collected from 299 ducks sampled at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden in 2015, using a newly designed real-time PCR. Twenty one samples (1.9%) from six individuals (2%) were positive. Eighteen sequences were identical to the published genotype, duck papillomavirus 1. One additional novel genotype was recovered from three samples. Both genotypes were recovered from a wild strain domestic mallard that was infected for more than 60 days with each genotype. All positive individuals were adult (P = 0.004). Significantly more positive samples were detected from swabs than faecal samples (P < 0.0001). Sample type data suggests transmission may be via direct contact, and only infrequently, via the oral-faecal route. Infection in only adult birds supports the hypothesis that this virus is sexually transmitted, though more work is required to verify this.
    • A century of Shope Papillomavirus in museum rabbit specimens

      Duch, Clara Esucdero; Williams, Richard, A.J.; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura; Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,; Department of Zoology and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Natural Sciences, Saint Louis University, Madrid,; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology & Natural History Museum, University of Kansas (Public Library of Science, 2015-07-06)
      Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansa and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco—Mexico’s first—and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), predating Shope’s first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus.
    • Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches

      Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; John, Shinto K.; Benitez, Laura; Tolf, Conny; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Williams, Richard, A.J.; Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK.; British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford, Norfolk, IP24 2PU, UK.; IDEXX Laboratories Limited, Grange House, Sandbeck Way, Wetherby, West Yorkshire, LS22 7DN, UK.; Departamento de Genética, Fisiología y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid, Spain.; Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, EEMiS, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, 391 82, Sweden; Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid, Spain (Nature Publiching Group, 2018-10-10)
      Proliferative leg skin lesions have been described in wild finches in Europe although there have been no large-scale studies of their aetiology or epizootiology to date. Firstly, disease surveillance, utilising public reporting of observations of live wild finches was conducted in Great Britain (GB) and showed proliferative leg skin lesions in chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to be widespread. Seasonal variation was observed, with a peak during the winter months. Secondly, pathological investigations were performed on a sample of 39 chaffinches, four bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), one greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) with proliferative leg skin lesions and detected Cnemidocoptes sp. mites in 91% (41/45) of affected finches and from all species examined. Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FcPV1) PCR was positive in 74% (23/31) of birds tested: a 394 base pair sequence was derived from 20 of these birds, from all examined species, with 100% identity to reference genomes. Both mites and FcPV1 DNA were detected in 71% (20/28) of birds tested for both pathogens. Histopathological examination of lesions did not discriminate the relative importance of mite or FcPV1 infection as their cause. Development of techniques to localise FcPV1 within lesions is required to elucidate the pathological significance of FcPV1 DNA detection.
    • Prevalence and genetic diversity of Avipoxvirus in house sparrows in Spain

      Ruiz-Martinez, Jorge; Ferraguti, Martina; Figuerola, Jorge; Martinez-de la Puente, Josue; Williams, Richard, A.J.; Herrera-Duenas, Amparo; Aguirre, Jose I; Soriguer, R; Escudero-Duch, Clara; Moens, Mikael, AJ; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura; Departamento de Microbiologia III, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid,; Estacion Biologica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Sevilla, Spain,; CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Spain; Departamento de Zoologia y Antropologia Fisica, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain (Public Library of Science, 2016-12-22)
      Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012±2013). Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3%) was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2) previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.
    • Innovative approach to sustainable material sourcing and its impact on building performance

      Rajpurohit J.S., Ceranic B., Latham D.; University of Derby (WIT Press, 2019-01-29)
      In this paper, a novel use of building materials and their impact on the building performance and its climatic adaptability is explored, based on a complex case study of a unique low energy sustainable building project. In particular, an innovative use of sycamore and its suitability as a structural and constructional timber has been investigated and reported, given that the current codes of practice deem that is not appropriate for structural applications due to its durability. A research method of in-situ longitudinal study has been adopted, concentrating on the monitoring and assessment of its structural performance and conditions in which it might deteriorate. On the component level, the research reports on the methods and standards of sycamore grading and classification, service classes, resistance to decay, impact of the moisture movement and results of its laboratory and in situ testing. On the system level, the climatic adaptability of the building as a whole has been analysed via dynamic performance simulation and compared to the in-situ measurements. This was important in order to develop a holistic building performance monitoring strategy, but in particular, to understand the impact of building microclimate on the sycamore frame and hempcrete components of the external load-bearing wall. So far research has concluded that sycamore can be used as structural and constructional material in building design, but due attention has to be paid to construction detailing and provision of a breathable, low humidity environment with an effective resistance to decay and insect attack. This includes measures that ensure a low equilibrium moisture content conditions, effective ventilation provision and appropriate service class uses. It is important to state however, given the single site locality of sycamore sourcing, that results can only be interpreted in the context of the given case study, i.e. they cannot be extrapolated to broader geographical extents.
    • Potential of Retrofitting Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Using an Integrated Geographical Information System Remote Sensing Based Approach

      Ferrier, G.; Milan, D.; Keat Yew, C.; Pope, R.J.; University of Hull; University of Derby (2018-12-06)
      Flooding is a major problem in urban areas worldwide. Methodologies that can rapidly assess the scale and identify the reasons causing these flooding events at minimal cost are urgently required. This study has used the City of Kingston-upon-Hull to evaluate the capability of an integrated remote sensing and geographical information system based approach to provide the critical information on the spatial extent of flooding and flood water volumes and overcome the limitations in current monitoring based on ground-based visual mapping and household flooding surveys. Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR datasets were combined with digital aerial photography, flood assessment surveys, and maps of housing, infrastructure and the sewer network. The integration of these datasets provided an enhanced understanding of the sources and pathways of the flood water runoff, accurate quantification of the water volumes associated with each flooding event and the identification of the optimum locations and size of potential retrofit Sustainable Urban Drainage systems.
    • The impact of books on social inclusion and development and well-being among children and young people with severe and profound learning disabilities: recognising the unrecognised cohort

      Robinson, Deborah; Moore, Nicki; Harris, Catherine; University of Derby; Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (Wiley, 2019-02-07)
      This paper presents the findings of an original research project commissioned by BookTrust, a respected UK charity that gifts books to children, young people (CYP) and their families. It explored the impact and modus of pleasurable engagement with books among CYP with severe and profound learning disabilities and applied a critical, phenomenological stance on what it means to read through drawing on 'inclusive literacy' as a conceptual framework. Data was collected from four local areas in England and included 43 CYP aged 4-14. In keeping with a phenomenological stance, it employed interpretivist methods involving 13 deep-level interviews with families to include observations and structured play; 13 observations of CYP sharing books with others in home, play or school settings, and interviews with 27 practitioners working in a range of organisations (e.g. Portage service, advisory teams). Findings were that books had a positive impact on well-being, social inclusion and development. CYP were engaged in enjoying the content of books through personalisation, sensory stimulation, social stimulation and repetition. This affirmed the theoretical and practical approaches espoused by 'inclusive literacy' but made a critical and original contribution to our understanding of the special place that books occupy as ordinary artefacts of literary citizenship among this cohort. The benefits of volitional reading among CYP who do not have learning disabilities are well known but the authors urge publishers and policy makers to recognise CYP with severe and profound learning disabilities as equally important, active consumers of books who have much to gain from reading for pleasure. There is strong evidence of the positive relationship between reading for pleasure and attainment, emotional and economic wellbeing. Reading books for pleasure has strong associations with emotional and personal development including self-understanding. This is shown to be the case across genders and socioeconomic groups but significantly less research has been done on the impact of reading books for pleasure among people with learning disabilities. This paper provides an original account of the impact of pleasurable reading and engagement with books on children and young people (CYP) with severe learning disabilities (SLD) and profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD). It demonstrates that responsive adults support pleasurable engagement with books and reading in ways that enable children and young people with reading disabilities to develop sensory, shared focus, communication, social and cultural understanding whilst also providing a basis for shared attention, closeness and wellbeing. Provided is account of the modus of pleasurable reading and engagement with books within the conceptual frame of inclusive literacy and phenomenological conceptions of what it means to read. Effective practices are illustrated and outlined to include recognition of the importance of multi-modal texts, personalisation and intense dyadic interaction. The paper urges policy makers and publishers to recognises CYP with SLD and PMLD as important, active consumers of books, claiming that their relative absence from consideration of positive impacts is a sign of exclusive conceptualisations of what it means to be a literate citizen.
    • Dying from liver disease: the importance of end-of-life discussions

      Watson, Sharan; Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby; Post-Registration Lecturer, at the College of Health and Social Care, University of Derby; Lecturer, at the College of Health and Social Care, University of Derby (2018-12-21)
      Over the past 50 years, deaths from liver disease have risen dramatically, whereas deaths from many other major diseases have fallen. Liver disease is now the third largest cause of premature death in the UK, with alcohol-related liver disease accounting for nearly 40% of these deaths. With advanced liver disease comes the associated complications of varices, hepatic encephalopathy and ascites, and death from liver disease can be sudden and catastrophic. Supportive and palliative care needs in people with liver disease often go unrecognised and unaddressed. End-of-life care and wishes can be a difficult subject to broach to patients and their loved ones, but it is one that nurses are often best placed to undertake. Therefore, when considering the overall care of patients with liver disease, it is necessary to incorporate anticipatory and concordant end-of-life plans.
    • The mental health needs of child and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers entering Europe.

      Sapthiang, s; Van Gordon, W; Shonin, E; Griffiths, M; University of Derby; University of Essex.; Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation and Mindfulness Research, Ragusa, Italy; Nottingham Trent University. (2019-02-01)
      Children and adolescents constitute more than half of the global refugee population, and almost one‑third of first‑time asylum seekers in the European Union (EU) during 2015 were under 18 years of age. Syria, in particular, accounts for a substantial proportion of young refugees and asylum seekers because the ongoing civil war has led to almost 5 million Syrians fleeing their country and becoming refugees during the past 7 years. Being a child or adolescent refugee or asylum seeker carries an increased risk of developing mental illness, and such displaced young people are known to experience problems in accessing health‑care support. The present article draws on examples from Syria in order to (i) Highlight mental health issues that typically arise in children and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers entering Europe and (ii) discuss how changes to health systems and policies in European countries receiving refugees and asylum seekers can be better aligned with global efforts to improve the mental health of young displaced immigrants. In general, research findings indicate that there is a need for better awareness, intra‑agency collaboration, and cultural sensitivity toward the mental health needs of this immigrant population. Furthermore, there is also a need for EU countries to better respond to posttraumatic stress disorder and other typical refugee and asylum seeker mental health problems by more closely aligning national policies with global initiatives to improve the mental health of young displaced immigrants.
    • Multi-objective evolutionary—fuzzy augmented flight control for an F16 aircraft

      Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Parr, M; Stewart, J; University of Sheffield (2009-11-05)
      In this article, the multi-objective design of a fuzzy logic augmented flight controller for a high performance fighter jet (the Lockheed-Martin F16) is described. A fuzzy logic controller is designed and its membership functions tuned by genetic algorithms in order to design a roll, pitch, and yaw flight controller with enhanced manoeuverability which still retains safety critical operation when combined with a standard inner-loop stabilizing controller. The controller is assessed in terms of pilot effort and thus reduction of pilot fatigue. The controller is incorporated into a six degree of freedom motion base real-time flight simulator, and flight tested by a qualified pilot instructor.
    • Behavioural Digital Forensics Model: Embedding Behavioural Evidence Analysis into the Investigation of Digital Crimes

      Al Mutawa, Noora; Bryce, Joanne; Franqueira, Virginia N.L.; Marrington, Andrew; Read, Janet C.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-03)
      The state-of-the-art and practice show an increased recognition, but limited adoption, of Behavioural Evidence Analysis (BEA) within the Digital Forensics (DF) investigation process. Yet, there is currently no BEA-driven process model and guidelines for DF investigators to follow in order to take advantage of such an approach. This paper proposes the Behavioural Digital Forensics Model to fill this gap. It takes a multidisciplinary approach which incorporates BEA into in-lab investigation of seized devices related to interpersonal cases (i.e., digital crimes involving human interactions between offender(s) and victim(s)). The model was designed based on the application of traditional BEA phases to 35 real cases, and evaluated using 5 real digital crime cases - all from Dubai Police archive. This paper, however, provides details of only one case from this evaluation pool. Compared to the outcome of these cases using a traditional DF investigation process, the new model showed a number of benefits. It allowed a more effective focusing of the investigation, and provided logical directions for identifying the location of further relevant evidence. It also enabled a better understanding and interpretation of victim/offender behaviours (e.g., probable offenders' motivations and modus operandi), which facilitated a more in depth understanding of the dynamics of the specific crime. Finally, in some cases, it enabled the identification of suspect's collaborators, something which was not identified via the traditional investigative process.
    • The determination of finger flexor critical force in rock climbers

      Giles, David; Chidley, Joel;; Taylor, Nicola; Torr, Ollie; Hadley, Josh; Randall, Tom; Fryer, Simon; University of Derby (Human Kinetics, 2019-04)
      Purpose: To determine if the mathematical model used for the estimation of critical force (CF) and the energy store component W’ is applicable to intermittent isometric muscle actions of the finger flexors of rock climbers, using a multi-session test. As a secondary aim, the agreement of estimates of CF and W’ from a single-session test were also determined. The CF was defined as the slope coefficient and W’ the intercept of the linear relationship between total “isometric work” (Wlim) and time to exhaustion (Tlim). Methods: Subjects performed three (separated by either 20 m or >24 h) tests to failure using intermittent isometric finger flexor contractions at 45, 60 and 80% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Results: Force plotted against Tlim displayed a hyperbolic relationship, correlation coefficients of the parameter estimates from the work–time CF model were consistently very high (R2 > 0.94). Climbers mean CF was 425.7 ± 82.8 N (41.0 ± 6.2% MVC) and W’ 30882 ± 11820 N·s. Good agreement was found between the single and multi-session protocol for CF (ICC(3,1) = 0.900, 95% Confidence Interval [CI95%] 0.616 – 0.979), but not for W’ (ICC(3,1) = 0.768, CI95% 0.190 – 0.949). Conclusions: The results demonstrated the sensitivity of a simple test for the determination of CF and W’, using equipment readily available in most climbing gyms. While further work is still necessary, the test of CF described is of value for understanding exercise tolerance and determine optimal training prescription to monitor improvements the performance of the finger flexors.
    • Nightbreed - the cabal cut

      Cherrington, Russell; University of Derby (Seraphim Films / Morgan Creek Films, 2017-12-01)
      Nightbreed is a 1990 Fantasy/Horror Film created by Polymath Clive Barker. In 2012 Russell Cherrington with the aid of Jimmi Johnson took all the available film elements, work prints, original cinema release and the 2nd draft script. The question was can the film be recreated and would it have an impact and a meaning in 2012. The finished film was screened at over 50 Film Festivals around the world from 2013 to 2015. It led to the Occupy Midian movement with over 10,000 follwers on Twitter, Facebook and the Internet. The film was restored into a Directors Cut in 2015 and finally in 2017 the Cabal Cut was released on Blu Ray.
    • Searching for synergies, making majorities: the demands for Pakistan and Maharashtra.

      Godsmark, Oliver; University of Sheffield (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-03)
      This paper re-examines the Pakistan demand as part of a wider ‘federal moment’ in India, by addressing its connections with the coterminous calls for Samyukta Maharashtra in the context of the Cabinet Mission of spring/summer 1946. It highlights how the twinned processes of democratisation and provincialisation during the interwar years informed these demands. Both Muslim and Maratha representatives looked to locate and secure autonomous political spaces that would better secure their political representation. Their demands exemplified a shift away from a commensurative logic expressed through separate representation in the legislatures, and towards support for majority rule at the provincial level.
    • 'Civis Indianus Sum': ambedkar on democracy and territory during linguistic reorganisation (and partition).

      Godsmark, Oliver; University of Sheffield (Cambridge University Press., 2019)
      This article considers Ambedkar’s ideas about the implementation of democracy in India, in the context of the linguistic reorganisation of provincial administrative boundaries. In doing so, it looks to emphasise the importance of territorial configurations to Dalit politics during this period, and in particular the consequences of ‘provincialisation’, which has received little attention within the existing literature. Rethinking space by redrawing administrative territory provided Ambedkar with one potential avenue through which to escape the strictures of Dalits’ minority status. In this vision, linguistic reorganisation (and partition) were harbingers of greater democratisation and potential palliatives to the threat of Hindu majority rule at the centre. In turn, however, Ambedkar simultaneously came to perceive the creation of these new administrative spaces as marking a new form of provincial majoritarianism, despite his best efforts to form alliances with those making such demands. In this sense, the article also seeks to address some of the shared processes behind linguistic reorganisation and partition, as two related forms of territorial redrawing. In the face of these demands, and the failures of both commensuration and coalition politics, Ambedkar turned to the idea of separate settlements for Dalits, whereby they might themselves come to constitute a majority. Whilst such a novel attempt at separation and resettlement was not ultimately realised, its emergence within Ambedkar’s thought at this time points towards its significance in any history of caste and untouchability in twentieth-century South Asia.
    • The role of rumination in adjusting to termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: rumination as a predictor and mediator of posttraumatic growth (in press).

      Usher, L; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline; The University of Derby (2019)
      Objective: Rumination is important in adjusting to traumatic events. Evidence suggests that deliberate rumination predicts posttraumatic growth (PTG), and mediates the relationship between coping and PTG. This study examined the relationship between rumination and psychological adjustment following pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA). Method: A cross-sectional, online study was conducted with women who had undergone TFA. Women were recruited from a support organisation; 161 women completed the Brief COPE, the Perinatal Grief Scale, the Event-Related Rumination Inventory and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Data were analysed using regression and mediation analyses. Results: The results show that women engaged in high levels of intrusive and deliberate rumination post-TFA and that intrusive rumination predicted grief. Intrusive and deliberate rumination predicted PTG, although intrusive rumination was a negative predictor of growth. Deliberate rumination mediated the relationship between grief and PTG. It also mediated the path between positive reframing and PTG, and religious coping and PTG, although the mediation effect depended upon the inclusion of the grief variable in the models. Conclusions: The results confirm the applicability of the PTG model to TFA and support the relevance of rumination to the PTG experience. The results also have clinical implications. Given the positive relationship between deliberate rumination and PTG, promoting interventions that encourage reflective thinking and narrative construction would benefit women post-TFA, particularly those experiencing high levels of distress and/or at risk of complicated grief.
    • Perinatal grief following a termination of pregnancy for foetal abnormality: the impact of coping strategies.

      Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline; The University of Derby (Wiley., 2013-12-05)
      Pregnancy termination for foetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological repercussions, but little is known about the coping strategies involved in dealing with TFA. This study examined the relationships between women's coping strategies and perinatal grief. A total of 166 women completed a survey online. Coping and perinatal grief were measured using the Brief COPE and Short Perinatal Grief Scales. Data were analysed through multiple regression analyses. Despite using mostly adaptive coping strategies, women's levels of grief were high and varied according to obstetric and termination variables. Grief was predicted by behavioural disengagement, venting, planning, religion, self‐blame, being recently bereaved, being childless at the time of TFA, not having had children/being pregnant since TFA and uncertainty about the decision to terminate the pregnancy. Acceptance and positive reframing negatively predicted grief. Identifying women vulnerable to poor psychological adjustment and promoting coping strategies associated with lower levels of grief may be beneficial. This could be addressed through information provision and interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
    • An exploration of formal and informal mindfulness practice and associations with wellbeing.

      Birtwell, Kelly; Williams, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm; Armitage, Christopher J.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Manchester; NIHR School for Primary Care Research Manchester England; Brighton and Sussex Medical School University of Brighton; NIHR Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre (Springer., 2018-05-21)
      Mindfulness has transdiagnostic applicability, but little is known about how people first begin to practice mindfulness and what sustains practice in the long term. The aim of the present research was to explore the experiences of a large sample of people practicing mindfulness, including difficulties with practice and associations between formal and informal mindfulness practice and wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, 218 participants who were practicing mindfulness or had practiced in the past completed an online survey about how they first began to practice mindfulness, difficulties and supportive factors for continuing to practice, current wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Participants had practiced mindfulness from under a year up to 43 years. There was no significant difference in the frequency of formal mindfulness practice between those who had attended a face-to-face taught course and those who had not. Common difficulties included finding time to practice formally and falling asleep during formal practice. Content analysis revealed “practical resources,” “time/routine,” “support from others,” and “attitudes and beliefs,” which were supportive factors for maintaining mindfulness practice. Informal mindfulness practice was related to positive wellbeing and psychological flexibility. Frequency (but not duration) of formal mindfulness practice was associated with positive wellbeing; however, neither frequency nor duration of formal mindfulness practice was significantly associated with psychological flexibility. Mindfulness teachers will be able to use the present findings to further support their students by reminding them of the benefits as well as normalising some of the challenges of mindfulness practice including falling asleep.