Now showing items 5775-5794 of 5801

• #### Y v A Healthcare Trust and the Mental Capacity Act 2005: taking gamete retrieval to the bank

Comments on the application in Y v A Healthcare NHS Trust (CP) of the best interests test set out in the Mental Capacity Act 2005 s.4 to the retrieval of sperm from a man suspected of being brainstem dead, and the approach to consent to storage and use in fertility treatment by his wife. Questions whether a construction of best interests which extends to potential wishes is appropriate in the strictly regulated context of assisted conception.
• #### Yaoundé-like virus in resident wild bird, Ghana

Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA; further testing revealed that the amplified sequence was Yaoundé virus (YAOV), or closely related to it. YAOV is an apparently rare Flavivirus closely related to medically important human pathogens Japanese Encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. It is known only from West Africa. This is the first detection from Ghana, and only the second detection from a bird. Samples were negative for alphaviruses and Influenza A virus.

• #### 'Yellow syndrome' in scleractinian corals throughout Bintan Riau District, Kepulauan Province, Indonesia.

Coral disease surveys were conducted in Bintan, Kepulauan Riau Province. The purpose was to identify the abundance of corals showing signs of Yellow Syndrome (YS) disease and to describe similar pathological signs to that of AYBD throughout Bintan District. Three belt transects (2 m x 50 m in size) were set up to determine the abundance of coral reef attacked by YS disease. Line intercept transects were used to determine the percentage of live corals in the surveyed areas. The survey showed that the YS disease syndrome attacked 8 different genera i.e. Acropora, Montipora, Porites, Pavona, Turbinaria, Favia, Platygyra, and Favites. The highest attack happened at Mapur Island (0.06 kol/m2 ) on Porites lutea, Turbinaria peltata, T. mesenterina, Acropora bruggemanni, and Pavona frondifera. The survey also indicated that there may have been at least two types of YS i.e. the first type caused by a boring and/or over-growing sponge species and the second type caused by a kind of pathogenic microbe. Regardless the causal agent of YS, the severity of YS attack on coral urged immediate action to be undertaken and should include initial microscopic and histology examinations. Based on this initial microscopic and histology examinations it was found out that YS bears a close resemblance to the Arabian Yellow Band Disease. This study, however, argued that the word “disease” may have been incorrectly used without identifying a specific causal agent.
• #### The yips in sport: A systematic review

The yips are a psycho-neuromuscular movement disorder, which affects sports in which fine motor precision skills are required for success. This review aims to examine key components of the yips within sport literature using a systematic approach. Twenty-five published studies were used in the systematic review, the majority of which focused on the yips in golf (n = 18); case studies were the most popular methodological approach (n = 12). Four components of the yips were identified: psychological, physiological, neurological and performance. This review describes evidence associated with each component according to research design, sample characteristics and main findings. Key findings associated with each component are evaluated and gaps within the existent literature are highlighted. It is concluded that future research incorporates a multi-discipline theory-driven approach on a wider range of sports using a more precise definition of yips types in order to enhance our understanding of the predictors and mechanisms of the yips which, in turn, will allow practitioners to develop effective interventions for athletes.
• #### You can lead a firm to R&D but can you make it innovate? UK evidence from SMEs

The UK Government introduced tax credits for SMEs to promote and support R&D in 2000. Since then the policy has become more generous in this respect, particularly since 2008. In this paper, we use the National Systems of Entrepreneurship as a conceptual framework in which to question whether SMEs take-up of tax credits has actually led to an increase in product, service, or process innovations. Our evidence suggests that (a) SME engagement with the policy is fairly randomly distributed across the sector, and (b) there is little additional product–service innovation to justify the expenditure in foregone taxes given the current distribution of credits, but (c) there is evidence of enhanced radical process innovations, particularly when combined with strong capability and planning at the firm level.

• #### Young children’s views on play provision in two local parks: A research project by early childhood studies students and staff

This article describes a collaborative research project which aimed to elicit the views of children, young people and the local community in relation to the play provision within two local parks that were in need of renovation. It involved 13 undergraduate students on a BA (Hons) Early Childhood Studies degree, academics, a local landscape architect, children in two local schools, young people from the local youth club and parents attending the local Sure-Start centre. This article focuses on phase 1 of the project which involved undergraduate students and staff in primary research with children in two schools.13 third year students were enrolled on an option module entitled ‘Creative Opportunities and Possibilities’ which required them to evaluate an outdoor space as part of the module assessment. These students engaged in primary research and produced evaluations of each park, based on photographs and notes taken from site visits. This was followed by primary research with two year 2 classes in two local schools. Findings clearly identified that traditional playground equipment was important to children as well as ‘risky’ play features. Children also preferred play equipment for different ages on the same site, so they could play alongside older and younger siblings. Short term or semi-permanent provision was very popular and a keen interest in nature was expressed. The children’s knowledge and awareness of health and safety was a key finding and they were already very risk-averse. The researchers conclude that involving children in primary research needs careful planning and researchers need to be mindful of how children’s authentic voices can be heard and how they are positioned within the research. Constraints to the approach were recognised, the students were inexperienced researchers and as such the depth and complexity of the data was limited.
• #### Young Enterprise: Evaluating the impact of the Team programme

This report sets out the findings of the evaluation of the Team programme conducted by the International Centre for Guidance Studies at the University in 2016. The project adopted a mixed methodology which focussed on the experiences of staff, students and business advisers in a sample of twenty schools selected from a possible 40 which are funded for the Team programme as part of the DfE Character programme. The research findings are encouraging and show that the Team programme has a positive impact on the development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by young people to make a successful transition to learning, work and the adult world.
• #### Young white British men and knife-carrying in public

Whilst quantitative research to date gives us some indication of the prevalence at which knife-carrying occurs among young British men, there have been few explanations for why it occurs, and for what the relationship might be between broader social issues of control and power and the behaviours of young men themselves. Drawing on interviews with 16 young white British men, the present paper explores the ways in which the sample accounted for knife-carrying. Two interpretative repertoires were identified: (1) attributions of blame to authorities for a lack of protection and a subsequent justification of knife-carrying, and (2) discussions of masculinity in relation to knife-carrying. The findings suggest that what is required are policy and practice responses that take into account the symbolic functions of knives for young white men, and which recognise the dilemmatic bind that such men are caught in when they attempt to negotiate competing demands of protection and control.
• #### Younger women’s experiences of deciding against delayed breast reconstruction post-mastectomy following breast cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

Most women do not reconstruct their breast(s) post-mastectomy. The experiences of younger women who maintain this decision, although important to understand, are largely absent in the research literature. This interview-based study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the experiences of six women, diagnosed with primary breast cancer in their 30s/40s, who decided against delayed reconstruction. Findings reported here focus on one superordinate theme (decision-making) from a larger analysis, illustrating that the women’s drive to survive clearly influenced their initial decision-making process. Their tenacity in maintaining their decision is highlighted, despite non-reconstruction sometimes being presented negatively by medical teams. Patient-centred support recommendations are made.
• #### Your body is a battleground: Art therapy with women

This article interrogates the place of feminism within art therapy. It provides a lively, polemical argument that art therapy must maintain a critical relationship to the discipline of psychology in order to avoid oppressing women with misogynistic discourses which are embedded in theories and practices. The article also explores the visual culture which surrounds us, and how images affect our sensibility, our self-esteem, and our ability to act in the world.
• #### The Youth Guarantee and lifelong guidance

The European Youth Guarantee is an initiative to help link young people aged 16 - 14 to the labour market across all member states. The paper is a Concept Note commissioned by the policy network to explore how guidance activities are being implemented in a range of ways across national youth support programmes and includes practical evidence from 17 member countries. The paper contends that successful and sustainable implementation of the Youth Guarantee Initiative can only be secured through effective integration of lifelong guidance practice into national programmes.
• #### Youth organizations in revolutionary Cuba, 1959–1962: from Unidad to Vanguardia

The ubiquitous billboards in Cuba featuring the emblem of the Young Communist League (UJC) are part of the landscape of the revolution. The profiles of Che Guevara, Camilo Cienfuegos, and Julio Antonio Mella, staring into a blissful future under the slogan “Estudio, Trabajo, Fusil” (Study, Work, Rifle) are among the most recognizable motifs of communist Cuba. Such organization came from the first three years of the revolution; its existence cannot be taken for granted. The enthusiasm of the early years is not in doubt, but a closer assessment of the search for stability and meaning is timely. Youth is a case in point. The high expectations, uncertainty, and excitement for young people become evident through an examination of the evolution of youth organizations between 1959 and 1962. Initiatives aimed at unity largely coordinated by the Young Socialists (JS), the ascendance of a culture of mass participation with the meteoric rise of the Association of Young Rebels (AJR), and the creation of the UJC in 1962 show the move to selectivity and youth politics as opposed to other, broader initiatives. The story of the youth organizations not only reveals the reasons behind the failure to sustain a mass organization for young people, but also the rapid change and levels of uncertainty to which young Cubans were exposed in the early years of the revolution as they sought to be and become young rebels and young communists within an evolving social revolution
• #### Youth transitions, VET and the making of class: changing theorisations for changing times?

The paper places youth transitions and VET within the global policy context in which economic competiveness is hegemonic. It compares research from the 1970s/80s, which explored young peoples lived experiences of VET and youth training schemes with contemporary work on similar themes. It argues that there are continuities and discontinuities in the conditions that young people face in their transitions to waged labour. Continuities can be seen in constructions of working class youth, but also by the way in which policy views the economy as characterised by upskilling. This is called into question when set against the existence of significant numbers of low waged, low skilled jobs in the English economy. There are also discontinuities that are the result of changes in class and employment structures. As a result precariousness has become ubiquitous with this existing in tandem with labour that is surplus to the requirements of capital. The paper re-considers youth transitions and re-evaluates the notion of serendipity, suggesting these concepts need to be rethought and reworked in current conditions.
• #### ‘Youth Working’ youth workers: Filling the student support void

Initial findings from a replication of the the Krause and Coates (2008) study to examine the seven scales of student engagement. Recruitment to undergraduate youth work programmes are at risk, with programmes closing and many of those left struggling with unsustainably low numbers. However, numbers of younger applicants is growing. They are acquiring suitable experience from a range of sources, including the NCS model of recruiting from within, leaves school and college leavers with sufficient youth work experience to start a programme, albeit with limited life experience. Furthermore, there has been a spike of under graduate students who want to purse a career in youth work, after positive experiences of receiving youth work interventions, compounded by increasing numbers of applicants with support needs, including learning difficulties and a wide spectrum of mental health needs. Mature applicants still apply wihtout formal qualifications, and all students have to unlearn their experiences of schooling to maximise the transformational potential of undergraduate yoth work study. This session will explore the seven scales of engagement, loosely transition; peer to peer support; academic engagement; on line engagement; student to staff relationships and beyond class / social engagement. These were explored through the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis to explore the difference between the experience of the first year students , comparing those who identify as with support needs and those who do not after the first half of their first year of study. There are implications for living the values of the National Occupational Standard in the delivery of undergraduate programmes. There are implications for designing induction activities across the year, and qualitative feedback on a first year residential. Crucially there are implications for sustainable workloads of academics with significant time pressure to deliver teaching and learning and generating REF-able research. Join this session and hear the initial findings from this small-scale qualitative study, and work through the challenges nationally navigating the socially just commitment to social mobility, the range of support needs presenting at HEIs nationwide and propose how to generate best practice while remaining value driven and committed gatekeepers to the professional qualification. Is it acceptable to recruit students with limited resilience yet potential and maintain standards? How do we effectively promote engagement for first years? What are the implications for recruitment, programme delivery and workload planning?
• #### Youth, migration and identity in Cuba since 1959

In Cuba, the issue of migration cannot be disaggregated from the relationship with the US and, specifically, the issues of migration from socialist Cuba to its larger neighbour. Such migration is an important element of the political relationship between the two countries, but is also a key factor in the definition of Cuban identity. This chapter will present two case studies of the intersection of migration and youth in Cuba after 1959 and will explore the relationship between these cases and the contemporary polemic on migration. The relationship between island-based Cubans and the Cuban diaspora and very notion of national identity and the right to self-define as Cuban are woven into narratives of international relations as the intimate level of family relations come into contact (and conflict) with high politics. Young Cubans experience migration not only as migrants but also from the island where such migration has become part of the Cuban imagined identity. The repeated moral panics over young people who do not work or study over the Revolutionary period coupled with the heightened focus on young people as key agents in the revolutionary process creates a specific set of circumstances which allow for a definition of Cuban identity which is fluid and in flux, but which, given the new (though fragile) reality of a closer relationship with the USA, has sought and continues to seek to incorporate migration into a reflective understanding of the revolutionary process.
• #### Z-boson production in p-Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$$ = 8.16 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$$ = 5.02 TeV

Measurement of Z-boson production in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 8.16 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV is reported. It is performed in the dimuon decay channel, through the detection of muons with pseudorapidity −4 < ημ < −2.5 and transverse momentum pTμ > 20 GeV/c in the laboratory frame. The invariant yield and nuclear modification factor are measured for opposite-sign dimuons with invariant mass 60 < mμμ < 120 GeV/c2 and rapidity 2.5 < ycmsμμ< 4. They are presented as a function of rapidity and, for the Pb-Pb collisions, of centrality as well. The results are compared with theoretical calculations, both with and without nuclear modifications to the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). In p-Pb collisions the center-of-mass frame is boosted with respect to the laboratory frame, and the measurements cover the backward (−4.46 < ycmsμμ < −2.96) and forward (2.03 < ycmsμμ < 3.53) rapidity regions. For the p-Pb collisions, the results are consistent within experimental and theoretical uncertainties with calculations that include both free-nucleon and nuclear-modified PDFs. For the Pb-Pb collisions, a 3.4σ deviation is seen in the integrated yield between the data and calculations based on the free-nucleon PDFs, while good agreement is found once nuclear modifications are considered.