• U.S. franchise regulation as a paradigm for the European Union

      Meiselles, Michala; Emerson, Robert; University of Derby; University of Florida (Washington University, 2021)
      The protection afforded to franchisees differs widely across the world. Nations with economically strong franchise sectors typically regulate the contract’s bargaining phase and post-formation. Sparked by the European Parliament’s call to review regulations governing Europe’s underperforming retail franchise sector, we propose reforms to counter the structural and economic inequality between franchise parties. Drawing on lessons from comparatively successful federal frameworks, we present a regulatory trifecta of mandatory disclosures to prospective franchisees, required express or implied contractual obligations and rights for both franchisors and franchisees, and compulsory adherence to certain protections of franchisees throughout the franchise relationship.
    • U.S. monetary policy and herding: Evidence from commodity markets

      Apergis, Nicholas; Christou, Christina; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; Open University of Cyprus; King Abdulaziz University (Springer, 2020-08-28)
      This paper investigates the presence of herding behavior across a spectrum of commodities (i.e., agricultural, energy, precious metals, and metals) futures prices obtained from Datastream. The main novelty of this study is, for the first time in the literature, the explicit investigation of the role of deviations of U.S. monetary policy decisions from a standard Taylor-type monetary rule, in driving herding behavior with respect to commodity futures prices, spanning the period 1990-2017. The results document that the commodity markets are characterized by herding, while such herding behavior is not only driven by U.S. monetary policy decisions, but also such decisions exert asymmetric effects this behavior. An additional novelty of the results is that they document that herding is stronger in discretionary monetary policy regimes.
    • Ubiquitous health profile (UHPr): a big data curation platform for supporting health data interoperability

      Satti, Fahad Ahmed; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Jamil; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khattak, Asad Masood; Lee, Sungyoung; Kyung Hee University, Global Campus, Yongin, South Korea; Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Education City, Doha, Qatar; University of Derby; Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE (Springer, 2020-08-19)
      The lack of Interoperable healthcare data presents a major challenge, towards achieving ubiquitous health care. The plethora of diverse medical standards, rather than common standards, is widening the gap of interoperability. While many organizations are working towards a standardized solution, there is a need for an alternate strategy, which can intelligently mediate amongst a variety of medical systems, not complying with any mainstream healthcare standards while utilizing the benefits of several standard merging initiates, to eventually create digital health personas. The existence and efficiency of such a platform is dependent upon the underlying storage and processing engine, which can acquire, manage and retrieve the relevant medical data. In this paper, we present the Ubiquitous Health Profile (UHPr), a multi-dimensional data storage solution in a semi-structured data curation engine, which provides foundational support for archiving heterogeneous medical data and achieving partial data interoperability in the healthcare domain. Additionally, we present the evaluation results of this proposed platform in terms of its timeliness, accuracy, and scalability. Our results indicate that the UHPr is able to retrieve an error free comprehensive medical profile of a single patient, from a set of slightly over 116.5 million serialized medical fragments for 390,101 patients while maintaining a good scalablity ratio between amount of data and its retrieval speed.
    • UK credit and discouragement during the GFC

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Minniti, M; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Springer, 06/06/2016)
      The availability of credit to entrepreneurs with good investment opportunities is an important facilitator of economic growth. Under normal economic conditions, most entrepreneurs who requested loans receive them. In a global financial crisis, popular opinion is that banks are severely restricting lending to smaller businesses. This assumes that low levels of investment are caused by supply-side restrictions in the credit market. Little is said about potential changes in the demand for credit and how it is influenced by entrepreneurs’ perceptions about supply-side restrictions. One particularly interesting, and under-researched, group of small businesses is that who have potentially good investment opportunities, but are discouraged from applying for external funding as they fear rejection. In this study, we question whether these entrepreneurs were correct in their assumptions. We find that levels of discouragement are quite low in general at 2.7 % of the total smaller business population. Further analysis implies that 55.6 % of discouraged borrowers would have got loans had they applied.
    • UK pension changes in 2015: some mathematical considerations

      Stubbs, John; Adetunji, Jacob; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2016-06-14)
      This paper presents a mathematical treatment of some of the changes made to pension arrangements by the UK government in 2015. A mathematical model of a pension fund is developed based on three variables: life expectancy of pensioner, interest rates on investments and rates of inflation. The model enables a prospective pensioner to decide, at point of retirement and on the basis of predicted income streams, whether to opt for, (i) a (life) annuity or a draw down scheme, (ii) an inflation proofed (index linked) income or a fixed income and (iii) an immediate income or a deferred income. Numerical examples are provided to add clarity to the financial options available at retirement. On the basis of the numerical examples given, the paper concludes by urging caution on the part of the pensioner before taking an annuity rather than a draw down scheme, an index linked rather than a fixed income and a deferred rather than an immediate pension income. UK pension changes in 2015: some mathematical considerations.
    • UK University staff experience high levels of sedentary behaviour during work and leisure time

      Faghy, Mark A; Roscoe, Clare MP; Pringle, Andy; Duncan, Mike; Buchanan Meharry, John; University of Derby; Coventry University (Taylor and Francis Online, 2021-01-11)
      Reducing sedentary behaviours at work is imperative. Before effective strategies can be developed there is a need to understand profiles of activity within particular roles and organisations. This study aimed to determine activity profiles of staff by job title at a UK University. Three-hundred and seventeen participants completed the short form International Physical Activity Questionnaire to determine physical activity profiles. Fifty-one participants also wore a wrist worn GENEActiv accelerometer for seven days and completed a self-report diary denoting work and leisure hours. Twenty-one per cent of respondents were categorised as inactive and achieved 298 ± 178 metabolic equivalent minutes per week (MET-min/week). Those in administrative roles were most sedentary (501 ± 161 minutes/day). Accelerometer data highlighted that sedentary time was identical between job roles (pooled mean 8746 ± 823 counts) and equated to 84 ± 9% of total time. During working hour’s management, professional and specialist job roles had the highest level of sedentary time (2066 ± 416 counts). Time spent undertaking sedentary activities during working hours contributes to reduced overall activity and can impede productivity, performance, and health. Interventions encouraging regular movement and preventing sedentary behaviours at work are therefore required.
    • The UK's reading culture and consumers' emotional response to books

      Lawson, Alison; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-01-27)
      This chapter explores why books are so popular in today’s society, discussing the idea of ‘reading culture’ and the various factors that support and encourage that culture, such as the general ubiquity of books, the impact of book clubs, literary prizes, reviews, festivals and best-seller lists. The role of libraries and the link between reading and literacy is also considered. Having established the strength of the UK’s reading culture and the various factors that support it, the chapter then moves on to consider readers as consumers, using some relevant theories from the field of consumer behaviour, to attempt to understand from a different perspective what books really mean to people. The results of a small research project about consumers’ emotional attachment to books are presented, showing that consumers are complex individuals with a range of varied needs. Consumers may be placed within a continuum of readers that ranges from those who are simply seeking information through to genuine book lovers with high involvement in the products.
    • The Ukrainian crisis, the Crimean referendum and security implications for the European Union

      Hudson, Robert Charles; University of Derby (University American College, Skopje, 2014-12-01)
    • An ultrasonic atomisation unit for heat and moisture exchange humidification device for intensive care medicine applications

      Mahmoud Shafik; University of Derby (WJRR, 2016-04)
      The state of the art of the existing heat and moisture exchange (HME) technology in use concludes that there are two main artificial humidification HME devices: active and passive device. The active device is complicated to use and expensive. The passive HME device is the preferred one, due to the ease of use and low cost. However it is not suitable for more than 24 hour use. This is due to current devices cavity design, limitations of HME materials performance and overall device efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of the research work carried out to overcome these teething issues and presents a piezoelectric ultrasonic atomisation device for passive humidification device. This aims to improve the device heat and moisture exchange (HME) materials performance, by recovering the accumulated moisture, for a greater patient care. The atomisation device design, structure, working principles and analysis using finite element analysis (FEA) is discussed and presented in this paper. The computer simulation and modeling using FEA for the atomisation device has been used to examine the device structure.It also enabled to select the material of the active vibration transducer ring, investigate the material deformation, defining the operating parameters for the device and establish the working principles of atomization unit. A working prototype has been fabricated to test the device, technical parameters, performance and practicality to use in such intensive care applications. Experimental tests showed that the electrical working parameters of the device are: Current: 50 m-amps, Voltage: 50 volts, Frequency: 41.7 kHz. The atomization device has been integrated into the passive HME humidification device and initial results show some improvement in moisture return of the device by 2.5 mg per liter H2O. This is show the potential of the developed unit to improve the HME material performance in such working environment.
    • Ultraviolet fluorescence eggs: goose, duck and hen and rockhopper penguin

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (The Royal Photographic Society, 2015-09)
    • The UN Committee of 24’s dogmatic philosophy of recognition: toward a Sui Generis approach to decolonization.

      Yusuf, Hakeem O.; University of Birmingham (2019)
      The time is ripe for the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization (‘the Committee of 24’) to accept sui generis categories that enable it to achieve its aim of ‘finishing the job’ of decolonization. This would mean a departure from the Committee of 24’s rigid adherence to the three forms of decolonization currently recognised by it - independence, integration and free association. This article adopts Gilles Deleuze’s critiques of the ‘dogmatic philosophy of recognition’ and how this can be overcome through his articulation of ‘the Encounter’ to interrogate the philosophical basis of the Committee of 24’s inability to recognise sui generis forms of decolonization. It is through the Encounter that the rigid adherence to the categories is challenged such that sui generis categories are created in furtherance of the Committee’s stated aim. In applying this theoretical analysis, the article uses Gibraltar as a nascent example of what a sui generis category of decolonization could look like.
    • Un/writing and re/figuring artistic practice

      Jones, Rhiannon; University of Ohio; University of Derby (2020-11-18)
      This artist talk entitled 'Un/writing and re/figuring artistic practice' explores the collaboration of Kelly + Jones. It is presented from the perspective of Jones who unpacks how their artistic research offers insights and reflections on how they write and un/write into being their practice. It describes examples of how through their collaboration they have approached the notion of re/figuring positions for the process of writing through the body for bringing a subject into being, in order to explore its dialogic relationship to the feminine. Jones shares insights into the new found potential for creating ruptures, revisions and disruptions to the process of writing through a post-feminist artistic collaborative practice.
    • Un/writing the landscape, re/figuring the body

      Jones, Rhiannon; Kelly, Traci; Klein, Jennifer; Walkington, Helen; Howard, Janice; Pill, Deborah; Mahon, K; Lee, J; University of Ohio; University of Derby; et al. (PABlish, 2020-12-17)
      Kelly + Jones' research interests in the process and engagement with writing has shifted away from the production of text. Instead, their research enquiry now focuses on a broader visual and performed investigation into site and the materiality of writing and the place of the body as a scripting phenomena that writes itself into being in proximity to myriad otherness. To do this they have tested out abandoning any form of recognisable text, subverted written language by returning to the gesture, developed an approach that engages with writing instinctively and the materiality whose mark-making predates fixivity. As a result of this enquiry, new material has been generated and formed a new body of work – existing as an area of investigation where writing has become the milieu in which our collaboration operates. The research process is an organic and intermittent collaboration that bubbles in the gaps and suddenly erupts into different spaces and contexts. To this end, Kelly + Jones state that the enquiry has produced the following contributions: Originality - Site specific practice usually engages with one site and most theory and cultural commentary would attest to this. They have created a dialogue between two diverse sites that have expanded each other’s terms and created a conceptual third site that does not belong fully to either and has its own terms. They have decentralised the research opening it up to other researchers at various stages in their career without hierarchy. They have moved outside of the Fine Art community gaining fresh insight into their theoretical framework and site knowledge e.g geographer Professor Helen Walkington who brought new insight about the presence of flint within chalk beds and their significance around human activity. Kelly +Jones practice is of significance as they have created a research cascade which continues to grow and spread outwards. This is evidenced in the zoom research meeting transcript which brought together different research voices from student to Professorship with a specialism in Higher Education pedagogy. Significance in expanded research models that decentralise and strip hierarchy. They have expanded the discourse between site and the body …by splitting the singularity attached to ideas of site/locus in an environmental sense and have also presented the body as a multiple and shifting site as opposed to a fixed entity. In contrast to existing discourse on writing it draws attention to the political implication of the act of writing rather than what is written. What are the conditions and gestures that precede writing? What is the troubled and fruitful relationship between writing and subjectivity, resistance and personhood. We have repurposed the traditional idea of exhibiting visual art as display and as fixed point to exhibiting as research and as touch – to feel the way to the next level, to allow others to intervene and alter course, expand discourse. We chose a response model (listening to the sites rather than demonstrating it with planned gestures). This allowed new and unexpected experience to rise 'which were intimately connected to the presence that live work offers, rather than projection.The publication is an output for this new body of practice as research. The publication takes the form of a newspaper framework and features an edited series of texts, performative gestures and provocations that has been written and edited by Kelly + Jones. It also ‘draws-down’ on several research activities and influences from Kelly + Jones presented in the form of the solo exhibition at The Glass Tank in 2020. The seers-in-residence programme carried out as part of their exhibition at The Glass Tank provided a unique opportunity for research-generation in the form of a series of conversations with invited academics and researchers to be Seers (Professor Helen Walkington, Janice Howard, Deborah Pill and Kate Mahony, Oxford Brookes University). The publication includes essays by Professor Jennie Klein, University of Ohio and Joanne Lee, Sheffield Hallam University. The publication has been internationally peer reviewed and the National Library of Norway has a collection of 7 copies of the publication now on file due to international academic and artistic interests in the publication. The publication has been commissioned by Bergen Performing Arts publishing arm - PABlish.
    • The uncertain story of career development

      Bright, Jim; International Centre for Guidance Studies (International Centre for Guidance Studies, College of Education, University of Derby, 2016)
      In this paper, the central role of uncertainty in career development and its implications for counselling, coaching and education practice as well as policy will be explored. It is argued that although uncertainty was recognised in the earliest formulations of career counselling models, it was subsequently largely ignored or deemed unimportant in nearly all of the dominant theories of career development for the remainder of the 20th century. More recently theorists have begun to acknowledge once more the central importance of uncertainty in career development, and more broadly in areas as diverse as science and politics. The reasons and importance of this renewed focus is explored with particular emphasis on chaos and complexity theories. The Chaos Theory of Careers (CTC) (Pryor & Bright, 2011) will be presented as theory that provides a powerful way of understanding the relationship between order and chaos, pattern and surprise as composites not opposites. Accepting that uncertainty is an inevitable, inescapable and ubiquitous part of life leads to new approaches to career development practice, theory and policy.
    • Uncovered – performing everyday clothes

      Penna, Xristina; University of Leeds (Intellect, 01/10/2014)
      Uncovered is an interactive installation based on a simple yet complex performance system that uses the participants’ clothes as a springboard for devising material for the show ad hoc. Everyday clothes are performing in Uncovered and consist the material for the show. They are the objects that tranverse from a ‘silent existence’ to an ‘oral state’ open to appropriation (Barthes [1957] 2009: 131). Gaston Bachelard would argue that ‘immensity is an intimate dimension’ (Bachelard [1958] 1994: 194) and also that ‘immensity is a philosophical category of a daydream’ ([1958] 1994: 183). During an interview session the audience/participant encounters the projected image of one of his or her clothes and re-thinks, rejects, remembers, reflects, resists with this image. The artist makes a rough copy of the garment using white fabric while the sound designer picks up sound from the clothes and composes a short sound piece. The team of three (performer, sound designer and the artist) with the use of projection, live camera feed, sound, the body of the performer and the piece of clothing itself, present a two-minute improvisation to each one of the audience/participants. The audience are invited in an intimate space to daydream and reflect by looking at the image of one of their clothes. In this visual essay I will use the metaphor of zooming in the network-like-texture of a fabric in an attempt to communicate the experience of Uncovered: the layers and immense weaving of thoughts, emotions, memories that was triggered by the delimiting image of the participants’ clothes.
    • Uncovering the impact of triadic relationships within a team on job performance: an application of balance theory in predicting feedback‐seeking behaviour

      Lan, Junbang; Huo, Yuanyuan; Cai, Zhenyao; Wong, Chi‐Sum; Chen, Ziguang; Lam, Wing; Sun Yat‐sen University, China; University of Surrey; Shanghai University, China; University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; et al. (Wiley, 2020-04-14)
      Although a great deal of knowledge has accumulated about dyadic relationships (i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX) or team–member exchange (TMX)) within a team, employee behaviours that involve triadic relationships among focal employees, leaders, and teammates have seldom been investigated. Using balance theory, which describes triadic relationships from a power dependence perspective, in the current study, we explore how the interplay of LMX, TMX, and peers’ LMX jointly impacts employees’ feedback‐seeking behaviour (FSB) and subsequent job performance. By conducting a multilevel moderated polynomial regression on three‐wave, multi‐source data from 147 team members and their leaders (from 45 work teams), we found that the incongruence between LMX and TMX facilitates FSB when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. We also found an asymmetrical incongruence effect concerning the way in which individuals are more likely to seek feedback when LMX is worse than TMX, compared with when LMX is better than TMX. This differential effect is stronger when peers’ LMX or task interdependence is high. The interplay of LMX, TMX, peers’ LMX, and task interdependence eventually has an indirect effect on job performance through FSB. The results from a follow‐up study of 270 employees from 77 teams further confirm our predictions about the mechanism of balance theory. Specifically, the results indicate that when peers’ LMX is high, the incongruence between LMX and TMX decreases employees’ psychological safety.
    • Under my (editorial) thumb: hegemonic masculinity and text ownership in the works of the Mexican Onda

      Carpenter, Victoria; University of Derby (2010)
      Connell and Messerschmidt's article 'Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept' (2005) re-evaluates the popular term to produce 'a more complex model of gender hierarchy' (829). The notion of hierarchy influenced by power redistribution is the foundation of the present study of the works of the Mexican Onda movement. Instead of adopting an expected gender perspective, this article presents a study of text ownership based upon a narratological interpretation of the concept of hegemonic masculinity as a mechanism of controlling the text. The analysis will examine the power struggle between the first-person narrator and editor with a view to determining the effect this struggle has on character (re)creation. The study will employ Ricoeur's interpretation of non-linear narrative, and various studies of transculturation and its effect on the interpretations of literary texts. The texts analysed in this article include the story La tumba (1964) by José Agustín, Gustavo Sainz's novel Obsesivos días circulares (1969), and Parménides García Saldaña's short story 'Goodbye Belinda' from the collection El rey criollo (1971).
    • Under the Western Sky: Essays on the Fiction and Music of Willy Vlautin

      Campbell, Neil; University of Derby (University of Nevada Press, 2018)
      The first original collection of essays examining the work of Willy Vlautin as both musician and novelist, placing it within the contexts of western studies and wider theoretical frames such as critical regionalism, affect theory and cultural studies.
    • Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan

      Sawano, Toyoaki; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murayama, Anju; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Sah, Ranjit; Wang, Jiwei; Fukushima Medical University, Japan; University of Derby; Tohoku University, Japan; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-06-19)
      Under the unique Japanese policy to restrict reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a nationwide number of its confirmed cases and mortality remains to be low. Yet the information is lacking on geographical differences of these measures and their associated factors. Evaluation of prefecture-based geographical differences and associated predictors for the incidence and number of RT-PCR tests for COVID-19. Cross-sectional study using regression and correlation analysis. We retrieved domestic laboratory-confirmed cases, deaths, and the number of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 from January 15 to April 6, 2020 in 47 prefectures in Japan, using publicly-available data by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. We did descriptive analyses of these three measures and identified significant predictors for the incidence and RT-PCR testing through multiple regression analyses and correlates with the number of deaths through correlation analysis. The median prefectural-level incidence and number of RT-PCR testing per 100,000 population were 1.14 and 38.6, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that significant predictors for the incidence were prefectural-level population (p < 0.001) and the number of RT-PCR testing (p = 0.03); and those for RT-PCR testing were the incidence (p = 0.025), available beds (p = 0.045) and cluster infections (p = 0.034). Considering bidirectional association between the incidence and RT-PCR testing, there may have been an underdiagnosed population for the infection. The restraint policy for RT-PCR testing should be revisited to meet the increasing demand under the COVID-19 epidemic.
    • The Undergraduate Research Scholarship Scheme: A co-created approach to transforming student learning.

      Ayres, Ruth L.; Wilson, Chris; University of Derby (University of Greenwich, 2018-04)
      The value of student as researcher/‘co-producer’ has been well documented in the research literature. This case study outlines an institutional 'student as researcher' initiative that was introduced to enable the co-creation of research by undergraduate students working in partnership with members of academic staff. The paper outlines the establishment and implementation of the scheme and offers a reflection upon and exploration of its perceived value, through the lens of staff and students who participated in it.