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• #### Arabic machine translation: A survey of the latest trends and challenges

Given that Arabic is one of the most widely used languages in the world, the task of Arabic Machine Translation (MT) has recently received a great deal of attention from the research community. Indeed, the amount of research that has been devoted to this task has led to some important achievements and improvements. However, the current state of Arabic MT systems has not reached the quality achieved for some other languages. Thus, much research work is still needed to improve it. This survey paper introduces the Arabic language, its characteristics, and the challenges involved in its translation. It provides the reader with a full summary of the important research studies that have been accomplished with regard to Arabic MT along with the most important tools and resources that are available for building and testing new Arabic MT systems. Furthermore, the survey paper discusses the current state of Arabic MT and provides some insights into possible future research directions.
• #### Experimental validation of fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor energy conversion system for electric vehicle applications

Due to the increasing air pollution and growing demand for green energy, the most of research is focused on renewable and sustainable energy. In this work, the PEM fuel cell is proposed as a solution to reduce the impact of the internal combustion engines on air pollution. In this paper a PEM fuel cell, battery and supercapacitor energy conversion system is proposed to ensure the energy demand for an electric vehicle is achieved. The storage system consisting of a battery and supercapacitor offers good performance in terms of autonomy and power availability. In this paper, an energy management of the PEM fuel cell electric vehicle has been first simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment and the results are discussed. Second, a Realtime experimental set up is used to test the performance of the proposed PEM fuel cell electric vehicle system. Experimental results have shown that the proposed system is able to satisfy the energy demand of the electric vehicle.
• #### Implementation of fuel cell and photovoltaic panels based DC micro grid prototype for electric vehicles charging station

Today, electric vehicle (EV) appears as an evident solution for the future automotive market. The introduction of EV will lead to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and decrease the travelling cost. However, electric vehicle is truly an ecological solution only if the production of electricity necessary for its operation is produced from sustainable energy sources. In this paper, an Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) through sustainable energy sources via a DC micro-grid system has been proposed. The proposed system includes a fuel cell (FC), photovoltaic (PV) panels, storage battery and possibility of a connection to the grid. In this work a low power prototype of a micro-grid based EVCS has been first validated using a numerical simulation under Matlab/Simulink using variable irradiance and number of recharging vehicles. In the second part of this paper, an EVCS prototype has been realized in the laboratory. The tests are realized using an emulator of the PEM fuel cell with the concept of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). The objective of this emulation is to evaluate the performances of the whole system without the need for a real fuel cell. The whole system is implemented on the dSPACE 1103 platform and the results of the tests are discussed.
• #### An experimental online judge system based on docker container for learning and teaching assistance

Programming Languages are core courses in computer science and computing-related disciplines, and there are increasing demands on improving the experiences, motivation and efficiency of programming language teaching and learning. In recent decades, online judge (OJ) systems have been popularly adopted in educational environments to support real-time learning feedback, and provide interactive programming practice. However, most existing OJ systems rely on significant resource for hardware virtualization, and suffer from long development cycles and extensive maintenances. This paper proposed a course-oriented OJ system based on the Docker Container techniques to significantly reduce the cost and maintenance of deployment of existing OJ system. The proposed approach is designed in the form of an experimental system, which is effective in stimulating the students to learn programming language and assist the instant assessment of coursework. Meanwhile, our proposed system can be integrated with major massive open online course (MOOC) systems for assessment. The efficiency and performance of our proposed system has been evaluated and tested by 1460 students in Nanyang Institute of Technology during term time between 2018 and 2019.
• #### Proton exchange membrane fuel cell modules for ship applications

In this article, we proposed a more reliable architecture composed of five fuel cell modules (FC), a storage system composed of battery and supercapacitor was also proposed to support the operation of the fuel cell. The main objective of this work is to study the feasibility of using the global system for small marine applications. In this paper, the global system was modeled and then simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The fuel cell is used as the main power source; each fuel cell is connected with a DC bus via a DC–DC boost converter. The Energy Storage System (HESS) is controlled as a fast-bidirectional auxiliary power source, it contains a battery and supercapacitors and each source is connected to the DC bus via a bidirectional buck-boost DC–DC converter (BBDCC). In order to optimize the HESS, the supercapacitors and the batteries are designed to allow high-efficiency operation and minimal weight. The entire system’s energy management algorithm (PMA) is developed to satisfy the energy demand of the boat. Finally, simulation tests are presented in Matlab/Simulink and discussed, where the effectiveness of the proposed system with its control is confirmed.
• #### Performances analysis of a micro-grid connected multi-renewable energy sources system associated with hydrogen storage

This work highlights the modelling and simulation of a micro-grid connected renewable energy system. It comprises of wind turbine (WT) based on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), photovoltaic generator (PV), fuel cell (FC) generator, a Hydrogen tank, a water electrolyser used for long-term storage, and a battery bank energy storage system (BBESS) utilized for short-term storage. In this paper, a global control strategy and an energy management strategy are proposed for the overall system. This strategy consists in charging the BBESS and producing hydrogen from the water electrolyser in case of power excess provided from WT-DFIG and photovoltaic generators. Therefore, the FC and the BBESS will be used as a backup generator to supply the demand required power, when the WT-DFIGs and the PV energy are deficient. The effectiveness of this contribution is verified through computer simulations under Matlab/Simulink, where very satisfactory results are obtained.
• #### A qualitative analysis of psychological processes mediating quality of life impairments in chronic daily headache

Quality of life impairments are greater in chronic daily headache (CDH) than in episodic headache conditions like migraine. This qualitative interview study aimed to identify psychological processes associated with quality of life impairments among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for CDH. Grounded theory analysis showed that perceived loss of control was the central experience mediating the impact of CDH on quality of life. The results provide explanations for previous quantitative findings about quality of life impairments in CDH and could inform interventions to reduce the impact of CDH. Further research could also examine the roles played by perceived control in the onset and development of CDH, including possible links with pre-emptive analgesic use.
• #### Configuration of enterprise support towards the clean growth challenge: a place-based perspective

Although clean growth has been identified as one of the grand challenges of the UK Industrial Strategy, public policy paid little attention to the configuration of business support towards enhancing clean growth potential of SMEs. The dominant approach of policymakers to the design of enterprise support interventions appears to be ‘place-blind’ and downplays the challenges that SMEs face in engaging with the clean growth policy agenda. Based on a mixed methods methodology, involving a survey of 306 businesses, a range of public engagement exercises and an extensive interview schedule, the study explores SMEs engagement with the clean growth challenge and associated business support mechanisms. We conceptualise the nexus of place-policy-practice as a way of framing policymaking approach in addressing the challenge. As part of the clean growth policy implementation, business support mechanisms need to move beyond a singular focus on energy efficiency and shift towards a holistic approach to capacity building for sustainable development. Small business needs to project a district voice in the definition of place in the local industrial strategies and have access to enterprise support which is place-based, policy-informed and practice-relevant.
• #### Z-boson production in p-Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$$ = 8.16 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$$ = 5.02 TeV

Measurement of Z-boson production in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 8.16 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV is reported. It is performed in the dimuon decay channel, through the detection of muons with pseudorapidity −4 < ημ < −2.5 and transverse momentum pTμ > 20 GeV/c in the laboratory frame. The invariant yield and nuclear modification factor are measured for opposite-sign dimuons with invariant mass 60 < mμμ < 120 GeV/c2 and rapidity 2.5 < ycmsμμ< 4. They are presented as a function of rapidity and, for the Pb-Pb collisions, of centrality as well. The results are compared with theoretical calculations, both with and without nuclear modifications to the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). In p-Pb collisions the center-of-mass frame is boosted with respect to the laboratory frame, and the measurements cover the backward (−4.46 < ycmsμμ < −2.96) and forward (2.03 < ycmsμμ < 3.53) rapidity regions. For the p-Pb collisions, the results are consistent within experimental and theoretical uncertainties with calculations that include both free-nucleon and nuclear-modified PDFs. For the Pb-Pb collisions, a 3.4σ deviation is seen in the integrated yield between the data and calculations based on the free-nucleon PDFs, while good agreement is found once nuclear modifications are considered.

• #### Arts in health: Pregnancy, birth & new parenthood

Art making offers a means for women to express and understand their changed sense of self-identity and sexuality as a result of pregnancy and motherhood. This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book introduces readers to the various ways in which art is being used with women who are experiencing different stages of childbearing–who may be unable to conceive and are struggling with infertility treatment, or experience miscarriage and loss, or are facing other issues of adjustment. It acknowledges that ideals around pregnancy and childbirth are highly contested, that this contestation, coupled with the very liminality of the event itself is challenging, if not potentially destabilising for new mothers and their partners. The English political activist and law reporter Vanessa Olorenshaw has pointed out that motherhood demands interdependence and sits uncomfortably with the dominant neo-liberal ideology of ‘self’ and ‘individualism’ as the core objects of a happy selfhood.

• #### Use of social marketing principles in sexual health: an exploratory review

This paper presents a systematic review of the use of social marketing principles in sexual health studies in order to determine the effectiveness of the programmes. Systematic literature review method was used, and Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria were adopted to analyse the use of social marketing principles in the selected studies. There is evidence of full use of some elements of Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria, for example, consumer research, behaviour change objectives and segmentation. The use of the marketing mix theory and exchange elements were limited, whereas the evidence of the use of competition is not noted. In addition, the majority of the selected studies focus on short-term objectives leading to varying and inconsistent outcomes. Overall, no single element of Andreasen’s (2002) benchmark criteria was independently associated with the success of any of the selected studies. The review highlights a need to use more social marketing principles in planning and implementing sexual health programmes to enhance their effectiveness. Improvement in performance might be achieved through the development and application of a new social marketing informed methodology for designing social programmes on sexual health.

• #### Crisis management for people with dementia at home: Mixed‐methods case study research to identify critical factors for successful home treatment

Best practice in dementia care is support in the home. Yet, crisis is common and can often result in hospital admission with adverse consequences. The objective of this mixed‐methods case study research was to identify the critical factors for resolving crisis for a person with dementia living at home. The research was an in‐depth investigation of what happens during crisis for people with dementia and how it is managed by a Home Treatment Crisis Team to resolution and outcome at 6 weeks and 6 months. The methods were; observation of crisis management for 15 patients with dementia (max three observations per patient, total 41), interviews with patients with dementia (n = 5), carers (n = 13) and professionals (n = 14, range one to six interviews per person, total 29), focus group (nine professionals), and extraction of demographics and medical history from medical records. Analysis focused on the identification of factors important for crisis resolution and avoidance of hospital admission. Critical factors for the Home Treatment Crisis Team to enable successful crisis resolution were: immediate action to reduce risk of harm, expertise in dementia care and carer education, communication skills to establish trust and promote benefits of home treatment, shared decision‐making, medication management, addressing the needs of carers independently of the person with dementia and, local availability of respite and other community services. The Home Treatment Crisis Team integrated the seven factors to deploy a biopsychosocial systems approach with embedded respect for personhood. This approach enabled crisis resolution for a person with dementia by creating a system of services, treatments, resources and relationships, ‘Safe Dementia Space’, in the community with avoidance of hospital admission in more than 80% of referrals. The identified critical factors for crisis resolution are important considerations in the design and delivery of home treatment services for people with dementia.
• #### AfCFTA and lex mercatoria: reconceptualising international trade law in Africa

This paper focuses on the Agreement for the Establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). It argues that commercial activities in precolonial Africa was akin to the phenomenon of lex mercatoria in medieval Europe. It discusses two major tenets embedded in the AfCFTA: the variable geometry principle and the dispute settlement mechanism. It argues that for structural and comparative purposes, these principles (variable geometry and dispute settlement) form the kernel of modern lex mercatoria in the African context. This paper concludes by advocating that the AfCFTA will enhance the principles of lex mercatoria by promoting African trade principles.
• #### The career development profession: Professionalisation, professionalism, and professional identity

This chapter examines the professionalisation of career development provision in countries across the world. ‘Professionalisation’ and ‘professionalism’ are explored through several concepts, including social closure, the professional project, and the regulatory bargain. The chapter argues that professionalism is a useful and important concept for the career development field but recognises the challenges that the field has had in achieving professional status. It recognises some of the critiques that exist of professionalism and explores how these relate to careers professionals. It then argues that increasing professionalism within the field needs to be understood as an ongoing process that has to be conducted on the personal, organizational, and professional level. The chapter concludes by outlining some key strategies that the field can use to advance the cause of professionalism in the future.
• #### Enlightenment science, technology and the industrial revolution: a case study of the Derby philosophers c1750-1820

After briefly reviewing the historiography of Enlightenment science, industry and the Derby philosophers, this essay examines industry and science in eighteenth-century Derby and the industrial orientation of the philosophical societies. It then explores the relationship between the leading entrepreneurs and manufacturers Jedediah Strutt and Richard Arkwright and the ‘Derby Philosophers’, demonstrating how much they gained from their association with the Derby Philosophical Society. This is especially evident, as it demonstrates when we consider the case of Erasmus Darwin, first president of the Society, and how as a physician, avid mechanic and experimenter, he helped meld the worlds of Enlightenment science and industry. Likewise, whilst the struggles that Arkwright experienced over his patents during the 1780s has been often described, viewing these from the perspective of the Derby Philosophers adds a new dimension to our understanding of the relationship between scientific associations, industrial innovation and entrepreneurialism. The article concludes with a critical investigation of the role of the sciences in agriculture and domestic economy and the part played by the Derby Philosophers in promoting scientific education for what they believed to be the benefit of industry and manufactures.
• #### Supplier selection for smart supply chain: An adaptive fuzzy-neuro approach

In recent years, companies have experienced international changes that have occurred as a result of technological advances, market globalization, or natural disasters. So, organizations are trying to improve their performance in order to be more competitive. In other words, organizations’ competitiveness highly depends on their suppliers. At present, companies need to consider and include so-called ‘resilience’, ‘sustainability’, and ‘smartness’ in the supplier’s selection to retain a competitive advantage. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to present an intelligent decision-making model for selecting the appropriate suppliers. For doing so, a set of criteria evaluation was determined to respond to the novel era circumstances. The suggested work is helpful for academics as well as professionals as it emphasizes the importance of resilient-sustainable supplier selection in the digital era.
• #### Exploring network embedding for efficient message routing in opportunistic mobile social networks

With the advancement in communication technologies and the widespread availability of mobile devices, the opportunistic mobile social networks (OMSNs) are gaining momentum in supporting spontaneous communication and interaction among end-users who opportunistically contact each other. However, existing research on message routing in OMSNs face major challenges on achieving a high routing efficiency and low latency for social information request. This paper proposes a personalised message routing (PMR) framework that leverages an inductive network embedding model and an attention-based mechanism to facilitate efficient message routing in opportunistic networks. Specifically, the network embedding model encompasses a higher-order proximity profiling algorithm in order to embed both the content-based and structure-based network features beyond immediate friends into low dimensional representations. Further, we present an attentional neural network model to learn user-friend preferences, for the purpose of capturing the diversified interests among connected users and to determine the most informative friends during the message dissemination process. The performance of our proposed framework is evaluated through simulations on three real-world mobile network trace datasets and the experimental results show that the proposed PMR framework considerably and consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art message routing methods.