• A 3-month low fat diet leads to significant lipid profile improvement in obese T2DM Saudi subjects, without substantial weight loss, and the capacity to manage a damaging high-fat meal challenge more appropriately post intervention

      Al-Disi, D; Al-Daghri, N; Khan, N; Alsaif, M; Alfadda, A; Sabico, S; Tripathi, G; McTernan, P; University of Westminster (bioscientifica, 01/03/2014)
      Current evidence highlights that dietary cholesterol, trans-fatty acids and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are all known to increase the levels of systemic atherogenic lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to observe the direct effect of dietary change, via a calorie-restricted diet on i) cardio-metabolic profile and ii) a high-fat meal challenge pre- and post-3-month intervention. T2DM subjects (Saudi female, age: 40.50±6.8years, BMI: 37.28±10.75 kg/m2, n=18) were given a high-fat meal pre- and post-calorie restricted diet (3 months; 500 kcal deficit/day, balanced diet with complex carbohydrate). Baseline (0 h) and post-prandial sera (1–4 h) were taken from subjects, anthropometric and biochemical data was collated at both time points. On baseline comparison of pre- and post-diet interventions, there were modest reductions in anthropometric data, BMI (P<0.001), waist (P<0.001), and waist:hip ratio (WHR; P<0.01). Baseline HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P<0.01) whilst LDL- and total-cholesterol were significantly reduced (pre-total cholesterol: 5.13 (4.53, 5.93) vs post-total cholesterol: 4.70 (4.01, 5.14); pre-LDL cholesterol: 3.56 (3.07, 4.06) vs post-LDL cholesterol: 2.81 (2.34, 3.56), P<0.05). The findings also showed significant changes in the effects of high-fat meal intake on the metabolic profile pre- and post-diet intervention. At 4 h post-prandially, post-dietary intervention, HDL-cholesterol was 16.6% higher than pre-diet (P<0.05), whilst LDL- and total-cholesterol were 24.2 and 12% lower, respectively, than at the 4 h equivalent pre-diet (P<0.05). These findings suggest that lipid mediators associated with increased cardiometabolic risk can be quickly reversed as a result of a balanced diet, in T2DM subjects without substantial weight loss. As a result, the body is able to cope with the occasional high-fat meal insult, whilst still maintaining a reduced long-term CVD risk. As such, this is a diet that patients with T2DM may be able to adhere to more successfully, longer-term.
    • A cyclin-binding motif in human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E1^E4 is necessary for association with CDK–cyclin complexes and G2/M cell cycle arrest of keratinocytes, but is not required for differentiation-dependent viral genome amplification or L1 capsid protein expression

      Knight, Gillian L.; Pugh, Alice G.; Yates, Emma; Bell, Ian; Wilson, Regina; Moody, Cary A.; Laimins, Laimonis A.; Roberts, Sally (2013-03-20)
      The G2/M arrest function of human papillomavirus (HPV) E4 proteins is hypothesized to be necessary for viral genome amplification. Full-length HPV18 E1^E4 protein is essential for efficient viral genome amplification. Here we identify key determinants within a CDK-bipartite consensus recognition motif in HPV18 E1^E4 that are critical for association with active CDK–cyclin complexes and in vitro phosphorylation at the predicted CDK phosphorylation site (threonine 23). The optimal cyclin-binding sequence (43RRLL46) within this E4 motif is required for G2/M arrest of primary keratinocytes and correlates with cytoplasmic retention of cyclin B1, but not cyclin A. Disruption of this motif in the E4 ORF of HPV18 genomes, and the subsequent generation of stable cell lines in primary keratinocytes revealed that this motif was not essential for viral genome amplification or L1 capsid protein induction. We conclude that the HPV18 E4 G2/M arrest function does not play a role in early vegetative events.
    • A Guide to instrumentalism: Initial teacher education in the lifelong learning sector

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (01/01/2011)
      This paper provides a critique of the competence based approach to teacher education in the Learning and Skills Sector. This critique is made at a time of consultation of proposed developments to the current standards, which are due for implementation from 2012 and which will involve only minor changes. The existing, Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) standards were introduced in September 2006 following withdrawal of the old FENTO standards (FENTO, 1999) which had been subject to criticism that they did not meet the needs of trainee teachers and did not adequately reflect the developmental nature of Initial Teacher Education (ITE). The revised standards were intended to reflect this developmental process, and to contribute raising standards and the professionalisationof the sector (DfES/Standards Unit 2004); however, even before their introduction concerns were raised about over-regulation (Lucas, 2004:49). Despite a significant level of investment in the new standards, what eventually emerged has been subject to even greater criticism than the FENTO standards (e.g. see Lucas, 2007; Finlay et al 2007; Gleeson and James, 2007 and Simmons and Thompson 2007). Key features in this criticism have been the narrow concept of learning and skills, and the lack of recognition of both the wider dimensions of professional practice and the importance of knowledge. Contextualised within this literature, this paper argues that the detailed and prescriptive competency based structure of contemporary teacher training in the FE sector, together with wider regulation such as Ofsted and LLUK endorsement requirements, is productive of teachers who are instrumental and conformist but who lack the knowledge to engage with the concerns for social justice which are fundamental to working in the FE sector. In turn, these teachers deliver an instrumental and competency based vocational curriculum which, the paper argues, is complicit with other systems and structures in education in the reproduction of labour and of social class. The paper also draws on literature addressing issues around assessment (Ecclestone, 2010) and professionalism (e.g. Gleeson and James, 2007; Bathmaker, 2006) as well as class based critiques of the FE system which draw on work by, amongst others, Avis, (2007), Atkins (2009) and Colley (2006). The arguments in this paper are also supported by a deconstruction of the current standards. This deconstruction has been used to identify what is and is not supported or promoted by the standards in the context of education and wider notions of professionalism and to problematise them in the context of contemporary literature.
    • A micro investigation into electro discharge machining industrial applications processing parameters and product surface profile using Piezoelectric ultrasonic feed drive

      Shafik, Mahmoud; Abdalla, H. S.; Wilmshurst, Tim; University of Derby; University of East London (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011-08)
    • A novel chemically modified analogue of xenin-25 exhibits improved glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing properties.

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Irwin, Nigel; Hasib, Annie; Martin, Christine M.; McClean, Stephen; Bhat, Vikas K.; NG, Ming T.; Flatt, Peter R.; Gault, Victor A. (Elsevier, 2016-01-21)
      BACKGROUND: Xenin-25 is a K-cell derived gut peptide with insulin-releasing activity which is rapidly degraded following release into the circulation. We hypothesized that substitution of all naturally-occurring Lys and Arg residues with Gln would lead to prolonged enzyme resistance and enhanced biological efficacy.METHODS: Peptide stability was assessed using murine plasma, in vitro insulin-releasing actions evaluated in BRIN-BD11 cells and acute glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing actions examined in high fat fed mice. For sub-chronic studies, a range of metabolic parameters and pancreatic histology were assessed in high fat fed mice which had received saline vehicle or xenin-25(gln) twice-daily for 21days.RESULTS: In contrast to native xenin-25, xenin-25(gln) was resistant to plasma-mediated degradation and significantly stimulated insulin secretion in BRIN-BD11 cells. Acute administration of xenin-25(gln) in high fat fed mice significantly reduced blood glucose and increased plasma insulin concentrations. Twice-daily administration of xenin-25(gln) in high fat fed mice did not affect food intake, body weight or circulating insulin concentrations but significantly decreased blood glucose from day 9 onwards. Furthermore, glucose tolerance, glucose-mediated insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and GIP-stimulated insulin-release were significantly enhanced in xenin-25(gln)-treated mice. Pancreatic immunohistochemistry revealed decreased alpha cell area with increased beta cell area and beta-to-alpha cell ratio in xenin-25(gln)-treated mice. In addition, xenin-25(gln) exerted similar beneficial actions in ob/ob mice as demonstrated by reduced blood glucose, superior glycaemic response and glucose-mediated insulin release.CONCLUSIONS: Xenin-25(gln) is resistant to plasma-mediated degradation and exerts sustained and beneficial metabolic actions in high fat fed and ob/ob mice.GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Glutamine (gln)-modified analogues of xenin may represent an attractive therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.
    • A systematic review of electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in people with spinal cord injuries.

      Liu, Liang Q.; Moody, Julie; Dyson, Sue E.; Traynor, Michael; Gall, Angela (Maney Publishing, 2014-06-26)
      Context: Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer benefit to pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in spinal cord injuries (SCI). However, clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. Objectives: To critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on ES for PU prevention and treatment in SCI. Method: Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included, 9/27 studies were RCTs. Six RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all eleven therapeutic studies. Two types of ES modalities were identified in therapeutic studies (surface electrodes, anal probe), 4 types of modalities in preventive studies (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular electrical stimulation implant). Conclusion: The methodological quality of the studies was poor, in particular for prevention studies. A significant effect of ES on enhancement of PU healing is shown in limited Grade I evidence. The great variability in ES parameters, stimulating locations and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard approach for PU therapy or prevention. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters and conduct more rigorous trials.
    • A systematic review of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer care in spinal cord injuries.

      Liu, Liang Q.; Moody, Julie; Dyson, Sue E.; Traynor, Michael; Gall, Angela (2014-09-02)
      Introduction and Aim Pressure ulcer (PU) is one of the most common secondary complications following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer the benefit to pressure ulcer care in SCI. However, to date, the clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. This systematic review was therefore conducted to identify the updated evidence, and to pinpoint the scope of the feasibility of future studies implementing electrical stimulation for PU management in SCI. The overall aim of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on neuromuscular ES for the prevention and treatment of PU in spinal cord injuries. Material and Method Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to 2013. A Free-text and keyword/MESH terms search of five databases (Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.), in addition to manual searches of other resources and retrieved articles was undertaken on 18th July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control studies and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of neuromuscular ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring the effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-seven studies were included in this review, 9/27 studies were RCTs. Six of RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all therapeutic studies. The evidence of long-term benefit of ES for pressure ulcer prevention is uncertain. Five types of ES modalities (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular electrical stimulation implant and anal probe) were identified in this review. Conclusion The great variability in the parameters and locations of ES application and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard therapeutic approach for PU therapy or prevention. The methodological quality of the studies was generally poor, in particular for those prevention studies. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters and conduct more rigorous trials.
    • An a/r/tographic exploration of engagement in theatrical performance: What does this mean for the student/teacher relationship?

      Bird, Drew; Tozer, Katy; University of Derby; University of Derby, UK; University of Derby, UK (Sage, 2018-07-11)
      With an emphasis on self-study and the connections between the personal and the professional domain, the authors reflect upon their teaching practice on a postgraduate theatre-based course using the research methodology of a/r/tography. The aim was to develop understanding of teacher/student roles and how these can affect learning. Through researcher reflexivity, focus groups and questionnaires, data were captured from students/participants responding to a video of the researcher’s solo performance work. The research presents itself through three a/r/tographic renderings. First, the experience of seeing tutors in unfamiliar roles is considered. Second, the impact of witnessing tutors taking risks as a performer and being vulnerable is discussed and, lastly, the work illuminates new ways of opening up as teachers. The authors explore how the student’s/participant’s perception of them as tutors seemed to change after witnessing them as artists and how this impacted upon student’s learning for their own assessed performance pieces.
    • Abandoned village

      Fisher, Craig; University for the Creative Arts (2017)
      Rack 'n' Ruin was an invitation by an artist-led space to show work within the specific context of the gallery space which is modelled on American hunting lodges. Exhibited a series of new collage-paintings produced as a result of residency at Villa Lena, Italy that explore ideas of the architectural ruin through abstraction.
    • Ability to receive compassion from others buffers the depressogenic effect of self-criticism: A cross-cultural multi-study analysis

      Hermanto, Nicola; Zuroff, David C.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Kelly, Allison C.; Matos, Marcela; Gilbert, Paul; Koestner, Richard; McGill University; University of Waterloo; University of Coimbra; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-04-29)
      Self-criticism has been shown to be a vulnerability factor that can lead to and maintain depression. We examined the moderating effect of fear of receiving compassion from others on the positive association between self-criticism and depression. Self-report measures were administered to four separate samples (total N = 701) varying in age (students and community adults) and cultural context (Canada, England, and Portugal). Two different measures of self-criticism and of depression were administered to investigate the generalizability of results. Self-criticism, depression, and fear of compassion from others were positively related to one another in all samples. As predicted, fear of compassion from others exerted a moderating effect on the relationship between self-criticism and depression. Low fear of compassion from others weakened the depressogenic effect of self-criticism, while high fear of compassion from others exacerbated the effect. Thus, a self-critic's ability to be open and responsive to care and support from others protected against depression. The aggregate moderating effect across the four studies was of medium size (d + = .53) and highly significant, indicating a robust phenomenon. Implications for working with self-critical depressed patients are discussed.
    • Absence of aggressive and violent defining characteristics in the descriptions of successful and ideal teachers

      Rački, Željko; Sablić, Marija; Sekol, Ivana; University of Osijek (Faculty of Philosophy in Split, 2014)
      Violence in the educational system arises not only from peer relations, but also from the relationship between students and teachers. Teachers who are aggressive towards their students (e.g. who are rough, cold, who yell, insult, ridicule, discriminate, favorize, underestimate, exclude, gossip or spread fear), actually demonstrate aggressive or violent behavior directed against the current and long-term well-being of students. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of teachers’ aggressive behaviors in describing and defi ning characteristics of both successful/ideal teachers and unsuccessful/aggressive teachers. The participants were students of pedagogical-psychological and didactic-methodical training of teachers in Osijek, Slavonski Brod and Koprivnica (N = 119), and third year students of Teacher Studies in Slavonski Brod (N = 41). Participants were asked to recall three good, successful or ‘ideal’ teachers from their previous education as well as to think of three teachers of poor quality they previously had. With an overall frequency of 1120 positive descriptions, 145 unique positive defining characteristics were found. Out of overall frequency of 770 negative descriptions, 174 unique negative defining characteristics were found. Two frames of data analysis were used: a) consensually agreed upon thematic areas of teacher defining characteristics (methodical performance or teaching competence, intelligence and creativity, character and morality, and emotional competence), and b) Croatian bipolar markers of a five-factor model of personality. The results demonstrated an absence of aggressive or violent behaviors in the descriptions of ideal teachers, and the presence of aggressive behaviors in unsuccessful teachers of poor quality. The results were interpreted in accordance with professional requirements and conformity of personality constellation of teachers (friendly and open, methodically and emotionally competent, and moral) with methodical performance or teaching competence and an optimal achievement of educational objectives, as well as the protection of the students.
    • Academic freedom and the diminished subject

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2009)
    • Academic freedom means free speech and no "buts"

      Hayes, Dennis; Academics For Academic Freedom (The Free Society, 2008)
      In this short paper Dennis Hayes argues that academics have a responsibility to challenge conventional wisdom.
    • The academics vs the bureaucracy

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (spiked Ltd., 2016-09-21)
      Why the Stern Review of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) could mean the end of the university as we know it.
    • Academics’ understandings of the authorial academic writer: a qualitative analysis of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-22)
      Research on authorial identity has focused almost exclusively on the attitudes and beliefs of students. This paper explores how academics understand authorial identity in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 professional academics and analysed using thematic analysis, identifying themes at two levels. At the semantic level was a main theme called ‘the authorial writer’, with five subthemes: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’, ‘ownership and attachment’, ‘authorial thinking’, and ‘authorial goals’. At the latent level were two integrative themes: ‘tacit learning’ and ‘negotiating identities’. The semantic subthemes represent attributes that could be targets for pedagogic interventions. The integrative themes suggest processes in the development of authorial identity, which can inform more effective teaching. By identifying attributes and processes associated with authorial identity, these findings help towards a psychological understanding of authorial identity, informing development of more effective pedagogy to help students improve their academic writing and avoid plagiarism.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels differ between week and weekend ways in British preschool children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2019-09-12)
      Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and weight status in British preschool children from a deprived area

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (Springer, 2019-04-26)
      Preschool children are recommended to participate in a minimum of 180-min physical activity (PA) per day to enhance their development and overall health. Low PA and increased obesity are thought to be linked to low mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in preschool children. This study sought to investigate whether FMS influences PA levels and weight status in preschool children, in an area of low socioeconomic status. Secondary aims of this study were to determine whether gender or day of the week affected the primary outcomes. One hundred eighty-five preschool children aged 3–4 years old, participated in the study. FMS proficiency was determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. PA was determined using triaxial accelerometry over a 4-day period. None of the samples met the recommended 180 min of PA. There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium or low FMS mastery (P < 0.05). There were also no significant correlations between overall FMS and moderate to vigorous PA during the week or weekend days. Conclusion: Girls scored significantly greater at the hop, leap, and skip (locomotor skills) and the boys significantly higher at the kick (object control) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium, or low FMS mastery, possibly because FMS mastery had not developed to a high enough level to affect PA and FMS are considered independent of physical fitness and physical features, such as weight and height.
    • Acceptability of intrapartum ultrasound by mothers in an African population

      Wiafe, Yaw Amo; Whitehead, Bill; Venables, Heather; Dassah, Edward T; University of Derby; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghan (Springer, 2019-05-08)
      Intrapartum ultrasound is gaining high acceptance by many women as another method for assessing labour progression. Despite growing evidence of the effectiveness of ultrasound in labour, the acceptance of intrapartum ultrasound has not been previously investigated in black Africans. This study aimed to determine women’s acceptance of intrapartum ultrasound and their preference for transperineal ultrasound or digital vaginal examination (digital VE) in Ghana. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers who had had both digital VE and transperineal ultrasound during labour in a tertiary hospital. Information about their sociodemographic characteristics, experience with, and preference for ultrasound or digital VE in labour using a pretested structured questionnaire was obtained. Their experiences were categorised as ‘tolerable, ‘quite uncomfortable’ or ‘very uncomfortable’. Categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Altogether, 196 women were recruited into the study. The mean age of the women was 26.7 years (standard deviation, 4.6 years). Nearly half (47%) of the women had never delivered before. Significantly more women considered transperineal ultrasound to be more tolerable than digital VE (66% vs. 40%; p < 0.001). Almost all the women (97.5%) described their experience with transperineal ultrasound to be better than digital VE, and would choose transperineal ultrasound over digital VE in the future (98.5% vs. 1.5%; p < 0.001). The findings of this study are comparable to those of other related studies reported recently. This research confirms high acceptance of ultrasound in labour by mothers from different countries and across continents, implying that cultural differences do not influence women’s responses to and interest in intrapartum ultrasound. Most women found ultrasound in labour to be more tolerable than digital VE. Whenever possible, transperineal ultrasound should be provided as an alternative to digital VE during labour.
    • The acceptability of iterative reconstruction algorithms in head CT: An assessment of sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) vs. filtered back projection (FBP) using phantoms

      Harris, Matine; Huckle, John; Anthony, Denis; Charnock, Paul; University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2017-05-31)
      Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging investigation for many neurologic conditions with a proportion of patients incurring cumulative doses. Iterative reconstruction (IR) allows dose optimization, but head CT presents unique image quality complexities and may lead to strong reader preferences. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the relationships between image quality metrics, image texture, and applied radiation dose within the context of IR head CT protocol optimization in the simulated patient setting. A secondary objective was to determine the influence of optimized protocols on diagnostic confidence using a custom phantom. METHODS AND SETTING: A three-phase phantom study was performed to characterize reconstruction methods at the local reference standard and a range of exposures. CT numbers and pixel noise were quantified supplemented by noise uniformity, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), high- and low-contrast resolution. Reviewers scored optimized protocol images based on established reporting criteria. RESULTS: Increasing strengths of IR resulted in lower pixel noise, lower noise variance, and increased CNR. At the reference standard, the image noise was reduced by 1.5 standard deviation and CNR increased by 2.0. Image quality was maintained at </=24% relative dose reduction. With the exception of image sharpness, there were no significant differences between grading for IR and filtered back projection reconstructions. CONCLUSIONS: IR has the potential to influence pixel noise, CNR, and noise variance (image texture); however, systematically optimized IR protocols can maintain the image quality of filtered back projection. This work has guided local application and acceptance of lower dose head CT protocols.