• Factors associated with the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: A systematic review

      Farina, Nicolas; Page, Thomas E.; Daley, Stephanie; Brown, Anna; Bowling, Ann; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; et al. (Wiley, 2017-02-03)
      Family carers of people with dementia are their most important support in practical, personal, and economic terms. Carers are vital to maintaining the quality of life (QOL) of people with dementia. This review aims to identify factors related to the QOL of family carers of people with dementia. Searches on terms including “carers,” “dementia,” “family,” and “quality of life” in research databases. Findings were synthesized inductively, grouping factors associated with carer QOL into themes. A total of 909 abstracts were identified. Following screening, lateral searches, and quality appraisal, 41 studies (n = 5539) were included for synthesis. A total of 10 themes were identified: demographics; carer–patient relationship; dementia characteristics; demands of caring; carer health; carer emotional well‐being; support received; carer independence; carer self‐efficacy; and future. The quality and level of evidence supporting each theme varied. We need further research on what factors predict carer QOL in dementia and how to measure it.
    • Female fire-setters: gender-associated psychological and psychopathological features

      Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A.; Mozova, Katarina; Page, Thomas E.; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; University of Kent; Canterbury Christ Church University (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-20)
      Female fire-setters are reported to commit nearly one-third of deliberately set fires, yet there are limited studies examining the characteristics that distinguish them from suitable comparison groups. The aim of this study is to compare incarcerated female fire-setters with incarcerated male fire-setters and female offender controls on psychopathological and psychological features that could be targeted via therapeutic interventions. We recruited 65 female fire-setters, 128 male fire-setters, and 63 female offenders from the prison estate. Participants completed a battery of validated tools assessing psychiatric traits and psychological characteristics (i.e., inappropriate fire interest, emotion/self-regulation, social competence, self-concept, offense-supportive attitudes, and boredom proneness) highlighted in the existing literature. Major depression and an internal locus of control distinguished female fire-setters from male fire-setters. Alcohol dependence, serious/problematic fire interest, and more effective anger regulation distinguished female fire-setters from the female offender control group. This is the first study to examine differences between female fire-setters, male fire-setters, and female control offenders on both psychopathological features and psychological traits. These findings highlight the gender-specific and offense-specific needs of female fire-setters that clinicians need to consider when implementing programs that ensure client responsivity.
    • “It was only harmless banter!” The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale

      Page, Thomas E.; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; University of Kent (Wiley, 2015-11-29)
      Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self‐report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:254–273, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Justifying sexual harassment through moral disengagement: the role of in-group identification

      Page, Thomas E.; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; University of Kent (2014)
    • Measuring the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: development and validation of C-DEMQOL

      Brown, Anna; Page, Thomas E.; Daley, Stephanie; Farina, Nicolas; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Budgett, Jessica; Gallaher, Laura; Feeney, Yvonne; Murray, Joanna; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-04-27)
      We aimed to address gaps identified in the evidence base and instruments available to measure the quality of life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia, and develop a new brief, reliable, condition-specific instrument. We generated measurable domains and indicators of carer QOL from systematic literature reviews and qualitative interviews with 32 family carers and 9 support staff, and two focus groups with 6 carers and 5 staff. Statements with five tailored response options, presenting variation on the QOL continuum, were piloted (n = 25), pre-tested (n = 122) and field-tested (n = 300) in individual interviews with family carers from North London and Sussex. The best 30 questions formed the C-DEMQOL questionnaire, which was evaluated for usability, face and construct validity, reliability and convergent/discriminant validity using a range of validation measures. C-DEMQOL was received positively by the carers. Factor analysis confirmed that C-DEMQOL sum scores are reliable in measuring overall QOL (ω = 0.97) and its five subdomains: ‘meeting personal needs’ (ω = 0.95); ‘carer wellbeing’ (ω = 0.91); ‘carer-patient relationship’ (ω = 0.82); ‘confidence in the future’ (ω = 0.90) and ‘feeling supported’ (ω = 0.85). The overall QOL and domain scores show the expected pattern of convergent and discriminant relationships with established measures of carer mental health, activities and dementia severity and symptoms. The robust psychometric properties support the use of C-DEMQOL in evaluation of overall and domain-specific carer QOL; replications in independent samples and studies of responsiveness would be of value.
    • Moral disengagement as a self-regulatory process in sexual harassment perpetration at work: a preliminary conceptualization

      Page, Thomas E.; Pina, Afroditi; University of Kent (Elsevier BV, 2015-01-13)
      Sexual harassment is recognized as a widespread form of aggressive behavior with severe consequences for victims and organizations. Yet, contemporary research and theory focusing on the motives and cognition of sexual harassment perpetrators continues to be sparse and underdeveloped. This review examines the motivations that underlie sexual harassment and the self-exonerating cognitions and behavioral techniques employed by perpetrators of sexual harassment. In this paper, we emphasize the need to understand the cognitive processes that disinhibit motivated individuals to sexually harass. Utilizing social cognitive theory as a foundation, we propose that cognitive mechanisms of moral disengagement are likely to have an important etiological role in the facilitation and reinforcement of sexually harassing behavior. A preliminary conceptual framework is presented, suggesting novel ways in which each of the various moral disengagement mechanisms may contribute to sexual harassment perpetration.
    • The social functioning in dementia scale (SF‐DEM): Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric properties in mild, moderate, and severe dementia

      Budgett, Jessica; Brown, Anna; Daley, Stephanie; Page, Thomas E.; Banerjee, Sube; Livingston, Gill; Sommerlad, Andrew; University College London; University of Kent; University of Sussex (Wiley, 2018-12-14)
      The psychometric properties of the social functioning in dementia scale over different dementia severities are unknown. We interviewed 299 family carers of people with mild, moderate, or severe dementia from two UK research sites; examined acceptability (completion rates); conducted exploratory factor analysis; and tested each factor's internal consistency and construct validity. Of 299, 285 (95.3%) carers completed questionnaires. Factor analysis indicated three distinct factors with acceptable internal consistency: spending time with other people, correlating with overall social function (r = 0.56, P < .001) and activities of daily living (r = −0.48, P < .001); communicating with other people correlating with activities of daily living (r = −0.66, P < .001); and sensitivity to other people correlating with quality of life (r = 0.35, P < .001) and inversely with neuropsychiatric symptoms (r = −0.45, P < .001). The three factors' correlations with other domains were similar across all dementia severities. The social functioning in dementia scale carer version measures three social functioning domains and has satisfactory psychometric properties in all severities of dementia.
    • Understanding the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: Development of a new conceptual framework

      Daley, Stephanie; Murray, Joanna; Farina, Nicolas; Page, Thomas E.; Brown, Anna; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Bowling, Ann; Knapp, Martin; Banerjee, Sube; et al. (Wiley, 2018-09-25)
      Dementia is a major global health and social care challenge, and family carers are a vital determinant of positive outcomes for people with dementia. This study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework for the Quality of Life (QOL) of family carers of people with dementia. We studied family carers of people with dementia and staff working in dementia services iteratively using in‐depth individual qualitative interviews and focus groups discussions. Analysis used constant comparison techniques underpinned by a collaborative approach with a study‐specific advisory group of family carers. We completed 41 individual interviews with 32 family carers and nine staff and two focus groups with six family carers and five staff. From the analysis, we identified 12 themes that influenced carer QOL. These were organised into three categories focussing on person with dementia, carer, and external environment. For carers of people with dementia, the QOL construct was found to include condition‐specific domains which are not routinely considered in generic assessment of QOL. This has implications for researchers, policy makers, and service providers in addressing and measuring QOL in family carers of people with dementia.