• The Bacillus subtilis DnaD and DnaB Proteins Exhibit Different DNA Remodelling Activities

      Carneiro, Maria J.V.M.; Turner, Ian J.; Allen, Stephanie; Roberts, Clive J.; Soultanas, Panos; University of Nottingham (Elsevier, 2005-08-05)
      Primosomal protein cascades load the replicative helicase onto DNA. In Bacillus subtilis a putative primosomal cascade involving the DnaD-DnaB-DnaI proteins has been suggested to participate in both the DnaA and PriA-dependent loading of the replicative helicase DnaC onto the DNA. Recently we discovered that DnaD has a global remodelling DNA activity suggesting a more widespread role in bacterial nucleoid architecture. Here, we show that DnaB forms a “square-like” tetramer with a hole in the centre and suggest a model for its interaction with DNA. It has a global DNA remodelling activity that is different from that of DnaD. Whereas DnaD opens up supercoiled DNA, DnaB acts as a lateral compaction protein. The two competing activities can act together on a supercoiled plasmid forming two topologically distinct poles; one compacted with DnaB and the other open with DnaD. We propose that the primary roles of DnaB and DnaD are in bacterial nucleoid architecture control and modulation, and their effects on the initiation of DNA replication are a secondary role resulting from architectural perturbations of chromosomal DNA.
    • Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation

      Elliott, David R.; Caporn, Simon; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Sen, Robin; Manchester Metropolitan University (Public Library of Science, 2015-05-13)
      The UK hosts 15–19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.
    • Bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations are modified by environmental complexity

      Langenheder, Silke; Bulling, Mark T.; Solan, Martin; Prosser, James I.; Bell, Thomas (2013-05-24)
      Background: With the recognition that environmental change resulting from anthropogenic activities is causing a global decline in biodiversity, much attention has been devoted to understanding how changes in biodiversity may alter levels of ecosystem functioning. Although environmental complexity has long been recognised as a major driving force in evolutionary processes, it has only recently been incorporated into biodiversity-ecosystem functioning investigations. Environmental complexity is expected to strengthen the positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning, mainly because it leads to stronger complementarity effects, such as resource partitioning and facilitative interactions among species when the number of available resource increases. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we implemented an experiment to test the combined effect of species richness and environmental complexity, more specifically, resource richness on ecosystem functioning over time. We show, using all possible combinations of species within a bacterial community consisting of six species, and all possible combinations of three substrates, that diversity-functioning (metabolic activity) relationships change over time from linear to saturated. This was probably caused by a combination of limited complementarity effects and negative interactions among competing species as the experiment progressed. Even though species richness and resource richness both enhanced ecosystem functioning, they did so independently from each other. Instead there were complex interactions between particular species and substrate combinations. Conclusions/Significance: Our study shows clearly that both species richness and environmental complexity increase ecosystem functioning. The finding that there was no direct interaction between these two factors, but that instead rather complex interactions between combinations of certain species and resources underlie positive biodiversity ecosystem functioning relationships, suggests that detailed knowledge of how individual species interact with complex natural environments will be required in order to make reliable predictions about how altered levels of biodiversity will most likely affect ecosystem functioning
    • Balancing within three dimensions.

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (2017)
      Arising out of UK empirical research into religion, belief and discrimination, this paper argues that the three dimensional approach taken by the project to understanding and applying its findings is potentially applicable also in the wider European context. Arguably such an approach will enable a theological and social policy connection with respect to the Christian, secular, and religiously plural context of interreligious and wider social relations. In contrast to such an approach, a call for Christianity to retain a privileged central position within such social policy milieu does not adequately take account of the realities of a growing religious plurality as well as increasingly non-religious or otherwise secular dimensions of today's world. At the same time, strident campaigns for secular measures to be given priority do not take sufficient account of the substantial numbers of those who continue to identify with a religion in varied ways, or the relatively highly valued significance of religion found especially among cultural minorities. Further, any attempt to try to equalize the various religious traditions will run into the clearly different historical and social position of Christianity within Europe; while any of the apparently seductive options for the religions to form a united front, either apart from or over and against the secular, would likely result in damage to the theological and social health of all the religions. In contrast to these approaches, I argue that in both theology and social policy, a balancing of the Christian, secular and religiously plural dimensions is capable of facilitating the kind of evolutionary development that can mediate constructively between the importance of historical inheritance and the need for adaptive and creative change within interreligious and wider social relations.
    • The bank lending channel and monetary policy rules for Eurozone banks: further extensions

      Apergis, Nicholas; Miller, Stephen; Alevizopoulou, Effrosyni; Curtin University; University of Nevada Las Vegas; University of Piraeus (De Gruyter, 2014-06-12)
      The monetary authorities affect macroeconomic activity through various channels of influence. This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how central bank actions affect the loan supply through its main indicator of policy, the real short-term interest rate. This paper employs the endogenously determined target interest rate, emanating from the European Central Bank’s monetary policy rule, to examine the operation of the bank lending channel. Furthermore, it examines whether different bank-specific characteristics affect how Eurozone banks react to monetary shocks. That is, do sounder banks react more to the monetary policy rule than less-sound banks? The paper finds evidence of an active and statistically and economically significant bank lending channel for the Eurozone between 2000 and 2009.
    • Banking development and energy consumption: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

      Aslan, Alper; Apergis, Nicholas; Topcu, Mert; Nevsehir University; Curtin University; Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University (Elsevier, 2014-06-21)
      Since the late 1990s, much scholarly work has been done in the field of energy economics on the nexus between economic growth and energy consumption. Over the last decade, however, the literature has been recompiled through examining the relationship between energy consumption and a set of variables by referring to the implicit role of economic growth. Based upon finance-energy nexus, this paper attempts to investigate the linkage between the banking development and energy consumption for a panel of seven Middle Eastern countries using panel cointegration and causality techniques over the period 1980–2011. Panel cointegration results show a long-run relationship between energy consumption, income, energy prices and banking sector development indicators. FMOLS (Fully Modified OLS) results reveal that all banking sector indicators affect energy demand positively in the long-run and the impact range falls between 0.169 and 0.396. In terms of causality, there is evidence of a one way short-run relationship from banking expansion to energy consumption while long-run dynamics indicate a bi-directional feedback relationship. These results have some implications for energy and environmental policy. One main implication is that energy conservation policies may be implemented with little or no adverse impact on financial development in the short-run whereas they might become detrimental in the long-run.
    • Barack Obama: changing American criminal justice?

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (Taylor and Francis, 2009-12)
      Barack Obama's election as the USA's 44th president signalled the end of an era of entrenched conservatism in American government. Following his inauguration on 20 January 2009, one fundamental question confronts anyone concerned with the state of American criminal justice. Energised by a wave of popular support, will the new president go down in history as someone who radically reformed America's overloaded criminal justice system?
    • Barcode I, II, III

      Wells, Kate; University of Derby (2014-06-21)
      Today there is an ever-increasing demand for printed fabrics to exhibit an ethnic twist or provide the impression of being hand produced. Some of the reasons for this may be due to a merging of cultures, through increased travel and advances in communications but there is also a growing trend in the importance of identity, place and individualism that has created a renewed interest in craft, one-off and hand produced products. An increasing desire for the unique and traditional: In-praise of the ‘hand’; ‘flaw’; ‘accident’ has potentially resulted in a growth of digital representations of traditional designs, many originating through painterly, dyed or hand printed techniques that produce marks upon or within the cloth that act as indicators of the technique employed and as such exhibit irregularity with the occasional fault implying the influence of the ‘hand’ in its production. The digitisation of traditionally patterned materials that are seemingly too expensive to still be produced by hand has enabled such design styles to enter into the marketplace. But this re-production, copying process of traditional designs using the new technologies of the time is historic, having taken place within Europe since the C18th with the birth of textile printing manufacture, so what makes digitisation of the process any different from a traditional copy? Hopefully successful digitisation of a design helps retain some of the qualities of ‘Slow’ production allowing reproduction of one-off pieces to be successfully digitally printed, even re-coloured. But many questions still remain: ‘Can digital copy with extensive CAD re-working retain the quality of ‘hand’ and ‘accident’ and continue to deliver the magical qualities, depth of colour and uniqueness that hand dyed and printed textiles exhibit?’ or ‘Can ‘hand’ and ‘technology’ unite together in creating a new, unique form of digital copy in the future?
    • Barriers in green lean implementation: a combined systematic literature review and interpretive structural modelling approach

      Cherrafi, Anass; Elfezazi, Said; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Benhida, Khalid; Mokhlis, Ahmed; Cadi Ayyad University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017)
      Green Lean has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for organizations to pursue both operational and sustainability excellence. The interest on this approach has rapidly risen in both academic and industry circles. However, despite this interest, very limited research has focused on its implementation, and no research has investigated the barriers that hinder the success of such activity. This study investigates the Green Lean implementation barriers and their contextual relationships and effects on the integration and deployment of this approach. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR), Interpretative Structural Modelling and fuzzy Matriced’ Impacts Croise’s Multiplication Appliqée a UN Classement (MICMAC) analyzes were carried out. Fifteen barriers were extracted from the SLR and then validated in consultation with industry and academic experts. The Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method was used to understand the relationship between the fifteen barriers and to develop a hierarchical model of these. The different barriers were classified into ‘linkage’ and ‘dependent’ barriers by using MICMAC analysis. The results suggested that all the identified barriers play an important role, and hence can equally act as a significant hurdle to the implementation of Green Lean projects. This study can help managers and policy makers in better understanding these barriers. Thus, they can be assisted in managing and prioritizing barriers towards the successful implementation of Green Lean initiatives for better financial and environmental performance.
    • Barriers to Family Caregivers’ Coping With Patients With Severe Mental Illness in Iran

      Ebrahimi, Hossein; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Thornicroft, Graham; Rahmani, Farnaz; Whitehead, Bill; Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; Kings College London; University of Derby; et al. (2018-02-24)
      The broad spectrum of problems caused by caring for a patient with mental illness imposes a high burden on family caregivers. This can affect how they cope with their mentally ill family members. Identifying caregivers’ experiences of barriers to coping is necessary to develop a program to help them overcome these challenges. This qualitative content analysis study explored barriers impeding family caregivers’ ability to cope with their relatives diagnosed with severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders). Sixteen family caregivers were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed using a semi-structured in-depth interview method. Data were analyzed by a conventional content analytic approach. Findings consisted of four major categories: the patient’s isolation from everyday life, incomplete recovery, lack of support by the mental health care system, and stigmatization. Findings highlight the necessity of providing support for caregivers by the mental health care delivery service system.
    • Barriers to innovation in service SMEs: Evidence from Mexico

      Maldonado-Guzman, Gonzalo; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Pinzon-Castro, Sandra Yesenia; Kumar, Vikas; The University of Derby (Emerald, 2017)
      Purpose – Specific research related to the study of innovation barriers in service SMEs in the Latin American region is limited. This study thus investigates the effects that external environmental, financial and human barriers have on innovation activities, particularly, within the context of Mexican service SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). Data were collected through an instrument that was developed based on relevant constructs adapted from the literature. The instrument was validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and Composite Reliability Index to ensure the reliability of the theoretical model. The instrument was distributed among service SMEs in the Aguascalientes state of Mexico, from were 308 valid responses were obtained. Findings – In general, the results indicate that all of the three barriers investigated (i.e. external environmental, financial and human) hinder innovation in service SMEs, with the external environmental barrier being the most significant of the three. Practical implications – The findings of this research can inform managers of service SMEs and policy makers when formulating and implementing strategies to reduce innovation barriers. Originality/value – Evidence suggests that specific research related to the study of innovation barriers in service SMEs in the Latin American region is limited. This paper fills this research gap by expanding the limited body of knowledge in this field and providing further evidence on this phenomenon. The study also enables the distinctive characteristics of innovation barriers to be understood within a particular context, expanding in this way the body of knowledge on this field.
    • Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential: women and risk

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the academic literature with regard to risk and its role in the entrepreneurial experience of women. Entrepreneurial risk has an under?developed conceptual basis and distilling gender?specific aspects is difficult. Various academic disciplines have contributed to the topic of risk, e.g. economics, and often decision making is used to contextualise the topic. Though the literature does not always prove an association between the different facets of risk and entrepreneurship, there is general agreement that a number of factors, e.g. personal, political and social inter?relate to influence risk and subsequent behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Uses a desk?based approach to data collection. An overview of the main issues concerning risk and entrepreneurship is given to contexualise the gender aspects to be discussed, drawing on the extant literature. Findings The paper posits that an understanding of the gender aspects of risk is required if policy measures are to be constructive and help women overcome barriers and achieve their entrepreneurial potential. The conclusions drawn from the literature provide the foundations for a discussion of the likely policy measures that are required to encourage women entrepreneurs. Research limitations/implications A summary is provided of the research and information gaps that remain in terms of women entrepreneurship and risk with the aim of encouraging further research in the area. Originality/value Provides a comprehensive summary of the literature with regard to risk and the entrepreneurial experience of women, and discusses the likely policy measures required to encourage women entrepreneurs.
    • Basaltic maar-diatreme volcanism in the Lower carboniferous of the Limerick Basin (SW Ireland)

      Gernon, T. M.; Roberts, S.; Hewson, C.; Elliott, Holly; University of Southampton (Springer, 2015-04-16)
      Lead-zinc exploration drilling within the Limerick Basin (SW Ireland) has revealed the deep internal architecture and extra-crater deposits of five alkali-basaltic maar-diatremes. These were emplaced as part of a regional north-east south-west tectonomagmatic trend during the Lower Carboniferous Period. Field relationships and textural observations suggest that the diatremes erupted into a shallow submarine environment. Limerick trace element data indicates a genetic relationship between the diatremes and extra-crater successions of the Knockroe Formation, which records multiple diatreme filling and emptying cycles. Deposition was controlled largely by bathymetry defined by the surrounding Waulsortian carbonate mounds. An initial non-diatreme forming eruption stage occurred at the water-sediment interface, with magma-water interaction prevented by high magma ascent rates. This was followed by seawater incursion and the onset of phreatomagmatic activity. Magma-water interaction generated poorly vesicular blocky clasts, although the co-occurrence of plastically deformed and highly vesicular clasts indicate that phreatomagmatic and magmatic processes were not mutually exclusive. At a later stage, the diatreme filled with a slurry of juvenile lapilli and country rock lithic clasts, homogenised by the action of debris jets. The resulting extra-crater deposits eventually emerged above sea level, so that water ingress significantly declined, and late-stage magmatic processes became dominant. These deposits, largely confined to the deep vents, incorporate high concentrations of partially sintered globular and large ‘raggy’ lapilli showing evidence for heat retention. Our study provides new insights into the dynamics and evolution of basaltic diatremes erupting into a shallow water (20–120 m) submarine environment.
    • Baseline coral disease surveys within three marine parks in Sabah, Borneo

      Sweet, Michael J.; Wood, Elizabeth; Miller, Jennifer; Bythell, John C.; University of Derby; School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Marine Conservation Society, Ross-On-Wye, UK; School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (PeerJ Inc., 2015-11-03)
      Two of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide are bleaching and disease. However, there has been a scarcity of research on coral disease in South-East Asia, despite the high biodiversity and the strong dependence of local communities on the reefs in the region. This study provides baseline data on coral disease frequencies within three national parks in Sabah, Borneo, which exhibit different levels of human impacts and management histories. High mean coral cover (55%) and variable disease frequency (mean 0.25 diseased colonies m−2) were found across the three sites. Highest disease frequency (0.44 diseased colonies per m 2) was seen at the site closest to coastal population centres. Bleaching and pigmentation responses were actually higher at Sipadan, the more remote, offshore site, whereas none of the other coral diseases detected in the other two parks were detected in Sipadan. Results of this study offer a baseline dataset of disease in these parks and indicate the need for continued monitoring, and suggest that coral colonies in parks under higher anthropogenic stressors and with lower coral cover may be more susceptible to contracting disease.
    • Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats

      Fratangeli, Francesca; Dondi, Nicolò; Segre Reinach, Marco; Serra, Clara; Sweet, Michael J.; Ponti, Massimo; University of Derby; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy; Reef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy; Reef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy; et al. (PeerJ Inc., 2016-10-25)
      Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.
    • Be your dog

      Bartram, Angela; University of Lincoln (KARST Gallery, Plymouth, 06/11/2016)
      In partnership with the Live Art Development Agency, 'Be Your Dog' is a project that aims to transcend the hierarchies of pet and owner. The project sees humans and their dogs aim to demonstrate a connection with each other based on mirrored actions that demonstrate empathy and equality. This public event is a result of workshops, and you may see pairs sitting or laying together, looking in each others eyes, or involved in small reciprocal actions. Of course this might not happen, as all are collaborators and the dogs will bring their own contribution to the work, but whatever happens you will see collaborating pairs being responsive in whatever way they deem right.
    • Be Your Dog (re-worked) at Mink Festival: A Zoo of the Pandemic

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (Mink Festival, 2021-01)
      Be Your Dog analyses the relationship that positions animal bodies as hierarchically other, by offering understanding of differing perspectives within domestic cohabiting pairs of inter-species companions. Developed with seven sets of established companions in workshops over two weekends at KARST, this inter-species ‘pack’ became co-performers in a concluding public event. All participants were positioned and were visible as artists and equals. This is a re-worked video taken from the footage of the public event.
    • Be your dog (workshop)

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (2020-01-17)
      'Be Your Dog' sees participants learn from the behaviour of their dogs by mirroring what they do: walking, laying, barking, drinking, etc. They become dog in essence and learn through empathy, becoming an inter-species pack.
    • Be/come closer to home: Narratives of contested lands in the visual practices of Katerina Attalidou and Alexandra Handal

      Photiou, Maria; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 27/05/2016)
      Women from Cyprus and Palestine are citizens of divided countries and have experienced conspiracies and invasions that have confiscated their homelands. This article investigates visual practices of women artists and the ways in which they are embedded in the space of each location. It aims to reflect on artists' experiences of borders, location and narrations of homeland. It focuses on the artistic practices of Greek-Cypriot artist Katerina Attalidou and Alexandra Handal, who engage in questioning and challenging issues on homeland, borders, history, citizenship, identity and exile. This article will enquire as to how the idea of homeland 'real or imagined' is represented in visual works and will investigate how the usage of images and narratives can challenge the concept of home. Through the discussion of images this article will consider how these practices serve as a reminder of exile and develop a critical understanding of contemporary events and our reaction to them.