• Centrality dependence of J/ψ and ψ(2S) production and nuclear modification in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 8.16 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agha, S.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-01)
      The inclusive production of the J/ψ and ψ(2S) charmonium states is studied as a function of centrality in p-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 8.16 TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed in the dimuon decay channel with the ALICE apparatus in the centre-of-mass rapidity intervals −4.46 < ycms < −2.96 (Pb-going direction) and 2.03 < ycms < 3.53 (p-going direction), down to zero transverse momentum (pT). The J/ψ and ψ(2S) production cross sections are evaluated as a function of the collision centrality, estimated through the energy deposited in the zero degree calorimeter located in the Pb-going direction. The pT-differential J/ψ production cross section is measured at backward and forward rapidity for several centrality classes, together with the corresponding average ⟨pT⟩ and ⟨pT^2⟩ values. The nuclear effects affecting the production of both charmonium states are studied using the nuclear modification factor. In the p-going direction, a suppression of the production of both charmonium states is observed, which seems to increase from peripheral to central collisions. In the Pb-going direction, however, the centrality dependence is different for the two states: the nuclear modification factor of the J/ψ increases from below unity in peripheral collisions to above unity in central collisions, while for the ψ(2S) it stays below or consistent with unity for all centralities with no significant centrality dependence. The results are compared with measurements in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV and no significant dependence on the energy of the collision is observed. Finally, the results are compared with theoretical models implementing various nuclear matter effects.
    • Charged-particle pseudorapidity density at mid-rapidity in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 8.16 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Acosta, F.-T.; Adamová, D.; Adhya, S. P.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Ahammed, Z.; et al. (Springer Science, 2019-04-04)
      The pseudorapidity density of charged particles, dNch/dη, in p–Pb collisions has been measured at a centreof-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon pair of √sNN = 8.16 TeV at mid-seudorapidity for non-single-diffractive events. The results cover 3.6 units of pseudorapidity, |η| < 1.8. The dNch/dη value is 19.1 ± 0.7 at |η| < 0.5. This quantity divided by Npart /2 is 4.73±0.20, where Npart is the average number of participating nucleons, is 9.5% higher than the corresponding value for p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. Measurements are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production. All models agree within uncertainties with data in the Pb-going side, while HIJING overestimates, showing a symmetric behaviour, and EPOS underestimates the p-going side of the dNch/dη distribution. Saturation-based models reproduce the distributions well for η > −1.3. The dNch/dη is also measured for different centrality estimators, based both on the chargedparticle multiplicity and on the energy deposited in the ZeroDegree Calorimeters. A study of the implications of the large multiplicity fluctuations due to the small number of participants for systems like p–Pb in the centrality calculation for multiplicity-based estimators is discussed, demonstrating the advantages of determining the centrality with energy deposited near beam rapidity.
    • Dielectron production in proton-proton and proton-lead collisions at √sNN = 5.02TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; et al. (American Physical Society (APS), 2020-11-25)
      The first measurements of dielectron production at midrapidity (|η_e| < 0.8) in proton–proton and proton–lead collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC are presented. The dielectron cross section is measured with the ALICE detector as a function of the invariant mass m_ee and the pair transverse momentum p_T,ee in the ranges m_ee < 3.5 GeV/c^2 and p_T,ee < 8 GeV/c, in both collision systems. In proton–proton collisions, the charm and beauty cross sections are determined at midrapidity from a fit to the data with two different event generators. This complements the existing dielectron measurements performed at √s = 7 and 13 TeV. The slope of the √s dependence of the three measurements is described by FONLL calculations. The dielectron cross section measured in proton–lead collisions is in agreement, within the current precision, with the expected dielectron production without any nuclear matter effects for e+e− pairs from open heavy-flavor hadron decays. For the first time at LHC energies, the dielectron production in proton–lead and proton–proton collisions are directly compared at the same √sNN via the dielectron nuclear modification factor RpPb. The measurements are compared to model calculations including cold nuclear matter effects, or additional sources of dielectrons from thermal radiation.
    • First observation of an attractive interaction between a proton and a cascade baryon

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adhya, S. P.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; et al. (American Physical Society (APS), 2019-09-13)
      This Letter presents the first experimental observation of the attractive strong interaction between a proton and a multistrange baryon (hyperon) Ξ−. The result is extracted from two-particle correlations of combined p−Ξ−⊕¯p−¯Ξ+ pairs measured in p−Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV at the LHC with ALICE. The measured correlation function is compared with the prediction obtained assuming only an attractive Coulomb interaction and a standard deviation in the range [3.6, 5.3] is found. Since the measured p−Ξ−⊕¯p−¯Ξ+ correlation is significantly enhanced with respect to the Coulomb prediction, the presence of an additional, strong, attractive interaction is evident. The data are compatible with recent lattice calculations by the HAL-QCD Collaboration, with a standard deviation in the range [1.8, 3.7]. The lattice potential predicts a shallow repulsive Ξ− interaction within pure neutron matter and this implies stiffer equations of state for neutron-rich matter including hyperons. Implications of the strong interaction for the modeling of neutron stars are discussed.
    • Measuring K0sK± interactions using pp collisions at √s=7 TeV

      Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-03-10)
      We present the first measurements of femtoscopic correlations between the KS0 and K± particles in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment. The observed femtoscopic correlations are consistent with final-state interactions proceeding solely via the a0(980) resonance. The extracted kaon source radius and correlation strength parameters for KS0K− are found to be equal within the experimental uncertainties to those for KS0K+. Results of the present study are compared with those from identical-kaon femtoscopic studies also performed with pp collisions at √s=7 TeV by ALICE and with a KS0K± measurement in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV. Combined with the Pb–Pb results, our pp analysis is found to be compatible with the interpretation of the a0(980) having a tetraquark structure instead of that of a diquark.
    • Multiplicity dependence of J/ψ production at midrapidity in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-03)
      Measurements of the inclusive J/ψ yield as a function of charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/dη in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with ALICE at the LHC are reported. The J/ψ meson yield is measured at midrapidity (|y|<0.9) in the dielectron channel, for events selected based on the charged-particle multiplicity at midrapidity (|η|<1) and at forward rapidity ( -3.7 < η < -1.7 and 2.8 < η < 5.1); both observables are normalized to their corresponding averages in minimum bias events. The increase of the normalized J/ψ yield with normalized dNch/dη is significantly stronger than linear and dependent on the transverse momentum. The data are compared to theoretical predictions, which describe the observed trends well, albeit not always quantitatively.
    • Pion–kaon femtoscopy and the lifetime of the hadronic phase in Pb−Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Agha, S.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-12-17)
      In this paper, the first femtoscopic analysis of pion–kaon correlations at the LHC is reported. The analysis was performed on the Pb–Pb collision data at √sNN = 2.76 TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The non-identical particle correlations probe the spatio-temporal separation between sources of different particle species as well as the average source size of the emitting system. The sizes of the pion and kaon sources increase with centrality, and pions are emitted closer to the centre of the system and/or later than kaons. This is naturally expected in a system with strong radial flow and is qualitatively reproduced by hydrodynamic models. ALICE data on pion–kaon emission asymmetry are consistent with (3+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a statistical hadronisation model, resonance propagation, and decay code THERMINATOR 2 calculation, with an additional time delay between 1 and 2 fm/c for kaons. The delay can be interpreted as evidence for a significant hadronic rescattering phase in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.
    • Production of ω mesons in pp collisions at √s =7 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agha, S.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-12-07)
      The invariant differential cross section of inclusive ω(782) meson production at midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV was measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC over a transverse momentum range of 2 < pT < 17 GeV/c. The ω meson was reconstructed via its ω → π+π−π0 decay channel. The measured ω production cross section is compared to various calculations: PYTHIA 8.2 Monash 2013 describes the data, while PYTHIA 8.2 Tune 4C overestimates the data by about 50%. A recent NLO calculation, which includes a model describing the fragmentation of the whole vector-meson nonet, describes the data within uncertainties below 6 GeV/c, while it overestimates the data by up to 50% for higher pT. The ω/π0 ratio is in agreement with previous measurements at lower collision energies and the PYTHIA calculations. In addition, the measurement is compatible with transverse mass scaling within the measured pT range and the ratio is constant with C^(ω/π0) = 0.67±0.03 (stat) ±0.04 (sys) above a transverse momentum of 2.5 GeV/c.
    • Search for a common baryon source in high-multiplicity pp collisions at the LHC

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-10-08)
      We report on the measurement of the size of the particle-emitting source from two-baryon correlations with ALICE in high-multiplicity pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV. The source radius is studied with low relative momentum p–p, pbar-pbar, p–Λ , and pbar-Λbar pairs as a function of the pair transverse mass m_T considering for the first time in a quantitative way the effect of strong resonance decays. After correcting for this effect, the radii extracted for pairs of different particle species agree. This indicates that protons, antiprotons, Λ s, and Λbar s originate from the same source. Within the measured m_T range (1.1–2.2) GeV/c^2 the invariant radius of this common source varies between 1.3 and 0.85 fm. These results provide a precise reference for studies of the strong hadron–hadron interactions and for the investigation of collective properties in small colliding systems.
    • Transverse-momentum and event-shape dependence of D-meson flow harmonics in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-12-29)
      The elliptic and triangular flow coefficients v2 and v3 of prompt D0, D+, and D*+ mesons were measured at midrapidity (|y|<0.8) in Pb–Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of √sNN = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The D mesons were reconstructed via their hadronic decays in the transverse momentum interval 1 <p_T < 36 GeV/c in central (0–10%) and semi-central (30–50%) collisions. Compared to pions, protons, and J/ψ mesons, the average D-meson v_n harmonics are compatible within uncertainties with a mass hierarchy for p_T ≤ 3 GeV/c, and are similar to those of charged pions for higher p_T. The coupling of the charm quark to the light quarks in the underlying medium is further investigated with the application of the event-shape engineering (ESE) technique to the D-meson v2 and p_T-differential yields. The D-meson v2 is correlated with average bulk elliptic flow in both central and semi-central collisions. Within the current precision, the ratios of per-event D-meson yields in the ESE-selected and unbiased samples are found to be compatible with unity. All the measurements are found to be reasonably well described by theoretical calculations including the effects of charm-quark transport and the recombination of charm quarks with light quarks in a hydrodynamically expanding medium.
    • Z-boson production in p-Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} $$ = 8.16 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} $$ = 5.02 TeV

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-10)
      Measurement of Z-boson production in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 8.16 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV is reported. It is performed in the dimuon decay channel, through the detection of muons with pseudorapidity −4 < ημ < −2.5 and transverse momentum pTμ > 20 GeV/c in the laboratory frame. The invariant yield and nuclear modification factor are measured for opposite-sign dimuons with invariant mass 60 < mμμ < 120 GeV/c2 and rapidity 2.5 < ycmsμμ< 4. They are presented as a function of rapidity and, for the Pb-Pb collisions, of centrality as well. The results are compared with theoretical calculations, both with and without nuclear modifications to the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). In p-Pb collisions the center-of-mass frame is boosted with respect to the laboratory frame, and the measurements cover the backward (−4.46 < ycmsμμ < −2.96) and forward (2.03 < ycmsμμ < 3.53) rapidity regions. For the p-Pb collisions, the results are consistent within experimental and theoretical uncertainties with calculations that include both free-nucleon and nuclear-modified PDFs. For the Pb-Pb collisions, a 3.4σ deviation is seen in the integrated yield between the data and calculations based on the free-nucleon PDFs, while good agreement is found once nuclear modifications are considered.