• Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women.

      Gilbert, Paul; Bhundia, Rakhee; Mitra, Ranjana; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Sanghera, Jasvinder; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Routledge, 2007-02-14)
      This study explored differences in shame-focused attitudes to mental health problems in Asian and non-Asian students. The ‘Attitudes Towards Mental Health Problems’ (ATMHP) is a self-report scale designed for this study to measure: external shame (beliefs that others will look down on self if one has mental health problems); internal shame (related to negative self-evaluations); and reflected shame (believing that one can bring shame to family/community). A second questionnaire was designed to measure concerns with confidentiality. Results suggest that Asian students have higher external shame and reflected shame, but not internal shame beliefs. Asian students were also more concerned with confidentiality when it comes to talking about personal feeling/anxieties.
    • Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale.

      Gilbert, Paul; Broomhead, Claire; Irons, Christopher Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Bellew, Rebecca; Mills, Alison; Gale, Corinne; Knibb, Rebecca C.; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (British Psychological Society, 2007-09)
      Social rank theory suggests that mood variation is linked to the security a person feels in his/her social domain and the extent to which they are sensitive to involuntary subordination (e.g. feeling defeated and feeling inferior). Previous studies looking at rank‐related and competitive behaviour have often focused on striving for dominance, whereas social rank theory has focused on striving to avoid inferiority. This study set out to develop a measure of ‘Striving to Avoid Inferiority’ (SAIS) and assess its relationship to other rank and mood‐related variables. We hypothesized two factors: one we called insecure striving, relating to fear of rejection/criticism for ‘not keeping up’, and the second we called secure non‐striving, relating to feeling socially acceptable and valued regardless of whether one succeeds or not. This scale was given to 207 undergraduates. The SAIS had good psychometric properties, with the two factors of insecure striving and secure non‐striving strongly supported by exploratory factor analysis. Both factors were significantly (though contrastingly) related to various fears of rejection, need for validation, hypercompetitive attitudes, feeling inferior to others, submissive behaviour and indicators of stress, anxiety and depression. Striving to avoid inferiority was a significant predictor of psychopathologies, especially where individuals perceived themselves to have low social rank.
    • An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population.

      Gilbert, Paul; Cheung, Mimi; Irons, Christopher Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Cardiff University; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, 2005-07-01)
      Research has shown an important link between depression and rumination. This study set out to explore depression-focused rumination and anger-focused rumination in relation to shame and entrapment, and depression. 166 undergraduate students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring current depression, rumination on depressive symptoms, rumination on anger, and the frequency of shame-focused and entrapment-focused thoughts. Both depression-focused and anger-focused rumination were related to depression, and to the frequency of shame and entrapment thoughts. In a mediational model, the link between depression-focused rumination and depression was partially mediated by feeling trapped by, and wanting to escape from, one's thoughts and feelings. Thus the link between rumination and depression is complex. Although rumination may contribute to depression by generating a spiral of negative thinking and negative feeling, feeling trapped and unable to control one's rumination, and being flight motivated, may add a further dimension to the depressogenic qualities of rumination.
    • Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender.

      Gilbert, Paul; Irons, Christopher Paul; Olsen, K.; Gilbert, Jean; McEwan, Kirsten; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2006-03)
      This paper explores two interpersonal sensitivities (to rejection and to social putdown) in a group of 54 depressed men and 50 depressed women. Measures of anhedonia, anxiety, anger, social comparison, and submissive behaviour were also obtained. We found no differences in rejection sensitivity, anger, anhedonia, or anxiety between the sample of depressed men and women. Depressed women rated themselves as more submissive and more inferior than depressed men, and blamed themselves more for being criticized and put-down by other people. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed three underlying factors: mood (including anxiety and depression), internalization (related to self-blame and feelings of low rank), and externalization (related to anger and blaming others for criticism). For both men and women internalization was significantly correlated with depression. However, externalization was negatively related to depression in women, but positively related to depression in men. Hence, the difference between the genders was on externalization but not internalization.
    • The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia.

      Martin, Y.; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Routledge, 2006-01)
      There is increasing research exploring depression in carers of people with dementia. This study explored the relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression in a group of 70 carers of those with dementia. As in other studies the experience of entrapment in the role was highly related to depression. Moreover, experiences of shame relating to self-criticism, other people’s expectations and the fear of their criticism were significantly related to depression, entrapment and guilt. Guilt however, as focused on the fears of harming others, letting others down and sense of responsibility, was not associated with depression or entrapment. Depression in carers may relate in part to feeling trapped in a role but also being vulnerable to criticism and feelings of inadequacy in that role. In this study, degree of behavioural disturbance/dependence was not found to be significantly associated with any of the research variables.
    • Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Bhundia, Rakhee; Christie, Rachael; Broomhead, Claire; Rockliff, Helen; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (British Psychological Society, 2010-11)
      Objectives. This study explored the relationship of forms and functions of self‐criticism, shame, and social rank variables to self‐harm, depression, and anxiety. Design. The study used a questionnaire design. Method. In‐patients and day‐patients (N = 73) completed a series of questionnaires measuring self‐harm, mood, self‐criticism, shame, and social comparison. Results. Self‐harm was significantly associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, shame, and feelings of inferiority (low social rank). The self‐persecuting function of self‐criticism was especially linked to self‐harm, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions. This study adds to a growing literature on the importance of recognizing the pathogenic effects of negative self‐critical thoughts and feelings about the self and the value of distinguishing different types of self‐criticism.
    • Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Hay, J; Irons, Christopher Paul; Cheung, M.; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Wiley, 2007-01)
      This paper explores the relationship between personal evaluations of attachment and personal evaluations of social rank, in relationship to mood variation in bipolar disorder. Forty patients with diagnosed bipolar affective disorder, who were regarded as ‘relatively stable’ by their psychiatrist, were given a set of self-report questionnaires, measuring attachment style, social comparison, submissive behaviour and various aspects of mood. Mood variation within this group was highly linked to variation in social rank evaluations. In particular, elevated mood was associated with feeling superior, while depression was associated with feeling inferior. Attachment also varied with mood but appeared to be less related to mood in this group. This study suggests that variation in social rank evaluations may be significantly associated with mood variation in patients with a bipolar disorder.