• An Investigation of the Learning Motivation of Student Studying Accounting Courses in China

      Ho, Miu Hing; Fido, Dean; Simonovic, Boban; Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, China; University of Derby (EJournal Publishing, 2021-09)
      Since the 1980s, concerns within the accounting profession have asked whether the accounting curriculum aligns with evolving accounting practice and the preparation of students for working in accounting field. In recent years, the accountancy profession has played a vital role in the growth of China’s economy, and so identifying the motivation of college students to study accounting in China and their inclination to enter the accounting profession is paramount. This paper investigates the learning motivation of students studying accounting in China through the use of self-administered questionnaires. Non-probability sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 103 questionnaire responses were collected and underwent descriptive and correlation analysis. Findings indicated that undergraduate accounting students were mainly motivated by their concerns about their future career and qualification, altruism, enjoy social life, and self-exploration. These findings are consistent with the self-determined theory about self-identity as an accounting professional, and support the expectancy-value theory in the value of studying accounting to the career aspiration, and concurs with the achievement goal theory in achieving the professional qualifications and personal growth. Findings from this study have implications for helping students to understand their motivations to study accounting and their suitability of entering the accounting profession. Accounting professional bodies may also use the findings reported here to inform on member recruitment strategies, whilst facilitating education providers’ assessment of suitability for candidates to studying accounting and the design of curriculum and teaching strategies.
    • Loss and Assimilation: Lived Experiences of Brexit for British Citizens Living in Luxembourg

      Fido, Dean; knight, stephanie; Harper, Craig, A; University of Derby (Springer, 2021-10-08)
      Inconsistent political realities are associated with mental health issues such as hopelessness, anxiety, and depression. The psychological impact of Brexit is clearly an important and timely issue, but hitherto has been understudied. This study uses a critical realist approach to qualitatively explore the lived experiences of British citizens living in Luxembourg during the Brexit era. The study reports on semi-structured interviews conducted with 6 British citizens aged 18–65. An experientially focused thematic analysis was conducted, exploring two main themes: Loss (with psychological and broader social implications) and Integration (contrasting the mover’s community with the receiving community). This study demonstrates the psychological impact of Brexit and highlights the urgency for future researchers and mental health practitioners alike — both in the UK and overseas — to consider the human consequences associated with political upheaval. Open access materials for this project can be viewed here: https://osf.io/38rg7/?view_only=b8c04dfc3fe5474f9aff4897e370b3e6.
    • Cultivating the Compassionate Self: an Exploration of the Mechanisms of Change in Compassionate Mind Training

      Matos, Marcela; Duarte, Cristiana; Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Petrocchi, Nicola; GIlbert, Paul; University of Coimbra, Portugal; York St John University; Lund University; John Cabot University; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-10-21)
      The current study aimed to examine the mechanisms of change that mediate the impact of a compassionate mind training (CMT) intervention, in particular, whether changes in compassion, fears of compassion and heart rate variability (HRV) would mediate the effects of a brief CMT intervention on psychological vulnerability factors, mental health indicators and positive affect. Using a longitudinal design, general population participants were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: compassionate mind training (n = 56) and wait list control (n = 37). Participants in the CMT condition attended a psychoeducation session and practiced a set of core CMT exercises for 2 weeks. Self-report measures of compassion, fears of compassion, self-criticism, shame, depression, stress and positive affect were completed, and HRV was assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Mediation analyses revealed that increases in compassion for self and from others and reductions in fears of compassion for self, for others and from others mediated the effects of CMT on self-criticism and shame. In depression and stress, compassion for the self and from others and fears of compassion for the self emerged as significant mediators. Compassion for the self and from others and fears of compassion for self and from others significantly mediated the effect of CMT in safe affect. Compassion for the self, fears of compassion for self and for others and HRV mediated changes in relaxed affect. Cultivating a compassionate mind/self-identity through the core components of CMT may stimulate vagal regulatory activity and positively impact one’s ability to experience and be open to compassion, and thus promote emotion regulation, well-being and mental health.
    • HRV patterns associated with different affect regulation systems: Sex differences in adolescents

      Sousa, Rúben; Petrocchi, Nicola; Gilbert, Paul; Rijo, Daniel; University of Coimbra, Portugal; John Cabot University, Rome, Italy; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-19)
      Evolutionary perspectives of human behavior propose the existence of three emotion regulation systems (i.e., threat, drive and soothing systems). An unbalanced functioning of the systems represents greater risk for emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. In recent years, heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported as an accurate index of emotion regulation, and although adolescence is characterized by multiple neurophysiological, psychological and social changes, there is no study exploring the HRV patterns of each emotion regulation system in this developmental stage. In Study 1, a standardized procedure (SP) aiming to elicit the three different systems was developed and validated by experts (n = 14) and community adolescents (n = 31). In study 2, differences in HRV patterns across the three emotion regulation systems and across sex, were investigated in a sample of community adolescents (n = 155; 70 males), aged between 14 and 18 years old. Results showed that the threat and drive systems were associated with decreases in HRV, while the soothing system was associated with decreased heart rate. Sex differences were found for the activation of the threat system: while males maintained a decreasing trend in HRV indexes, from resting to recovery, females did not show a decrease in HRV during the activation of this system. Overall, physiological correlates of each specific emotion regulation system corroborate the theoretical assumptions. Moreover, a SP able to trigger each system independently while measuring physiological data is now available and can be used in future research.
    • Personality Predictors of Yips and Choking Susceptibility

      Clarke, Philip; Sheffield, David; Akehurst, Sally; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-01-21)
      The ability to perform under heightened levels of pressures is one of the largest discriminators of those who achieve success in competition and those who do not. There are several phenomena associated with breakdowns in an athlete’s performance in a high-pressure environment, collectively known as paradoxical performances. The two most prevalent and researched forms of paradoxical performance are the yips and choking. The aim of the current study is to investigate a range of psychological traits (fear of negative evaluation, individual differences, anxiety sensitivity, self-consciousness, perfectionistic self-presentation, and perfectionism) and their ability to predict susceptibility to choking and the yips in an experienced athlete sample. 155 athletes (Golfers n = 86; Archers n = 69) completed six trait measures and a self-report measure of yips or choking experience. The prevalence rate for choking and yips in both archers and golfers was 67.7 and 39.4%, respectively. A 2 × 2 × 2 MANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that a combination of 11 variables correctly classified 71% of choking and non-choking participants. Furthermore, analysis confirmed that a combination of four variables correctly classified 69% of the yips and non-yips affected participants. In this first study to examine both paradoxical performances simultaneously, these findings revealed that for the yips, all predictors stemmed from social sources (i.e., perfectionistic self-presentation), whereas choking was associated with anxiety and perfectionism, as well as social traits. This important distinction identified here should now be tested to understand the role of these traits as development or consequential factors of choking and the yips.
    • The Value and Potential of Qualitative Research Methods in Neurosurgery

      Whiffin, Charlotte J.; Smith, Brandon G.; Selveindran, Santhani M.; Bashford, Tom; Esene, Ignatius N.; Mee, Harry; Barki, M. Tariq; Baticulon, Ronnie E.; Khu, Kathleen J.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-12-18)
      To explore the value and potential of qualitative research to neurosurgery and provide insight and understanding to this underused methodology. The definition of qualitative research is critically discussed and the heterogeneity within this field of inquiry explored. The value of qualitative research to the field of neurosurgery is articulated through its contribution to understanding complex clinical problems. To resolve some of the misunderstanding of qualitative research, this paper discusses research design choices. We explore approaches that use qualitative techniques but are not, necessarily, situated within a qualitative paradigm in addition to how qualitative research philosophy aids researchers to conduct interpretive inquiry that can reveal more than simply what was said by participants. Common research designs associated with qualitative inquiry are introduced, and how complex analysis may contribute more in-depth insights is explained. Approaches to quality are discussed briefly to support improvements in qualitative methods and qualitative manuscripts. Finally, we consider the future of qualitative research in neurosurgery, and suggest how to move forward in the qualitative neurosurgical evidence base. There is enormous potential for qualitative research to contribute to the advancement of person-centered care within neurosurgery. There are signs that more qualitative research is being conducted and that neurosurgical journals are increasingly open to this methodology. While studies that do not engage fully within the qualitative paradigm can make important contributions to the evidence base, due regard should be given to immersive inquiry within qualitative paradigms to allow complex, in-depth, investigations of the human experience.
    • The Science of Compassion

      GIlbert, Paul; university of Derby (Routledge, 2021-11-30)
      This chapter explores the nature and science of compassion, how it can texture political discourse, but also the challenges it is up against. Most scientists recognise that nothing makes much sense in biology, or the nature of the mind, without an evolutionary analysis. Evolutionary analysis operates through two fundamental processes in the universe, which are splitting apart, separating, diversifying, and even competing versus coming together, integrating, coordinating, and building complexity. In the television series Westworld, pleasure androids are programmed with algorithms and scripts to live out certain kinds of life narratives such that the human participants visiting the 'theme park' can interact and do what they want to them. As primates, humans are capable of two quite different types of life strategy and motivational orientation to the world.
    • The Development and Validation of the Successful Psychopathy Scale [Protocol]

      Wallace, Louise; Medvedev, Oleg; Fido, Dean; Sumich, Alexander, L.; Heym, Nadja; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; University of Waikato, Hillcrest, Hamilton, New Zealand (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-10-16)
      The personality construct known as ‘Successful Psychopathy’ has attracted the interests of researchers and clinicians alike. The concept suggests an individual who demonstrates the core traits associated with psychopathy but is able to adapt and function within society to prototypical or superior standards. There has yet to be a sound theoretical model of this construct by which to base a psychometric measure. This protocol presents the ethical procedure that will endeavour to create such a measure and validate it within general population samples.
    • On Symbiosis, Zoonosis

      Sharples, Victoria; University of Derby (Issuu, 2021-12)
      On Symbiosis, Zoonosis is an essay featured in the artist's publication Anoxic Bodies (2021). Anoxic Bodies is a collection of meditations, poems and short essays: On the Airborne; On Symbiosis, Zoonosis; On the Machinic and Biological ~ Carrying, Exchanging and Transmissions; On Cleaning & Cleansing; and On Anoxic Bodies. It accompanies a series of works, of the same name, made using: soap, water, germ and virucidal solution, hand-sanitiser, hermetically- sealed plastic substrates, osha root, astragalus, eucalyptus, and saliva. These function as material compositions to call on, as to signify, cellular envelopes and structures. In part a response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, this publication pulls from, and unpacks, discourses surrounding: human and non-human bodily relationality; socio-economics; telecommunication technologies; carrying and exchange; social bubbles, cleaning and cleansing; medicinal plants and the airborne. This work follows the rubric of mail art and New Materialism.
    • A Framework for Assessing Trust in E-government Services under Uncertain Environment

      Shayganmehr, M; Kumar, A; Luthra, S; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; London Metropolitan University; University of Derby (Emerald, 2022)
      In this study, a novel framework was proposed to assess the trust in e-government (e- Gov) services under an uncertain environment. The proposed framework was applied in Iranian municipality websites of e-Gov services to evaluate the readiness score of trust in e-Gov services. A unique hybrid research methodology was proposed. In the first phase, a comprehensive set of indices were determined from an extensive literature review and finalized by employing the fuzzy Delphi method. In the second phase, Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets (IVIFS) was utilized to model the problem’s uncertainty with Analytic called IVIFS- Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the importance of indices and indicators by assigning the weights. In the third phase, the Fuzzy Evaluation Method (FEM) is followed for assessing the readiness score of indices in case studies. The findings indicated that “Trust in government” is the most significant index affecting citizen’s trust in e-Gov services while “Maintenance and support” has the least impact on user’s intention to use e–Gov services. The study is one of the few to indicate significant indices of trust in e-Gov services in developing countries. The study shows the importance of indicators and indices by assigning a weight. Additionally, the framework can assess the readiness score of various case studies. Research Implications: The study contributes by introducing a unique research methodology that integrates three phases, including Fuzzy Delphi, IVIFS AHP and Fuzzy Evaluation method. Moreover, the Fuzzy sets theory helps to reach a more accurate result by modeling the inherent ambiguity of indicators and indices. Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy models the ambiguity of experts’ judgments in an interval. The study helps policy makers to monitor wider aspects of trust in e-Gov services as well as understanding their importance. The study enables policy makers to apply the framework to any potential case studies to evaluate the readiness score of indices and recognizing strengths and weakness of trust dimensions as well as recommending advice for improving the situation.
    • Pro-sociality in times of separation and loss

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby; University of Johanneshburg (Elsevier, 2021-12-14)
      Humans are particularly drawn to social connections. Prosociality in times of loss and separation require intervention designs aimed at reinforcing social bonds to help those grieving. Pro-social behaviors reinforce social support, contributes to resilience, and promotes mental health, overall wellbeing and quality of life. This review summarizes multidisciplinary evidence from literature showing emerging trends in prosocial behavior, loss and separation research with adaptive pro-social interventions to promote resilience contributing to mental wellbeing and quality of life outcomes. A summary of research findings showing the digital transformation to promote pro-social behaviors for mental wellbeing is provided. Finally, new and classic evidence of prosocial behaviors for adaptation and resilience in the community is discussed to promote future prosociality in loss and separation.
    • A qualitative meta-synthesis of pregnant women's experiences of accessing and receiving treatment for opioid use disorder

      Tsuda-McCaie, Freya; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Wiley, 2022-01-17)
      Addressing opioid use disorder (OUD) among pregnant women is of growing importance, and substance use treatment positively impacts outcomes for mother and baby. Understanding substance use treatment experiences is important to improve access, and retention, and no review or synthesis of research addressing the treatment experiences of pregnant women exists. Approach: Thus, a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) was conducted, which investigated the psychological motivators and barriers of pregnant women with OUD trying to access treatment and their perceptions of treatment. Key Findings: Three thousand, eight hundred forty-four articles were retrieved from the literature search. Nine articles met eligibility criteria, were appraised, then synthesised using a comparative thematic approach. Four themes, (i) Embodied Experiences, (ii) Institutional Pressures, (iii) Social Context, and (iv) Reconstructing Selves, indicate that women with OUD are motivated to engage in treatment (a) to pursue the safety and custody of the unborn baby, and (b) to pursue and enact the changes necessary to claim 'normal' parenthood status. Pregnant women describe psychological and relational barriers to engaging in treatment, including anxieties about the baby's health, fears of authorities' involvement, stigma, and experiencing relationships with treatment providers as constrictive or invalidating. Implications: Identity Theory's concepts of identity verification, closed environments and master status identities illuminate the findings. Implications include recognising the salience of bodily experiences, providing medication assisted treatment (MAT) support groups, and promoting validating relationships in treatment using strengths-based approaches. Conclusions: Pregnant women face unique psychological challenges in accessing and engaging in substance use treatment for OUD.
    • Cultural tourism impacts and place meanings: Focusing on the value of domestic tourism

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022-05)
      People develop emotional bonds and meanings with the places they live in and visit. This is commonly referred to as place attachment, sense of place, or neighbourhood or community attachment. To ensure that tourism results in positive, community-wide social impacts, tourism planning processes should align visitor experiences and local inhabitants’ place meanings. In this chapter, I make a case for focusing on domestic tourism, in particular the visitation of tourism sites by people living nearby these places (dubbed ‘local visitors’), to build back the tourism economy in a more sustainable way after the COVID-19 pandemic. During pandemic times, domestic cultural tourism could: (i) contribute to local visitors’ place attachment and well-being; (ii) sustain at least part of the tourism economy; (iii) provide insights into how tourism should be organized so as to avoid future conflict between local inhabitants and external (international) visitors when the global tourism economy re-starts.
    • Sustainable-business waste management a case the Emirate of Ajman – UAE

      AlHosani, Khaled; Liravi, Pouria; University of Derby (Springer, 2022)
      Waste is an unavoidable product of society, and it is a challenge to realise how to manage significant quantities of different types of waste in a way that has benefits for society, the economy and the environment and governments are facing a formidable challenge in trying to find solutions. Due to the continuous increase in population and the standard of life as well as industrial development, the UAE Government, like others, has the challenge to manage large quantities of different types of waste. Besides, there exists a lack of waste management correlated with business opportunities policies and practices in the UAE. This paper discusses the fact that these challenges can be overcome, resulting in benefits for the society, the economy, and the environment when introducing well-designed waste associated business models to the local and national markets, new waste management model framework correlated with business. Empowering industries to manage waste have been argued as the most innovative and practical approach to waste management strategy set to get businesses to place sustainability at the top of their priority list. This does not only help extend producer responsibility but creates a circular economy that retains the value of materials within the economy. Renowned benefits, therefore, exist for the Emirate of Ajman if industries are empowered to manage waste; these benefits go beyond the reduced level of waste sent to the landfills and incineration sites but have leveraged benefits to the economy as a whole, it is also concluded that the primary factors and practices that possibly can enable the business sectors to recycle and reuse maximum quantity of the total waste produced from the Emirates of Ajman by introducing a comprehensive business development model.
    • Perceived Visitor Impacts of Cultural Heritage Tourism: The Role of Place Attachment in Memorable Visitor Experiences.

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby (Edward Elgar, 2022-07)
      This chapter is the first to develop and propose a single integrative model exploring associations between visitors’ perceived positive impacts of cultural heritage tourism, cultural heritage place attachment (with sub-dimensions of cultural place dependence, cultural place identity, cultural place affect and cultural place social bonding), visitors’ memorable cultural heritage experiences, and their revisit intentions and recommendation to cultural tourism attractions. Implications for sustainable cultural heritage consumption are discussed for the current COVID-19 and post-pandemic context.
    • An integrative epi-transcriptomic approach identifies the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) as a potential mediator of B12 deficiency in adipocytes

      Ogunkolade, B. William; Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Cardoso, Shirleny Romualdo; Lowe, Rob; Patel, Nisha; Rakyan, Vardhman; Finer, Sarah; Wabitsch, Martin; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Tripathi, Gyanendra; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-25)
      Vitamin B12 has multiple biochemical functions including in the one-carbon cycle generating a methyl group for DNA methylation, and metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids to generate energy via the citric acid cycle. The aim of our study was to use a combined epigenomic and transcriptomic approach to identify novel genes mediating the effect of B12 on adipogenesis. Human pre-adipocytes (CHUB-S7) were treated with a range of B12 (0–500 nM) concentrations from the day of cell seeding until harvesting in discovery and validation experiments prior to genome-wide methylation analysis using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450Beadchip. For transcriptomic analysis, RNA-seq libraries were run on the Illumina HiSeq 2500. To further investigate the expression of any genes on human adipogenesis, a second human preadipocyte strain was studied (SGBS) by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). A combined epigenetic and transcriptomic approach in differentiated human pre-adipocyte cell line, CHUB-S7, identified that the Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) gene was hypo-methylated and had increased expression in low B12 conditions. Furthermore, there was an approximately 1000-fold increase in CHI3L2 expression in the early days of adipocyte differentiation, which paralleled an increase of lipid droplets in differentiated SGBS cells and an increased expression level of markers of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified a potential role of the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) in adipocyte function in the presence of low B12 levels.
    • Principles and Practice of Nurse Prescribing

      Gould, Jill; Bain, Heather; University of Derby; Robert Gordon University (SAGE, 2022-02)
      Feel prepared to take on nurse prescribing with this short and accessible text. Whether you are pre-registration or undertaking a prescribing course, this book is your perfect introduction to the world of nurse prescribing. Covering the legal, professional and pharmacological considerations as well as core skills such as assessment and teamworking, this accessible text explores all aspects of non-medical prescribing in clear, straightforward terms.
    • Student carer experiences of higher education and support: a scoping review

      Runacres, J.; Herron, D.; Buckless, K.; Worrall, S.; Staffordshire University; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-30)
      Student carers are students who provide unpaid support to an individual who could not manage without their care. A scoping review was undertaken to determine the themes and concepts which underpin student carers’ experiences within higher education, examine student carers’ experiences of support and identify any gaps in the literature. A comprehensive literature search was conducted between February and May 2020. The search yielded 2,484 items, of which 14 articles were included in the review. Data from each article were extracted, charted and analysed using thematic analysis. The articles revealed that caring responsibilities could have a negative impact on student carers’ physical and mental health, university performance and financial status. Both formal and informal sources of support were referenced. Further, it was noted that universities had rigid rules and policies which did not suit the flexible needs of student carers. A paucity of research examined the impact studying had on student’s ability to provide care. Finally, issues relating to research design were observed, and a lack of demographic information or detail on the caring duties performed was found. A more robust evidence base is required to facilitate the development of interventions to support student carers in education
    • Influence of the printing process on the traces produced by the discharge of 3D-printed Liberators

      Trincat, Théo; Saner, Michel; Schaufelbühl, Stefan; Gorka, Marie; Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Gallusser, Alain; Delémont, Olivier; Werner, Denis; University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-12-09)
      Since its introduction in 1986, 3D printing technology is in constant development. 3D printers are becoming more and more performant and accessible. In 2013, the Liberator blueprints are released online. This single-shot pistol can be entirely manufactured using a 3D printer, except for the firing pin and the ammunition. First, this research aims at establishing an overview of all the elements and traces potentially present when a 3D-printed firearm is involved, whether it is fired or not. In the second part, we study these elements for exploitability to obtain information about the manufacture of the firearm (printing processes, 3D printers and polymers). For this purpose, a total of 36 Liberators were manufactured using different printing conditions (i.e., printing processes, printers, polymers and parameters). The tested printing processes were based on the principles of Material Extrusion (ME), Vat Photopolymerization (VP) and Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). All 3D-printed firearms manufactured via ME and PBF were able to fire whereas Liberators manufactured by VP printing could not be fired. This could be explained by the lack of precision of the prints making it impossible to assemble some of the Liberators, or by the fact that the polymer was not suitable to produce the springs. All the barrels were broken by the discharge, projecting polymer pieces or fragments into the environment. These polymer pieces or fragments were examined to determine which printing process was used as well as other elements related to printing parameters and conditions (e.g., layer height, filling pattern and infill density). This information is useful to determine whether a certain command file, slicer or 3D printer could be at the source of a questioned 3D-printed firearm. Melted polymer or polymer particles on elements of ammunition may also be present after the firing process. However, the examination of these particles does not allow inferring other information, except the possible use of a 3D-printed polymer firearm.
    • Bio-vehicles of cytotoxic drugs for delivery to tumor specific targets for cancer precision therapy

      Al-mansoori, Layla; Elsinga, Philip; Goda, Sayed K.; Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands; Cairo University, Egypt; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-01)
      Abnormal structural and molecular changes in malignant tissues were thoroughly investigated and utilized to target tumor cells, hence rescuing normal healthy tissues and lowering the unwanted side effects as non-specific cytotoxicity. Various ligands for cancer cell specific markers have been uncovered and inspected for directional delivery of the anti-cancer drug to the tumor site, in addition to diagnostic applications. Over the past few decades research related to the ligand targeted therapy (LTT) increased tremendously aiming to treat various pathologies, mainly cancers with well exclusive markers. Malignant tumors are known to induce elevated levels of a variety of proteins and peptides known as cancer “markers” as certain antigens (e.g., Prostate specific membrane antigen “PSMA”, carcinoembryonic antigen “CEA”), receptors (folate receptor, somatostatin receptor), integrins (Integrin αvβ3) and cluster of differentiation molecules (CD13). The choice of an appropriate marker to be targeted and the design of effective ligand-drug conjugate all has to be carefully selected to generate the required therapeutic effect. Moreover, since some tumors express aberrantly high levels of more than one marker, some approaches investigated targeting cancer cells with more than one ligand (dual or multi targeting). We aim in this review to report an update on the cancer-specific receptors and the vehicles to deliver cytotoxic drugs, including recent advancements on nano delivery systems and their implementation in targeted cancer therapy. We will discuss the advantages and limitations facing this approach and possible solutions to mitigate these obstacles. To achieve the said aim a literature search in electronic data bases (PubMed and others) using keywords “Cancer specific receptors, cancer specific antibody, tumor specific peptide carriers, cancer overexpressed proteins, gold nanotechnology and gold nanoparticles in cancer treatment” was carried out.