• Tourism, health, wellbeing and protected areas.

      Azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; Niccolini, Federico; Taff, B. Derrick; University of Derby (CABI, 2018-05-01)
      Around the world, there is mounting evidence that parks and protected areas contribute to a healthy civil society, thus increasing the economic importance of cultural and nature-based tourism. Operating at the intersection of business and the environment, tourism can improve human health and wellbeing as well as serve as a catalyst for increasing appreciation and stewardship of the natural world. While the revenues from nature-based activities help to make the case for investing in park and protected area management; the impacts they have need to be carefully managed, so that visitors do not destroy the natural wonders that attracted them to a destination in the first place. This book features contributions from tourism and recreation researchers and practitioners exploring the relationship between tourism, hospitality, protected areas, livelihoods and both physical and emotional human wellbeing. The book includes sections focused on theory, policy and practice, and case studies, to inform and guide industry decisions to address real-world problems and proactively plan for a sustainable and healthy future.
    • Tourism, indigenous peoples and endogeneity in the Chatham Islands.

      Wiltshier, Peter; Cardow, Andrew; University of Derby; Massey University (Emerald, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. Design/methodology/approach – The twenty‐first century identifies good practices in many aspects of bottom‐up planning and implementation in neoliberal political economies. New Zealand is for many reasons, due to scale, skills and education, an example of endogenous development that is used globally for best practice studies. This paper specifically identifies and explores the local responses to the challenge of democracy and opportunities for diversification through tourism services provision on the Chatham Islands. Findings – The paper notes that community capacity and governance on the Chathams has been the subject of discussion in recent years and the focus has been directed to conflicts in governance and possibly inappropriate policy and practice coordination. Although the refocus on endogenous development, empowerment and devolution of responsibility has a long pedigree in the context of the neoliberal economy, insufficient attention has been paid to the skills, inclination, social and economic capital for indigenous enterprise, more so in an environment of isolation, relative deprivation and dependence. Originality/value – This paper highlights indigenous and endogenous components of community capacity development through a focus on enterprise with renewed vigour and fervency attributable to local power elites and local collaboration and cooperation. A useful model of indigenous tourism development and its endogenous antecedents is considered at the conclusion.
    • Toward a flexible and fine-grained access control framework for infrastructure as a service clouds

      Li, Bo; Li, Jianxin; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Chao; University of Derby; State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Beihang University; Beijing China; State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Beihang University; Beijing China; School of Computing and Mathematics; University of Derby; U.K.; State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Beihang University; Beijing China (Wiley, 2015-02-17)
      Cloud computing, as an emerging computing paradigm, greatly facilitates resource sharing and enables providing computing power as services over the Internet. However, it also brings new challenges for security and access control, especially in infrastructure as a service clouds. The introduction of virtualization layer increases new security risks, which should be restricted and confined by more stringent access control techniques. In this paper, we propose a flexible and fine-grained access control framework, named IaaS-oriented Hybrid Access Control (iHAC), which combines the advantages of both the role-based access control and type enforcement model. We consider access control issues from the perspective of virtual machines. A permission transition model is designed to dynamically assign permissions to virtual machines. A Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)-based access control mechanism is presented to confine the virtual machine's behaviors in a fine-grained manner. A VMM-enabled network access control approach is proposed to regulate the communication among virtual machines. iHAC is successfully implemented in the Internet based Virtual Computing Infrastructure (iVIC)† platform, and several experiments are conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and efficiency. The results show that iHAC can make correct access control decisions with low performance overhead.
    • Toward a more realistic, cost-effective, and greener ground movement through active routing: A multiobjective shortest path approach

      Chen, Jun; Atkin, Jason A. D.; Locatelli, Giorgio; Weiszer, Michal; Ravizza, Stefan; Stewart, Paul; Burke, Edmund K.; University of Derby (IEEE, 2016-10-31)
      This paper draws upon earlier work, which devel- oped a multiobjective speed profile generation framework for unimpeded taxiing aircraft. Here, we deal with how to seamlessly integrate such efficient speed profiles into a holistic decision- making framework. The availability of a set of nondominated unimpeded speed profiles for each taxiway segment, with respect to conflicting objectives, has the potential to significantly impact upon airport ground movement research. More specifically, the routing and scheduling function that was previously based on distance, emphasizing time efficiency, could now be based on richer information embedded within speed profiles, such as the taxiing times along segments, the corresponding fuel consumption, and the associated economic implications. The economic implica- tions are exploited over a day of operation, to take into account cost differences between busier and quieter times of the airport. Therefore, a more cost-effective and tailored decision can be made, respecting the environmental impact. Preliminary results based on the proposed approach show a 9%–50% reduction in time and fuel respectively for two international airports: Zurich and Manchester. The study also suggests that, if the average power setting during the acceleration phase could be lifted from the level suggested by the International Civil Aviation Organization, ground operations may simultaneously improve both time and fuel efficiency. The work described in this paper aims to open up the possibility to move away from the conventional distance-based routing and scheduling to a more comprehensive framework, capturing the multifaceted needs of all stakeholders involved in airport ground operations.
    • Toward a More Realistic, Cost-Effective, and Greener Ground Movement Through Active Routing—Part I: Optimal Speed Profile Generation

      Chen, Jun; Weiszer, Michal; Stewart, Paul; Shabani, Masihalah; University of Derby - IISE (2015-11-05)
      Abstract- Among all airport operations, aircraft ground movement plays a key role in improving overall airport capacity as it links other airport operations. Moreover, ever-increasing air traffic, rising costs, and tighter environmental targets create pressure to minimize fuel burn on the ground. However, current routing functions envisioned in Advanced Surface Movement, Guidance and Control Systems almost exclusively consider the most time efficient solution and apply a conservative separation to ensure conflict-free surface movement, sometimes with additional buffer times to absorb small deviations from the taxi times. Such an overly constrained routing approach may result in either a too tight planning for some aircraft so that fuel efficiency is compromised due to multiple acceleration phases, or performance could be further improved by reducing the separation and buffer times. In light of this, Parts I and II of this paper present a new Active Routing (AR) framework with the aim of providing a more realistic, cost-effective, and environmental friendly surface movement, targeting some of the busiest international hub airports. Part I of this paper focuses on optimal speed profile generation using a physics-based aircraft movement model. Two approaches based, respectively, on the Base of Aircraft Data and the International Civil Aviation Organization engine emissions database have been employed to model fuel consumption. These models are then embedded within a multiobjective optimization framework to capture the essence of different speed profiles in a Pareto optimal sense. The proposed approach represents the first attempt to systematically address speed profiles with competing objectives. Results reveal an apparent tradeoff between fuel burn and taxi times irrespective of fuel consumption modeling approaches. This will have a profound impact on the routing and scheduling and open the door for the new concept of AR discussed in Part II of this paper.
    • Towards a conceptual framework for Value Stream Mapping (VSM) implementation: An in-vestigation of managerial factors

      Andreadis, Eleftherios; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; University of Derby; University of West England (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-03)
      Despite the relatively extensive literature on VSM, limited reflection has been reported regarding how managerial proceedings actually put VSM into practice. This research therefore investigates these issues as part of the overall lean philosophy and in correlation with some of its main tools. Five hypotheses and three complementary research questions were formulated and tested using a combination of descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation, 2-Sample proportion, One-way ANOVA, 1-Sample t-tests and Tukey-Pairwise comparison tests. Data were collected through a survey questionnaire responded by 168 manufacturing organisations worldwide. The results establish, among other ‘soft’ aspects; (1) whether organisations that have adopted lean have also employed VSM as an essential tool to identify waste, (2) the position that VSM normally takes in the timeframe hierarchy of lean implementation, (3) the complexity of VSM implementation in terms of easiness and time taken for training when compared to other lean tools such as TPM, JIT and Jidoka, and the (4) critical success factors and barriers for the VSM implementation. A conceptual framework to support the implementation and management of VSM is developed through the unification of the results obtained. This study supports the very limited empirical research on the implementation and management of VSM.
    • Towards a conceptual roadmap for statistical process control implementation in the food industry.

      Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Antony, Ji; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Arshed, Norin; Heriot-Watt University; University of Putra Malaysia; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2015-03-14)
      Statistical process control (SPC) is one of the most highly used quality control techniques in the industry. The lack of specific implementation guidelines makes it the least applied quality control technique in the food industry. This paper presents a five-phase SPC implementation conceptual roadmap in the food industry developed based on a critical review on current literature of various SPC deployment methods. It considers six critical factors for the SPC implementation in the food industry. This paper makes unique contributions by presenting a systematic approach for the managers of this industry to successfully deploy SPC in their organisations.
    • Towards a Deeper Understanding of 21st Century Global Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2016)
      This paper examines essential issues relating to the rise and nature of violent extremism involving non-state actors and groups in the early 21st century. The global trends in terrorism and violent extremism are examined in relation to Western governments' counter terror operations. The paper analyses the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism and highlights the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups. The paper discusses how terrorist groups use civilians, women and children as tools and weapon of war to fuel their campaign of terror and suggests ways in which the international community could deal with the challenge of fighting terrorist groups without putting civilians, women and children in harm way. The paper emphasises the need to uphold human rights values and respect for the law of war in our response to global terrorism. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with terrorist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. While the paper explains how terrorist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror, it also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Towards a drama therapy pedagogy: An a/r/tographic study using dramatic improvisation

      Bird, Drew; Tozer, Katy; University of Derby (Intellect, 2016-10-01)
      This article explores the role of the art form in both research and teaching practice for the delivery of an MA drama therapy program in the United Kingdom. A/r/tography as the chosen research methodology makes central the artistic process to inform teaching and research through ongoing reflexivity using dramatic improvisation. Seven phases (renderings) illustrate the development towards formulating a drama therapy pedagogy. The authors explore disseminating the research through performance as another form of praxis.
    • Towards a framework for the evaluation of efficient provisioning in opportunistic ad-hoc networks

      Smith, Anthony; Hill, Richard; University of Derby, Distributed and Intelligent Systems Research Group (IEEE Computer Society, 2011/20/26)
      In wireless ad-hoc networks where there is no continuous end-to-end path we move into the area of opportunistic networks. Forwarding messages via any encountered nodes, such as the mobile devices that many users already carry. Normally we are looking for the most efficient method of passing these messages across the network, but how do we evaluate the different methods. We propose to develop a framework that will allow us to evaluate how efficiently provisioning has been performed. This has been explored with the use of a case study and two benchmark protocols, Epidemic and PRoPHET. We present the results of this analysis and describe an approach to the validation of this through simulation.
    • Towards a generalized theory of low-frequency sound source localization

      Hill, Adam J.; Lewis, Simon P.; Hawksford, Malcolm O. J.; University of Derby; University of Essex (Institute of Acoustics, 2012-11)
      Low-frequency sound source localization generates considerable amount of disagreement between audio/acoustics researchers, with some arguing that below a certain frequency humans cannot localize a source with others insisting that in certain cases localization is possible, even down to the lowest audible of frequencies. Nearly all previous work in this area depends on subjective evaluations to formulate theorems for low-frequency localization. This, of course, opens the argument of data reliability, a critical factor that may go some way to explain the reported ambiguities with regard to low-frequency localization. The resulting proposal stipulates that low-frequency source localization is highly dependent on room dimensions, source/listener location and absorptive properties. In some cases, a source can be accurately localized down to the lowest audible of frequencies, while in other situations it cannot. This is relevant as the standard procedure in live sound reinforcement, cinema sound and home-theater surround sound is to have a single mono channel for the low-frequency content, based on the assumption that human’s cannot determine direction in this band. This work takes the first steps towards showing that this may not be a universally valid simplification and that certain sound reproduction systems may actually benefit from directional low-frequency content.
    • Towards a life cycle sustainability analysis: A systematic review of approaches to sustainable manufacturing.

      Gbededo, Mijoh Ayodele; Liyanage, Kapila; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03-02)
      In 2011, the international organisations launched the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Framework for experts from different disciplinary fields to discuss and develop a holistic and integrated approach that supports effective sustainable development and sustainability decision-making. In response, various authors have used combinations of sustainable manufacturing methodologies and approaches to support this goal. This paper used a structured approach to a literature review to systematically examine sustainable manufacturing approaches between 2006 and 2015, and the move from segmented assessment methods to the holistic and integrated Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis. The analysis of the identified 54 relevant contributions indicated 68.5% of the articles focused on sustainable product development techniques, whereas 31.5% on sustainability assessment techniques. From the second, 70.4% of these were segmented approaches while only 29.6% incorporated the three sustainability dimensions. Further, the analysis showed that the energy aspect was incorporated into all the approaches, and there is a dearth of holistic approaches to sustainable manufacturing. Additionally, the paper initiates a theoretical framework that will underpin the development of a holistic simulation-based analytical framework that integrates goals that support progressive sustainable product development with methods that focus on the holistic quantitative analysis of the three sustainability dimensions.
    • Towards a more circular economy: exploring the awareness, practices, and barriers from a focal firm perspective.

      Masi, Donato; Kumar, Vikas; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Godsell, Janet; University of Warwick; University of the West of England; University of Derby; Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; Centre for Supply Chain Improvement, The University of Derby, Derby, UK; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2018-05-21)
      The circular economy (CE) proposes an economic framework based on circular flows of products and materials. Transition towards a CE is underway, therefore, understanding the nature and state of this transition is important for creating effective policies and business strategies. Some studies have focused on specific contexts and pockets of good practice. This exploratory, survey-based study of 77 companies investigates the shift towards the CE using a taxonomy of practices and barriers. Results show that firms favour practices related to resource and energy utilisation efficiency, while practices related to investment recovery, green purchasing and customer cooperation are less prevalent. Eco-design and internal environmental management practices have a medium level of implementation. The significant upfront investment cost, lack of awareness or sense of urgency were identified as implementation barriers. Results suggest the CE is driven by economic not environmental considerations, and the deployment of practices remains within a firm rather than across the supply chain.
    • Towards a new narrative of postgraduate career.

      Artess, Jane; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-10-30)
      This chapter examines the relationship between the postgraduate taught (PGT) student experience and career development. It argues that career development is a critical theme which draws together all aspects of the PGT experience. PGT students overwhelmingly choose to undertake postgraduate programs for career reasons. Their participation on program is best understood as a space through which they can pursue their career development. Finally, their transition from PGT study to the labor market is explored. While PGT study offers a clear advantage in the labor market, this is neither inevitable nor equally distributed. The chapter argues that despite the complexity of the return on investment, PGT programs continue to offer an important opportunity for individuals to develop their careers. This is true for both continuers, who move straight from undergraduate study, and returners, who reenter higher education after a period in the workforce. However, it also notes that access to PGT study is structured along familiar lines of social advantage. The chapter discusses the implications for higher education providers of this picture of PGT as a career development intervention. It is argued that providers need to embrace the focus on career development and to ensure that their programs help students to realize their aspirations and to transform their PGT qualifications into real-world opportunities.
    • Towards a trusted unmanned aerial system using blockchain (BUAS) for the protection of critical infrastructure

      Barka, Ezedin; Kerrache, Chaker Abdelaziz; Benkraouda, Hadjer; Shuaib, Khaled; Ahmad, Farhan; Kurugollu, Fatih; College of Information Technology, United Arab Emirates University; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Ghardaia, Algeria; Cyber Security Research Group, University of Derby, UK (Wiley, 2019-07-29)
      With the exponential growth in the number of vital infrastructures such as nuclear plants and transport and distribution networks, these systems have become more susceptible to coordinated cyber attacks. One of the effective approaches used to strengthen the security of these infrastructures is the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance and data collection. However, UAVs themselves are prone to attacks on their collected sensor data. Recently, Blockchain (BC) has been proposed as a revolutionary technology which can be integrated within IoT to provide a desired level of security and privacy. However, the integration of BC within IoT networks, where UAV's sensors constitute a major component, is extremely challenging. The major contribution of this study is two-fold. (1) survey of the security issues for UAV's collected sensor data, define the security requirements for such systems, and identify ways to address them. (2) propose a novel Blockchain-based solution to ensure the security of, and the trust between the UAVs and their relevant ground control stations (GCS). Our implementation results and analysis show that using UAVs as means for protecting critical infrastructure is greatly enhanced through the utilization of trusted Blockchain-based Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs).
    • Towards a working methodology for using total hip and knee joint replacements to support identification

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Austin Publishing Group, 2015-06-29)
      Hip and knee prostheses have occasionally been used to support identification of unknown persons along with other medical devices and implants. This paper looks at the specific issues around using hip and knee implants, suggesting a working methodology for their use in supporting identification during and after a post-mortem. The value of Total Knee Replacements (TKR) and Total Hip Replacements (THR) as a means of identification along with other implants is a very recent area of interest in Forensic Science considering the long history of implants. This together with the recent introduction of Joint Replacement Registries means that using hip and knee implants to support identification is likely to become automatic in the future but is not currently automatic. The paper looks at the accumulative collection of evidence as well as the range of issues including; the types and changes in early prostheses, examination of the body for external indications of implants, radiological recording prior to autopsy for confirmation of identification using matching of features with ante-mortem images, actual harvesting and collection of all parts of the joint replacement including cement and any other components, specific differences between TKR and THR. In developing an approach to the problems associated with identifications using TKRs and THRs a stepwise process and the full recording of all of the features associated with the implant as well as manufacturers details and identification numbers is suggested so that the cumulative nature of these features will help to narrow down possibilities towards a more certain identification and confirmation of that identification.
    • Towards ABAC Policy Mining from Logs with Deep Learning

      Mocanu, Decebal Constantin; Turkmen, Fatih; Liotta, Antonio (2015)
    • Towards an epistemically neutral curriculum model for vocational education: from competencies to threshold concepts and practices

      Atkins, Liz; Hodges, Steven, Simons Michele; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 08/12/2016)
      Debate about the benefits and problems with competency-based training (CBT) has not paid sufficient attention to the fact that the model satisfies a unique, contemporary demand for cross-occupational curriculum. The adoption of CBT in the UK and Australia, along with at least some of its problems, can be understood in terms of this demand. We argue that a key problem with CBT is that as a cross-occupational curriculum model it impacts too strongly on the way particular occupations are known and represented. Following this line of argument, we propose that more effective models will be those that are epistemically neutraland thus responsive to the inherent knowledge and practice structures of occupations. We explore the threshold conceptsapproach as an alternative that can claim to be sensitive to occupational structures. We indicate ways it contrasts with CBT but also note some difficulties with the approach for vocational education.
    • Towards another kind of borderlessness: online students with disabilities

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Cockerill, Victoria; Green, Pauline; Hutchinson, Lucy; Shaw, Paula; Bowskill, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-09)
      Online learning is crucial to success for higher education institutions. Whilst the existing literature predominantly focused on its economic advantages, we focused on its inclusivity. At an online learning unit of a UK university, the number of students with disabilities (SWD) is three times higher than the national average. Having a degree makes significant financial and psychological differences in the lives of SWD. Though recent literature focused on inclusivity of online learning, an appraisal of first-hand experience of SWD studying online is a missing perspective. Accordingly, we aimed to explore their experience, using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews involving ten SWD. Three themes emerged: (1) having control over studies as an advantage of online learning, (2) personal touch helps SWD’s online learning, and (3) challenges SWD experience with the social element of online learning. Our findings will help to develop the inclusivity of online learning to a new level.
    • Towards being a "Good Cuban": socialist citizenship education in a globalized context.

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Springer, 21/10/2016)
      Considering the renewed diplomatic relations with the United States and to a globalized world, the Cuban State is forming global citizens while trying to retain socialist values in the face of increased market liberalization. Since the revolutionary period (1960s), Cuban education has stressed the intersecting values of fervent, resistant patriotism, hard work and active, solidary internationalism, as integral parts of the New Socialist Man/Woman or the “buen revolucionario” (good revolutionary). In this new economic, political and social context the Cuban government, its school system, and parents are challenged with preserving socialism and its accompanying values while preparing its young people for work and life in an evolving society and globalized world. Drawing on school textbooks and a wide range of interviews with young Cubans conducted by three education researchers, between 2011 and 2014, this chapter examines Cuban young people’s struggle to reconcile the contradictions and tensions between these ideals and the pragmatic reality of life, implying the need for new forms of national, international, global citizenship. Cuban youth are demanding a larger role in shaping their society if the government wants to keep them on the island. Consequently, the development of the buen revolucionario is taking on new meaning in the twenty-first century globalized world.