• Role of culture in effectuation: exploring the Marwari cultural philosophy and entrepreneurial approach

      Amoncar, Nihar; Deacon, Jonathan; Stephens, Paula; University of South Wales (Institute of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2016: Institutional voids, 2016-10-28)
      Social constructivist research within Entrepreneurship has gained momentum in recent years and this paper fits within this category. The paper explores the Marwari Business community from India which according to Timberg (2014, pp. 12), starting out as mere shopkeepers, the Marwaris controlled much of India’s inland trade by the time of the First World War. From trading and money-lending in the early 19th century, they gradually entered industrial entrepreneurship and by the 1970’s owned most of India’s private industrial assets. They now account for a quarter of the Indian names on the Forbes billionaires list (Timberg, 2014, pp. 12). The sustainable success of the Marwaris resulted in the authors of this paper leading an exploration on the history of the business community in India. This exploration led the authors of the paper into exploring the Hindu cultural philosophy based on the Vedantic school of thought to understand the roots of the Marwari community. The paper explores in detail the accounts of the limited empirical data available on the community through the works of Timberg (2014) and Damodaran (2008). This exploration resulted in identifying examples of entrepreneurial practice, which closely resemble what Sarasvathy (2001) terms as Effectuation. Effectuation theory has gained traction as growing number of researchers acknowledge that todays entrepreneurs tend to work within an uncertain environment wherein it is not possible to predict the future (Morrish, 2009, pp. 35). But according to Chandler (2011, pp. 387), there is need to explore more antecedents or determinants of Effectuation than simply uncertainty. The paper hence explores whether culture may emerge as an antecedent or determinant of Effectuation by presenting literature on the relationship between Effectuation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Culture. The research questions emerging are as follows: RQ1) Do certain socio-cultural conditions positively impact Effectual behavior in Entrepreneurship? RQ2) Can culture be positioned as an antecedent to Effectuation in a collectivist society? This paper is based on the literature being explored as a part of PhD research. The research is in its early stage and the approach involves interpretive deductive analysis of the existing literature on Marwaris, Hindu Philosophy, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Effectuation, which results in the conceptual framework. The second stage of the PhD research will involve thematic analysis of narratives gathered from prominent members of the Marwari community from Calcutta and Jharkhand in India, which is aimed at inducting contemporary empirical evidence of Marwari entrepreneurial philosophy and potentially addressing not only the conceptual framework, but also the questions and discussions arising from the interpretive deductive analysis of the literature presented within this paper. The paper begins with the Methodology chapter in order to a) present an early clarity on the flow of literature within the paper and b) to avoid a break in flow of the ‘story’, a manner in which the literature and arguments are presented thereafter. This is followed by review of literature on Effectuation, community entrepreneurship, role of culture within entrepreneurship, Indian Hindu cultural philosophy and finally, a case account of Marwaris through review on limited existing empirical data on the community.
    • The role of culture on online search behaviour: A comparative study between British and Chinese travellers

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Moisa, Delia; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Springer International Publishing, 2016-01-23)
      This study explores the role of culture and its impacts on travellers’ online information search behaviour. The study is focused on two culturally diametric countries: United Kingdom and China (Hofstede, Psychology and Culture, 2011) and they have been selected as case studies, representing values from the Western and the Asian cultures. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and data was collected through interviews in order to enhance the understanding on the subject studied. Findings indicate that culture influences considerably the travellers’ behaviour in the online environment, and as a result of this influence, different behavioural patterns between the British and the Chinese travellers emerged. Conclusions discuss the implications for marketers aiming at the British and the Chinese tourists, and they highlight the need to adopt different strategies in designing and promoting their tourism products for these two particular markets
    • The role of digital technology in career development

      Hooley, Tristram; Staunton, Tom; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2020-09-02)
      This chapter analyses the role of digital technologies in career development. It argues that digital technologies change the context for individuals’ careers and the opportunities that exist for the provision of career support. The implications of digital technologies for career are dependent, in part, on how technologies are believed to interact with society. They may be thought of as tools, as shapers of society, or as social practices. For individuals, digital technologies can be understood through six metaphors: (1) library, (2) media channel, (3) surveillance camera, (4) marketplace, (5) meeting place, and (6) arena. For career development professionals, the choice is using them to provide information, automated interactions, or communication. The chapter concludes by arguing that there are three main pedagogic stances (instrumental, connectivist, or critical) that can guide career development professionals in the combination of different technologies and in the resolution of the opportunities and challenges that are presented to individuals in their career building.
    • The role of Eag and HERG channels in cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cell line.

      Asher, Viren; Warren, Averil; Shaw, Robert; Sowter, Heidi M.; Bali, Anish; Khan, Raheela; Royal Derby Hospital, School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health; University of Derby, Faculty of Education, Health and Science (2011-03)
      The voltage gated potassium (K+) channels Eag and HERG have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cancers, through association with cell cycle changes and programmed cell death. The role of these channels in the onset and progression of ovarian cancer is unknown. An understanding of mechanism by which Eag and HERG channels affect cell proliferation in ovarian cancer cells is required and therefore we investigated their role in cell proliferation and their effect on the cell cycle and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.
    • The role of education and training in the development of technical elites: work experience and vulnerability

      Esmond, Bill; Atkins, Liz; Suart, Rebecca; University of Derby (VETNET, 2019-09-19)
      Whilst education and training systems in Europe have provided qualifications preparing candidates for highly skilled, responsible occupational roles, early research indicated that firms preferred to promote to such positions internally. Following changes to labour markets, several countries now place greater emphasis on early workplace learning, in the hope that transitions to work will be eased by experience of workplace environments. The outcomes of these shifts were explored through case studies in England of provision where work-based learning provides a high level of course content. Whilst students and educators ascribed value to these early experiences, evidence emerged of a narrowing of skills taught in work settings and em-phasis on behaviours and attributes. This emphasis is reflected among disadvantaged groups such as young women preparing for service roles: this paper argues for attention to the vulnerabilities of these groups, whose exclusion contributes to the reproduction of ‘elite’ occupations.
    • Role of ethnic cultural events to build an authentic destination image

      Shabnam, S; Choudhury, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Taylor and Francis, 21/12/2018)
      Local festivals are becoming increasingly important tourist attractions for the sophisticated tourist in quest of new authentic experiences (Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2014; Ramkissoon, 2015, 2016). The extent to which local festivals can grow as a point of attraction for international tourists while ful?lling their social and cultural roles at the national level is an issue of immense importance to social and cultural policymakers and destination marketers. This chapter explores the local festival of ‘Pohela Boishakh’, which is the celebration of the Bengali New Year. It is recognised by UNESCO as ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity’ and identified as the largest national event of Bangladesh, a developing economy with crucial geo-political importance in the South Asian region, with substantial economic promises for the local population (UNESCO, 2016). This chapter draws on Getz et al. (2006)’s framework to explore festival stakeholder relationships, especially resource dependency issues, with a view to advancing the application of stakeholder theory to festival tourism, festival management and marketing in an integrated manner. Implications for tourism and event management along with theoretical advances are discussed with suggestions for future research in the field.
    • The role of fiscal policy in the link between income inequality and banking crises

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-16)
      This paper explores the link between income inequality and banking crises, when inequality is affected by fiscal policy. Using a two-stage probit least squares method and a panel of 21 countries, spanning the period 1971-2017, the findings indicate that inequality impacts the probability of banking crises through budget deficits, followed by government expenses.
    • The role of fixed capital depreciations for TFP growth: evidence from firm level panel data estimates

      Apergis, Nicholas; Sorros, John; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus (Springer, 2013-10)
      The role of accounting depreciation rates and the stocks of fixed capital has been well established in the literature. By exploring available evidence on the value of fixed assets in certain countries, this paper makes use of firm level data on fixed capital depreciations over the period 1990–2008 from a group of OECD countries along with panel data estimations to investigate their role for total factor productivity (TFP) as it is defined through growth accounting, since different capital depreciation profiles imply different rates of capital accumulation and, therefore, different estimates of TFP. The empirical results indicate a positive relationship between the two variables under study.
    • The role of floridoside in osmoadaptation of coral-associated algal endosymbionts to high-salinity conditions.

      Ochsenkühn, Michael A.; Röthig, Till; D’Angelo, Cecilia; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Voolstra, Christian R.; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); University of Southampton; New York University Abu Dhabi (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2017-08-16)
      The endosymbiosis between Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The survival of these ecosystems is under threat at a global scale, and better knowledge is needed to conceive strategies for mitigating future reef loss. Environmental disturbance imposing temperature, salinity, and nutrient stress can lead to the loss of the Symbiodinium partner, causing so-called coral bleaching. Some of the most thermotolerant coral-Symbiodinium associations occur in the Persian/Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, which also represent the most saline coral habitats. We studied whether Symbiodinium alter their metabolite content in response to high-salinity environments. We found that Symbiodinium cells exposed to high salinity produced high levels of the osmolyte 2-O-glycerol-α-d-galactopyranoside (floridoside), both in vitro and in their coral host animals, thereby increasing their capacity and, putatively, the capacity of the holobiont to cope with the effects of osmotic stress in extreme environments. Given that floridoside has been previously shown to also act as an antioxidant, this osmolyte may serve a dual function: first, to serve as a compatible organic osmolyte accumulated by Symbiodinium in response to elevated salinities and, second, to counter reactive oxygen species produced as a consequence of potential salinity and heat stress.
    • The role of FOMC minutes for US asset prices before and after the 2008 crisis: Evidence from GARCH volatility modeling.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Curtin University (Elsevier, 2014-10-07)
      This study explores the impact on US asset prices of novel data from minutes released by the Federal Open Market Committee. With data from fixed income assets, the main exchange rates of the US dollar, a House Price Index and various GARCH modeling, the empirical findings document significant effects of those minutes on the mean and volatility of asset prices only before the 2008 crisis. After the crisis, these effects become weaker, which is possibly attributable to the stronger transparency of monetary policy decisions as well as the implementation of monetary policy that persistently leads interest rates close to the zero lower bound, where they carry a weaker informational content. The baseline results survive a number of robustness tests. In addition, the findings are expected to provide important insight for monetary policymakers and market participants as they provide significant information on how well decisions are anticipated by market participants and how they adjust their views about future monetary policy, output growth, and inflation.
    • Role of functionally dominant species in varying environmental regimes: evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity

      Langenheder, Silke; Bulling, Mark T.; Prosser, James I.; Solan, Martin (2013-05-24)
      Background Theory suggests that biodiversity can act as a buffer against disturbances and environmental variability via two major mechanisms: Firstly, a stabilising effect by decreasing the temporal variance in ecosystem functioning due to compensatory processes; and secondly, a performance enhancing effect by raising the level of community response through the selection of better performing species. Empirical evidence for the stabilizing effect of biodiversity is readily available, whereas experimental confirmation of the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity is sparse. Results Here, we test the effect of different environmental regimes (constant versus fluctuating temperature) on bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. We show that positive effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning are enhanced by stronger temperature fluctuations due to the increased performance of individual species. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the performance enhancing effect and suggest that selection towards functionally dominant species is likely to benefit the maintenance of ecosystem functioning under more variable conditions.
    • The role of gender in service quality

      Foster, Carley; Resnick, Sheilagh; Nottingham Trent University (2011)
    • The role of gender in service quality: a study in health and beauty retail

      Foster, Carley; Resnick, Sheilagh; Nottingham Trent University (2009)
    • The role of government intervention in financial development: micro‐evidence from China

      Apergis, Nicholas; Fu, Tong; Feng, Lingbing; Tao, Hu; Yan, Wu; University of Finance and Economics, China; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-10-19)
      This paper distinguishes between different forms of government intervention upon a firm, including the firm’s tax burden, sales to the government and state shares. We investigate how these types of government intervention affect micro‐financial development. With evidence from China, we confirm that the micro‐financial development is promoted by the firm’s tax burden and sales to the government but constrained by the firm’s state shares. The findings remain robust to the endogeneity issue. The findings offer applications for government policies or a firm’s financing strategies.
    • The role of insurance growth in economic growth: Fresh evidene from a panel of OECD countires

      Apergis, Nicholas; Poufinas, Thomas; University of Derby; Democritus University of Thrace (Elsevier, 2020-05-11)
      Insurance is one of the key activities in a globalised financial and economic environment. Through its benefits, it offers income, life and property protection to the insured and their keens, as well as income accumulation that can be used at retirement to help preserve the desired lifestyle or living standards. Motivated by this end of insurance, the goal of this paper is to study the contribution of insurance growth to economic growth, by employing the benefit side of the insurance activity, next to the acquisition side that has already been considered. More precisely, the findings provide evidence that gross claims payments and gross operating expenses are significantly and positively related to economic growth. At the same time, the results confirm the findings of the existing literature that gross premia and insurance penetration are also significantly and positively related to economic growth. The outcomes hold true for total, life and non-life insurance, both during the pre- and post- 2008-crisis periods, even though less strong after the crisis. Furthermore, the positive and statistically significant impact of gross capital formation, government expenditure, secondary schooling, FDI inflows, trade openness and financial development is validated, in line with certain theoretical expectations.
    • The role of macroeconomic and geopolitical news on gold returns and volatility

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Oviedo University Press, 2021-02-21)
      The goal of this paper is to explore the simultaneous role of macroeconomic and geopolitical news in gold returns and its associated volatility. The analysis uses sentiment scores for certain macroeconomic and geopolitical global news, along with a GARCH modelling approach. The findings document that both types of news substantially impact gold returns and their associated volatility, with geopolitical news having a stronger impact.
    • The role of organizational motivation and coordination in continuous improvement implementations: an empirical research of improvement project success

      Lameijer, B; Antony, J; Chakraborty, A; Does, R.J.M.M.; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; University of Amsterdam; Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh; Indian Institute of Management; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-30)
      The paper aims to elicit the understanding of process improvement (PI) project success by researching the effects of organizational- motivation and coordination in continuous improvement (CI) implementations in the financial services sector. The data analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) comes from a sample of 198 survey respondents in financial service organizations that have implemented CI. This research shows that a strong organizational motivation is driving the embeddedness of PI methodology in, and alignment with the CI implementation of, the organization and thus affecting PI project success. In addition, central coordination is found to affect the alignment of the organization to the CI implementation activities and objectives and affects PI project success. These findings show how the organizational level constructs of organizational- motivation and coordination affect PI project success following the mediating constructs of alignment, embeddedness, and routinization specifically in the context of financial services. Thus, the work provides a better understanding of how organizational level drivers affect the organizational context of PI projects and consequently affect PI project success. There is little empirical research on determinants of PI project success. Our work explains how factors in the organizational context in which PI projects take place are affecting project outcome.
    • The role of personal characteristics and immediate situational factors in the outcome of serious violence Divisional Research Seminar, Nottingham Trent University, Invited presentation, Nottingham

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; Leiden University (2015-12-16)
      Why do certain incidents of serious violence end lethally whereas others do not? What role do personal characteristics of offenders and victims play and how do immediate situational factors influence outcomes? So far, these questions have not been subjected to much empirical scrutiny in criminological studies. This study, conducted in the Netherlands, seeks to answer these questions by explicitly comparing violent events that ended lethally with those that ended non-lethally. By taking into account offenders’ and victims’ personal characteristics as well as immediate situational factors, it offers a more complete understanding of differences in outcome.
    • The role of protein kinase A regulation of the E6 PDZ-binding domain during the differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomavirus type 18.

      Delury, Craig P; Marsh, Elizabeth K; James, Claire D; Boon, Siaw Shi; Banks, Lawrence; Knight, Gillian L; Roberts, Sally; University of Birmingham (American Society for Microbiology, 2013-08-13)
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins of high-risk alpha types target a select group of PSD95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins by using a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PBM), an interaction that can be negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the E6 PBM by protein kinase A (PKA). Here, we have mutated the canonical PKA recognition motif that partially overlaps with the E6 PBM in the HPV18 genome (E6153PKA) and compared the effect of this mutation on the HPVl8 life cycle in primary keratinocytes with the wild-type genome and with a second mutant genome that lacks the E6 PBM (E6ΔPDZ). Loss of PKA recognition of E6 was associated with increased growth of the genome-containing cells relative to cells carrying the wild-type genome, and upon stratification, a more hyperplastic phenotype, with an increase in the number of S-phase competent cells in the upper suprabasal layers, while the opposite was seen with the E6ΔPDZ genome. Moreover, the growth of wild-type genome-containing cells was sensitive to changes in PKA activity, and these changes were associated with increased phosphorylation of the E6 PBM. In marked contrast to E6ΔPDZ genomes, the E6153PKA mutation exhibited no deleterious effects on viral genome amplification or expression of late proteins. Our data suggest that the E6 PBM function is differentially regulated by phosphorylation in the HPV18 life cycle. We speculate that perturbation of protein kinase signaling pathways could lead to changes in E6 PBM function, which in turn could have a bearing on tumor promotion and progression.