• Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis

      Lee, N; Sameen, H; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 7/11/2014)
      In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been increased focus on access to finance for small firms. Research from before the crisis suggested that it was harder for innovative firms to access finance. Yet no research has considered the differential effect of the crisis on innovative firms. This paper addresses this gap using a dataset of over 10,000 UK SME employers. We find that innovative firms are more likely to be turned down for finance than other firms, and this worsened significantly in the crisis. However, regressions controlling for a host of firm characteristics show that the worsening in general credit conditions has been more pronounced for non-innovative firms with the exception of absolute credit rationing which still remains more severe for innovative firms. The results suggest that there are two issues in the financial system. The first is a structural problem which restricts access to finance for innovative firms. The second is a cyclical problem has been caused by the financial crisis and has impacted relatively more severely on non-innovative firms.
    • Cuba: educationaliImpact of the Cuban revolution

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Bloomsbury, 31/10/2019)
      Education in Mexico, Central America and the Latin Caribbean examines the development and practice of education in México, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panamá. The chapters, written by local experts, provide an overview of the structure, aims and purposes of education in each of these ten countries with very different socio-economic backgrounds. The authors present curriculum standards, pedagogy, evaluation, accountability and delivery, discussing both how the formal systems are structured and how they actually function. The volume explores the origins of proposed reforms and their implementation, emphasising the distinctiveness of each country and attempting to locate new practices that could lead to better education.Including a comparative introduction to the issues facing education in the region as a whole and guides to available online datasets, this book is an essential reference for researchers, scholars, international agencies and policy-makers.
    • The role of loan commitment terms in credit allocation on the UK small firms loan guarantee scheme

      Cowling, M; Matthews, C; Liu, W.; University of Brighton (Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 31/03/2017)
      In this paper we provide empirical evidence concerning the nature of loan commitment contracts as reflected by individual loan contract parameters in influencing the size of bank commitments. Specifically, we consider how the quantitative allocation of credit, the loan amount, is affected or altered by changes to other components of the total loan package. By doing so we shed some more light on the types of real world trade-offs that credit constrained firms might face when approaching banks for funds, using the UK governments loan guarantee programme. Our results point at the importance of relationship lending in the UK.
    • Feminine men and masculine women: in/exclusion in the academy

      Atkins, Liz; Vicars, Mark; Northumbria University (Emerald, 31/03/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to draw on concepts of female masculinityto interrogate how hegemonic gendering discourses, forms and performances are inscribed in neoliberal narratives of competency in higher education in the Western Hemisphere. Drawing on individual examples, the authors consider how these narratives are omnipresent in the sector, and systematically act to exclude those who do not conform. In doing so, the authors draw extensively on bodies of literature exploring gender/identity, and neo-liberalism. In particular, the paper draws on the work of Halberstam (1998, 2011), and of Drake (2015).There are comparatively few women in senior positions in Higher Education and the authors argue that as gendering institutions they reproduce hegemonic gendering discourses. The authors find that hegemonic gendering discourses are instrumental in maintaining and privileging specific forms and perceptions of masculinity and femininity as inscribed within and reproduced by perceptions of professional competency. There are comparatively few women in senior positions in Higher Education and the authors argue that as gendering institutions they reproduce hegemonic gendering discourses. The authors find that hegemonic gendering discourses are instrumental in maintaining and privileging specific forms and perceptions of masculinity and femininity as inscribed within and reproduced by perceptions of professional competency. This paper examines neo-liberal practices from a more nuanced perspective than some traditional polarised critiques which regard gender as a binary. In doing so, it contributes to debates on masculinity, but more importantly, opens discussions about the implications of gendering discourses for the role of the few women in senior positions in higher education institutions globally.
    • How Influencing Behaviours Can Accelerate the Transition to a Water Sensitive City.

      Ramkissoon, H; Smith, L. D. G; Kneebone, S. C; Monash University (CRC for Water Sensitive Cities, 31/01/2015)
      his Behaviour Assessment Database has been compiled as part of the CRC Water for Sensitive Cities project on 'Accelerating to Water Sensitive Cities by Influencing Behaviour' (Project A2.2). The overarching goal of this research project is to develop and test interventions that seek to change desirable behaviours, primarily in residents, to assist a movement toward water sensitive cities.
    • Corporate social responsibility performance and tax aggressiveness

      Chijoke-Mgbame, M.A; Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Kemi, Y.C; Mgbame, C.O; Coventry University (Academic Journals, 30/09/2017)
      This study investigated the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance on tax aggressiveness of listed firms in Nigeria. A cross-sectional research design was utilized for the study, and data were collected from the published annual reports. Using a sample of 50 companies for the period of 2007 to 2013, the findings of the study reveal that there is a negative relationship between CSR performance and tax aggressiveness in Nigeria. A significant relationship was also found between firm size and tax aggressiveness, though with mixed positive and negative results. In addition, the results reveal a negative and significant relationship between firm performance and tax aggressiveness, and the extent of tax aggressiveness is reinforcing. It can be concluded that firms are more or less likely to engage in tax aggressiveness depending on their CSR standpoints and dimension and other corporate characteristics. It is recommended that more attention should be given by tax administrations to understand conditions where tax aggressiveness is more likely and measures should be put in place to combat it.
    • Teaching Higher Education Courses in Further Education Colleges

      Tummons, Jonathan; Orr, kevin; Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (Sage, 30/05/2013)
      As the number of higher education (HE) courses offered in further education (FE) settings increases, so does the need for teachers and trainee teachers to develop their teaching skills. This text is written for all teachers and trainee teachers in FE. It considers what it means to teach HE in FE and how an HE environment can be created in an FE setting. The text covers day-to-day aspects of teaching including planning and assessment, giving guidance on the unique needs of HE students. Chapters on research and quality assurance support the reader in developing some advanced teaching skills. This is a practical guide for FE teachers and trainee teachers as the sector adapts to the needs of education today.
    • Education, citizenship, and Cuban identity

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Palgrave Macmillan., 29/07/2016)
      This book explores how Cuba’s famously successful and inclusive education system has formed young Cubans’ political, social, and moral identities in a country transfigured by new inequalities and moral compromises made in the name of survival. The author examines this educational experience from the perspective of those who grew up in the years of economic crisis following the fall of the Soviet Union, charting their ideals, their frustrations and their struggle to reconcile revolutionary rhetoric with twenty-first century reality.
    • Creating feminized critical spaces and co-caring communities of practice outside patriarchal managerial landscapes

      Duckworth, Vicky; Lord, Janet; Dunne, Linda; Atkins, Liz; Watmore, Sue; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 29/01/2016)
      The experiences of five female lecturers working in higher education in the UK are explored as they engage in the search for a feminized critical space as a refuge from the masculinized culture of performativity in which they feel constrained and devalued. Email exchanges were used as a form of narrative enquiry that provided opportunity and space to negotiate identities and make meaning from experiences. The exchanges provided a critical space, characterised by trust, honesty and care for the self and for each other, that enabled a sharing of authentic voices and a reaffirming of identities that were made vulnerable through the exposing of the self as an emotional, politicised subject. Drawing on existing theoretical understandings of critical feminised spaces enabled us to create a pedagogical framework for work with students in further developing caring and co-caring communities of practice that are not alternative to, but are outside the performativity landscape of education.
    • The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms

      Cowling, M; Ughetto, E; Lee, N.; University of Brighton (Elsevier, 28/06/2017)
      High-technology firms per se are perceived to be more risky than other, more conventional, firms. It follows that financial institutions will take this into account when designing loan contracts, and that this will manifest itself in more costly debt. In this paper we empirically test whether the provision of a government loan guarantee fundamentally changes the way lenders price debt to high-tech firms. Further, we also examine whether there are differential loan price effects of a public guarantee depending on the nature of the firms themselves and the nature of the economic and innovation environment that surrounds them. Using a large UK dataset of 29,266 guarantee backed loans we find that there is a high-tech risk premium which is justified by higher default, but, in general, that this premium is altered significantly when a public guarantee is provided for all firms. Further, all these loan price effects differ on precise spatial economic and innovation attributes.
    • The World is your Oyster: The Effects of Knowledge, Human Capital, Technology and Entry Timing on International Growth

      Cowling, M; Liu, W; Zhang, N.; University of Brighton (Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 27/06/2016)
      We draw on elements of several established theories of internationalization to provide a framework for exploring international market entry and scale of entry measured by number of foreign markets entered for a sample of young, high-tech, firms from the UK and Germany. We find that founding team human capital is associated with more extensive internationalization, as is intensity of R&D, early internationalization and early stage venture capital. We also find that internationalizing firms who choose the US as their first international market entry are also those most likely to develop more extensive international market presence. Degree of asset specificity, in contrast, is associated with less extensive internationalization.
    • Impact of board independence on the quality of community disclosures in annual reports.

      Yekini, K.C; Adelopo, I; Andrikopoulos, P; Yekini, Liafisu Sina; Coventry University (Taylor and Francis, 27/02/2019)
      This study investigates the link between board independence and the quality of community disclosures in annual reports. Using content analysis and a panel dataset from UK FTSE 350 companies the results indicate a statistically significant relationship between board independence, as measured by the proportion of nonexecutive directors, and the quality of community disclosures, while holding constant other corporate governance and firm specific variables. The study indicates that companies with more non-executive directors are likely to disclose higher quality information on their community activities than others. This finding offers important insights to policy makers who are interested in achieving optimal board composition and furthers our understanding of the firm's interaction with its corporate and extended environment through high-quality disclosures. The originality of this paper lies in the fact that it is the first to specifically examine the relationship between outside directors and community disclosures in annual reports. The paper contributes both to the corporate governance and community disclosure literature.
    • Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Finer, S; Voyias, P.D; McCarthy, C.M; Vatish, M; Moore, J; Smart-Halajko, M; Bawazeer, N; Al-Daghri, N.M; McTernan, P.G; et al. (BMC, 27/02/2015)
      The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this.
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Jayashri, R; Sukumar, N; Venkataraman, H; Pradeepa, R; Gokulakrishnan, K; Anjana, R.M; McTernan, P.G; Tripathi, G; Patel, V; et al. (BMC, 26/09/2014)
      Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India. Type 2 diabetes patients from two secondary care diabetic centres (Europeans - UK and Indians - India) were studied. Serum vitamin B12, folate and biochemical parameters were measured. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (<191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes patients and is associated with adverse lipid parameters. Type 2 diabetes management guidelines should include the recommendation for regular testing for B12 levels, especially for those on metformin.
    • Visitors' experience, place attachment and sustainable behaviour at cultural heritage sites: a conceptual framework

      Buonincontri, P; Marasco, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (MDPI, 26/06/2017)
      Sustainable tourism research has attracted wide interest from scholars and practitioners. While several heritage sites are mandated to provide optimum visitor satisfaction with increasing competition in the market, managers of heritage sites face growing challenges in striking a balance between consumption and conservation. This calls for promoting more sustainable behaviours among consumers of heritage. This study proposes a conceptualization of sustainable behaviour for heritage consumers. Using the attitude–behaviour relationship underpinned by the Theory of Reasoned Action, it develops and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates visitors’ heritage experiences, their attachment to heritage sites, and their general and site-specific sustainable heritage behaviour and presents their interrelationships as proposed hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for heritage site managers are discussed.
    • Nothing changes: Perceptions of vocational education in a coalition era

      Atkins, Liz; Flint, Kevin; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 25/06/2015)
      This paper explores young people's perceptions of vocational education and training (VET) in England. It draws on interview and focus-group data from a funded project. Parallel studies were carried out in The Netherlands, South Africa and England. This study reports on the English project. It found that serendipity, contingent events and influence of significant others are most influential in choice of vocational programme and that young peoples' understandings of possible career paths vary in sophistication, differentiated by age, programme level and subject area. Perceived attractiveness of VET was closely associated with societal perception of their programmes (which the young people considered to be negative). The paper considers the implications of these findings in the context of recent major policy initiatives in England. It concludes that, while some recent policy initiatives, such as the introduction of University Technical Colleges may be successful in raising the esteem of some forms of elite and specialized VET, broad vocational programmes at lower levels, and short courses associated with 'employability' and 're-engagement', will continue to be held in lower esteem and to confer little educational advantage on those young people, largely drawn from working-class backgrounds, who pursue them.
    • The “Three Ps” (perfecting, professionalization, and pragmatism) and their limitations for understanding Cuban education in the 1970s

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Rowman & Littlefield, 24/08/2018)
      This book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the 1970s which challenges prevailing interpretations. Drawing from multidisciplinary perspectives and exploring a range of areas--including politics, international relations, culture, education, and healthcare--its contributing authors demonstrate that the decade was a time of intense transformation which proved pivotal to the development of the Revolution. Indeed, many of the ideas, approaches, policies, and legislation developed and tested during the 1970s maintain a very visible legacy in contemporary Cuba. In highlighting the complexity of the 1970s, this volume ultimately aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the Cuban Revolution and how it chooses to face the challenges of the twenty-first century.
    • Multiple disadvantage and wage growth: The effect of merit pay on pay gaps

      Woodhams, C; Lupton, B; Perkins, G; Cowling, M; University of Brighton (Wiley, 24/02/2015)
      This article concerns rates of wage growth among women and minority groups and their impact on pay gaps. Specifically, it focuses on the pay progression of people with more than one disadvantaged identity, and on the impact of merit pay. Recent research indicates that pay gaps for people in more than one disadvantaged identity category are wider than those with a single‐disadvantaged identity. It is not known whether these gaps are closing, at what rate, and whether all groups are affected equally; nor is it known whether merit pay alleviates or exacerbates existing pay gaps. In addressing these issues, the analysis draws on longitudinal payroll data from a large UK‐based organization. Results show that pay gaps are closing; however, the rate of convergence is slow relative to the size of existing pay disparities, and slowest of all for people with disabilities. When the effect of merit pay is isolated, it is found to have a small positive effect in reducing pay gaps, and this effect is generally larger for dual/multiple‐disadvantaged groups. These findings run counter to the well‐established critique of merit pay in relation to equality outcomes. The implications of this are discussed, and an agenda for research and practice is set out. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Samadhi spa & wellness retreat

      Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 23/08/2013)