Recent Submissions

  • Investing in Blue Natural Capital to Secure a Future for the Red Sea Ecosystems

    Cziesielski, Maha J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Aalismail, Nojood; Al-Hafedh, Yousef; Anton, Andrea; Baalkhuyur, Faiyah; Baker, Andrew C.; Balke, Thorsten; Baums, Iliana B.; Berumen, Michael; et al. (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-01-15)
    For millennia, coastal and marine ecosystems have adapted and flourished in the Red Sea’s unique environment. Surrounded by deserts on all sides, the Red Sea is subjected to high dust inputs and receives very little freshwater input, and so harbors a high salinity. Coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangroves flourish in this environment and provide socio-economic and environmental benefits to the bordering coastlines and countries. Interestingly, while coral reef ecosystems are currently experiencing rapid decline on a global scale, those in the Red Sea appear to be in relatively better shape. That said, they are certainly not immune to the stressors that cause degradation, such as increasing ocean temperature, acidification and pollution. In many regions, ecosystems are already severely deteriorating and are further threatened by increasing population pressure and large coastal development projects. Degradation of these marine habitats will lead to environmental costs, as well as significant economic losses. Therefore, it will result in a missed opportunity for the bordering countries to develop a sustainable blue economy and integrate innovative nature-based solutions. Recognizing that securing the Red Sea ecosystems’ future must occur in synergy with continued social and economic growth, we developed an action plan for the conservation, restoration, and growth of marine environments of the Red Sea. We then investigated the level of resources for financial and economic investment that may incentivize these activities. This study presents a set of commercially viable financial investment strategies, ecological innovations, and sustainable development opportunities, which can, if implemented strategically, help ensure long-term economic benefits while promoting environmental conservation. We make a case for investing in blue natural capital and propose a strategic development model that relies on maintaining the health of natural ecosystems to safeguard the Red Sea’s sustainable development.
  • Species-Specific Variations in the Metabolomic Profiles of Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora millepora Mask Acute Temperature Stress Effects in Adult Coral Colonies

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Varshavi, Dorsa; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Jankevics, Andris; Najdekr, Lukáš; Weber, Ralf J. M.; Viant, Mark R.; Craggs, Jamie; University of Derby; et al. (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-03-25)
    Coral reefs are suffering unprecedented declines in health state on a global scale. Some have suggested that human assisted evolution or assisted gene flow may now be necessary to effectively restore reefs and pre-condition them for future climate change. An understanding of the key metabolic processes in corals, including under stressed conditions, would greatly facilitate the effective application of such interventions. To date, however, there has been little research on corals at this level, particularly regarding studies of the metabolome of Scleractinian corals. Here, the metabolomic profiles [measured using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)] of two dominant reef building corals, Acropora hyacinthus and A. millepora, from two distinct geographical locations (Australia and Singapore) were characterized. We assessed how an acute temperature stress (an increase of 3.25°C ± 0.28 from ambient control levels over 8 days), shifted the corals’ baseline metabolomic profiles. Regardless of the profiling method utilized, metabolomic signatures of coral colonies were significantly distinct between coral species, a result supporting previous work. However, this strong species-specific metabolomic signature appeared to mask any changes resulting from the acute heat stress. On closer examination, we were able to discriminate between control and temperature stressed groups using a partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model (PLSDA). However, in all cases “late” components needed to be selected (i.e., 7 and 8 instead of 1 and 2), suggesting any treatment effect was small, relative to other sources of variation. This highlights the importance of pre-characterizing the coral colony metabolomes, and of factoring that knowledge into any experimental design that seeks to understand the apparently subtle metabolic effects of acute heat stress on adult corals. Further research is therefore needed to decouple these apparent individual and species-level metabolomic responses to climate change in corals.
  • Going with the flow: How corals in high‐flow environments can beat the heat

    Fifer, James; Bentlage, Bastian; Lemer, Sarah; Fujimura, Atsushi G.; Sweet, Michael; Raymundo, Laurie J.; University of Guam Marine Laboratory, UOG Station, Mangilao, GU, USA; Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-03-02)
    Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented declines in health on a global scale leading to severe reductions in coral cover. One major cause of this decline is increasing sea surface temperature. However, conspecific colonies separated by even small spatial distances appear to show varying responses to this global stressor. One factor contributing to differential responses to heat stress is variability in the coral's micro‐environment, such as the amount of water flow a coral experiences. High flow provides corals with a variety of health benefits, including heat stress mitigation. Here, we investigate how water flow affects coral gene expression and provides resilience to increasing temperatures. We examined host and photosymbiont gene expression of Acropora cf. pulchra colonies in discrete in situ flow environments during a natural bleaching event. In addition, we conducted controlled ex situ tank experiments where we exposed A. cf. pulchra to different flow regimes and acute heat stress. Notably, we observed distinct flow‐driven transcriptomic signatures related to energy expenditure, growth, heterotrophy and a healthy coral host–photosymbiont relationship. We also observed disparate transcriptomic responses during bleaching recovery between the high‐ and low‐flow sites. Additionally, corals exposed to high flow showed “frontloading” of specific heat‐stress‐related genes such as heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes, genes involved in apoptosis regulation, innate immunity and cell adhesion. We posit that frontloading is a result of increased oxidative metabolism generated by the increased water movement. Gene frontloading may at least partially explain the observation that colonies in high‐flow environments show higher survival and/or faster recovery in response to bleaching events.
  • Botnet detection used fast-flux technique, based on adaptive dynamic evolving spiking neural network algorithm

    Almomani, Ammar; Nawasrah, Ahmad Al; Alauthman, Mohammad; Betar, Mohammed Azmi Al; Meziane, Farid; Al-Balqa Applied University, Irbid, Jordan; Taibah University, Median, Saudia Arabia; Zarqa University, Jordan; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2021-01-28)
    A botnet refers to a group of machines. These machines are controlled distantly by a specific attacker. It represents a threat facing the web and data security. Fast-flux service network (FFSN) has been engaged by bot herders for cover malicious botnet activities. It has been engaged by bot herders for increasing the lifetime of malicious servers through changing the IP addresses of the domain name quickly. In the present research, we aimed to propose a new system. This system is named fast flux botnet catcher system (FFBCS). This system can detect FF-domains in an online mode using an adaptive dynamic evolving spiking neural network algorithm. Comparing with two other related approaches the proposed system shows a high level of detection accuracy, low false positive and negative rates, respectively. It shows a high performance. The algorithm's proposed adaptation increased the accuracy of the detection. For instance, this accuracy reached (98.76%) approximately.
  • The effect of the number of interviewers on children’s testimonies

    Ferra, Fenia; Blades, Mark; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby; University of Sheffield; De Montfort University (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-02)
    Many investigative interviews with children who report that they have been victims of crime are carried out by one interviewer. Some interviews, however, may involve more than one interviewer. There has been little research examining the impact upon children’s reports when more than one interviewer (or adult) is present. Over the course of two experimental studies, involving 375 children in total, the effects that the number of adults (present in such interviews) had on children’s recall were investigated. It was found that the number of the adults present during an interview had an effect on the quality and quantity of the information children provided. When children were interviewed by a single interviewer, with no-one else present, the children provided lengthier and more accurate accounts, in comparison to when children were interviewed by an interviewer in the presence of either one or two additional adults. These findings have implications for the conduct of forensic interviews, especially in those countries where several adults are present in forensic interviews.
  • Martial arts: the possible benefit that can be obtained during a period of lockdown

    Spring, Charles; University of Derby (Heriot Watt University, 2021-01-25)
    The following thought piece follows one individuals’ experience of being in lockdown in the United Kingdom and how the practice of martial arts assisted in this experience. Through the use of diary entries, their feelings and thoughts are expressed and how the bad ones of these are assisted through the practice and ability to focus on something other. There is a discussion that draws on other academic and authors perspectives, that evidence and support the thought pieces viewpoint. The piece concludes that practicing martial arts can help individuals through enabling them to have a focus and outlet to help cope with deeper emotional states caused by a situation such as lockdown.
  • Improving the reliability of eDNA data interpretation

    Burian, Alfred; Mauvisseau, Quentin; Bulling, Mark; Domisch, Sami; Qian, Song; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Marine Ecology Department, Lurio University, Nampula, Mozambique; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany; Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; et al. (Wiley, 2021-03-25)
    Global declines in biodiversity highlight the need to effectively monitor the density and distribution of threatened species. In recent years, molecular survey methods detecting DNA released by target‐species into their environment (eDNA) have been rapidly on the rise. Despite providing new, cost‐effective tools for conservation, eDNA‐based methods are prone to errors. Best field and laboratory practices can mitigate some, but the risks of errors cannot be eliminated and need to be accounted for. Here, we synthesize recent advances in data processing tools that increase the reliability of interpretations drawn from eDNA data. We review advances in occupancy models to consider spatial data‐structures and simultaneously assess rates of false positive and negative results. Further, we introduce process‐based models and the integration of metabarcoding data as complementing approaches to increase the reliability of target‐species assessments. These tools will be most effective when capitalizing on multi‐source data sets collating eDNA with classical survey and citizen‐science approaches, paving the way for more robust decision‐making processes in conservation planning.
  • Mapping a super-invader in a biodiversity hotspot, an eDNA-based success story

    Baudry, Thomas; Mauvisseau, Quentin; Goût, Jean-Pierre; Arqué, Alexandre; Delaunay, Carine; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Sweet, Michael; Grandjean, Frédéric; Route de la Pointe de Jaham - BP7212, Schoelcher 97274, Martinique, France; Fort-de-France, Martinique, France; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-04-02)
    The lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean is known as a biodiversity hotspot, hosting many endemic species. However, recent introduction of a highly invasive species, the Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), has led to significant threats to this fragile ecosystem. Here we developed, validated, and optimized a species-specific eDNA-based detection protocol targeting the 16S region of the mitochondrial gene of C. quadricarinatus. Our aim was to assess the crayfish distribution across Martinique Island. Our developed assay was species-specific and showed high sensitivity in laboratory, mesocosm and field conditions. A significant and positive correlation was found between species biomass, detection probability and efficiency through mesocosm experiments. Moreover, we found eDNA persisted up to 23 days in tropical freshwaters. We investigated a total of 83 locations, spread over 53 rivers and two closed water basins using our novel eDNA assay and traditional trapping, the latter, undertaken to confirm the reliability of the molecular-based detection method. Overall, we detected C. quadricarinatus at 47 locations using eDNA and 28 using traditional trapping, all positive trapping sites were positive for eDNA. We found that eDNA-based monitoring was less time-consuming and less influenced by the crayfishes often patchy distributions, proving a more reliable tool for future large-scale surveys. The clear threat and worrying distribution of this invasive species is particularly alarming as the archipelago belongs to one of the 25 identified biodiversity hotspots on Earth.
  • Patient centred care in diagnostic radiography (Part 3): Perceptions of student radiographers and radiography academics

    Hyde, Emma; Hardy, M; University of Derby; University of Bradford (Elsevier, 2021-01-27)
    Awareness is growing of the importance of patient centered care (PCC) in diagnostic radiography. PCC is embedded within professional body publications and guidance documents, but there is limited research evidence exploring the perceptions of student radiographers and radiography academics. This paper shares the findings of a research project seeking to define PCC in diagnostic radiography from the perspective of student radiographers and radiography academics. This paper reports Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the project from the perspective of radiography academic and student radiographer participants, and compare these to the perspective of service users, clinical radiographers and radiography managers, reported previously. Stage 1 used an online survey tool to gauge participant agreement with a series of attitudinal statements. Stage 2 used situational vignettes to promote discussion and debate about PCC approaches. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Derby College of Health & Social Care Ethics committee. Response rates to the Stage 1 survey were above the minimum threshold, with 50 responses from student radiographers and 38 responses from radiography academics. Stage 1 participants were asked to participate in Stage 2 on a voluntary basis. As with service users and service deliverers, care communication, event interactions and control over environment were the key influences on PCC. However, students highlighted differences between reported and observed levels of PCC. There is some way to go to embed PCC in diagnostic radiography practice. As impartial observers of radiography practice, student radiographers highlight the difference between service users and service deliverer’s perceptions of PCC. Whilst the focus of clinical radiographers remains on efficiency it is difficult for student radiographers to challenge the accepted norm. Role models are required to promote PCC behaviours and a holistic approach in radiography practice. A package of educational support and audit tools will be made available to support both service deliverers and student radiographers to deliver PCC.
  • Self-healing of bio-cementitious mortar incubated within neutral and acidic soil

    Esaker, Mohamed; Hamza, Omar; Souid, Adam; Elliott, David; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-04-14)
    The efficiency of bio self-healing of pre-cracked mortar specimens incubated in sand was investigated. The investigation examined the effect of soil pH representing industrially recognised classes of exposure, ranging from no risk of chemical attack (neutral pH≈7) to very high risk (pH≈4.5). Simultaneously, the soil was subjected to fully and partially saturated cycles for 120 days to resemble groundwater-level fluctuation. Bacillus Subtilis with nutrients were impregnated into perlite and utilised as a bacterial healing agent. The healing agent was added to half of the mortar specimens for comparison purposes. Mineral precipitations were observed in both control and bio-mortar specimens, and the healing products were examined by SEM-EDX scanning. The healing ratio was evaluated by comparing (i) the repair rate of the crack area and (ii) by capillary water absorption and sorptivity index - before and after incubation. The results indicated that bacteria-doped specimens (bio-mortar) exhibited the most efficient crack-healing in all incubation conditions i.e. different chemical exposure classes. In the pH neutral soil, the average healing ratios for the control and bio-mortar specimens were 38% and 82%, respectively. However, the healing ratio decreased by 43% for specimens incubated in acidic soil (pH≈4) compared with specimens incubated in neutral soil (pH≈7). The study implies that bio self-healing is generally beneficial for concrete embedded within the soil; however, aggressive ground conditions can inhibit the healing process.
  • Severity Estimation of Plant Leaf Diseases Using Segmentation Method

    Entuni, Chyntia Jaby; Afendi Zulcaffle, Tengku Mohd; Kipli, Kuryati; Kurugollu, Fatih; Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia; University of Derby (2020-11-09)
    Plants have assumed a significant role in the history of humankind, for the most part as a source of nourishment for human and animals. However, plants typically powerless to different sort of diseases such as leaf blight, gray spot and rust. It will cause a great loss to farmers and ranchers. Therefore, an appropriate method to estimate the severity of diseases in plant leaf is needed to overcome the problem. This paper presents the fusions of the Fuzzy C-Means segmentation method with four different colour spaces namely RGB, HSV, L*a*b and YCbCr to estimate plant leaf disease severity. The percentage of performance of proposed algorithms are recorded and compared with the previous method which are K-Means and Otsu’s thresholding. The best severity estimation algorithm and colour space used to estimate the diseases severity of plant leaf is the combination of Fuzzy C-Means and YCbCr color space. The average performance of Fuzzy C-Means is 91.08% while the average performance of YCbCr is 83.74%. Combination of Fuzzy C-Means and YCbCr produce 96.81% accuracy. This algorithm is more effective than other algorithms in terms of not only better segmentation performance but also low time complexity that is 34.75s in average with 0.2697s standard deviation.
  • Lean Manufacturing and Internet of Things – A Synergetic or Antagonist Relationship?

    Anosike, Anthony; Alafropatis, Konstantinos; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Anil; Luthra, Sunil; Rocha-Lona, Luis; University of Derby; University of Warwick; London Metropolitan University; Ch. Ranbir Singh State Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jhajjar-124103, Haryana, India; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-04-13)
    This paper explores the relationship between five LM methods (JIT, TPM, Autonomation, VSM and Kaizen) and three IoT technologies (RFID, WSN and Middleware) and the implications that arise from their combination. Four hypotheses and four complimentary research questions were formulated and tested. 136 responses were obtained through a questionnaire survey and analysed using descriptive statistics, 2-Sample proportion, Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and Pairwise comparison tests. The findings indicate that IoT can significantly improve the operational performance of manufacturing organisations. The findings advocate that all LM methods, apart from Kaizen, benefit from improved effectiveness by combining them with IoT. The results suggest that this can be attributed to the general perception about IoT, which despite the support and benefits it provides to people, is seen to be reducing human involvement whereas Kaizen is seen to be more people-focused. Improvements in information flow, decision-making and productivity were also found to be the most important motivations and benefits of combining LM methods with IoT. The findings of this research can be used by LM organisations that wish to embark into the new digitalised manufacturing era and businesses seeking to improve their performance through the combination of traditional efficiency-based methods and I4.0 technologies.
  • Gender differences in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning in an offending and a matched non-offending population

    Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Sage, 2021-04-15)
    Previous research suggests that a lack of pro-social skills is characteristic of an offending personality. Two hundred male and female offenders and matched controls completed measures to assess: Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning. Significant differences between the offenders and the control group, as well as between the male and female participants, were detected in theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning with offenders scoring lower than the control group, and with males scoring lower than females on most tests. The ability to assess Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning, and subsequently to identify reduced ability, is not only useful for researchers but will also allow practitioners to tailor existing (or develop new) interventions specific to the needs of individuals. This could be particularly useful in terms of recidivism when applied to those involved in anti-social or offending behaviour.
  • A content analysis for government’s and hotels’ response to COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt

    Islam, Salem; Elshwesky, Zakaria; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Salalah, Oman; Alexandria University, Egypt; University of Derby (SAGE, 2021-04-13)
    Drawing on the Situational Crisis Communication theory (SCCT), this study recapitulates the initiatives, practices, and responses of the Egyptian government and chain-managed five-star hotels during the COVID-19 global health pandemic. Subjective and objective content analysis is employed in this study. Subjective content analysis is employed to examine newspapers, magazines, T.V channels, and official pages on Facebook to determine the initiatives and practices adopted by the Egyptian government. Objective content analysis is further used to determine the COVID-19 hospitality practices adopted by 22 chain-managed five-star hotels by examining their official websites. Thematic saturation was attained when observations and analyses exhibited no new themes. Findings indicated that the Egyptian government and chain-managed five-star hotels implemented a number of initiatives and practices focused on financial policies, health and hygiene, workforce and training, marketing, domestic tourism, booking flexibility, cancellation policies, community support, vacations, and contracts. This study contributes to crisis management research by being one of the first studies to explore governments and hotel operations practices and initiatives during the COVID-19 using Egypt as a case study. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications during and post the COVID-19.
  • Social customer relationship management: A customer perspective

    Dewnarain, Senika; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Mavondo, Felix; University of Derby; Curtin Mauritius, Charles Telfair Campus, Mauritius; Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (Taylor & Francis, 2021-04-13)
    The availability of many social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and online review sites such as Trip Advisor has led to the emergence of a new concept known as social customer relationship management (SCRM) or CRM 2.0. This is defined as a business strategy of engaging customers through social media with the goal of building trust and brand loyalty (Greenberg, 2010; Li et al., 2020; Rita & Moro, 2018), SCRM provides traditional customer relationship management for online customers by shifting the focus from a transactional outlook to one that centers on customer experiences (Dewnarain et al., 2019a; Sigala, 2018; Touni et al., 10 2020; Zhang et al., 2019).
  • US economic policy uncertainty spillovers to commodity returns: fresh evidence through Granger causality in quantiles

    Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Wiley, 2021)
    Given the importance of U.S. in global commodity markets, the goal is to explore whether US economic policy uncertainty impacts the price performance of certain commodities. The analysis uses the Granger causality in quantiles method that allows us to test whether there are different effects under different market conditions. The results document that economic uncertainty impacts the returns on the commodities considered, with the effects clustering around the tail of their conditional distribution. Robust evidence was obtained under an alternative definition of uncertainty.
  • The Language of SEND: Implications for the SENCO

    Codina, Geraldene; Wharton, Julie C.; University of Derby; University of Winchester (Routledge, 2021-04-22)
    The central tenet of this chapter is that language matters. Over the centuries as human beings have represented and categorised both themselves and others in different ways, so interpretations and the language of disability (physical and learning) shape-shifts altering through time (Goodey, 2016). The language of disability and the societal and political values which underpin it are therefore not cross-historical – let two or three generations pass and the labels associated with disability alter. Sometimes such changes in language usage can seem little more than semantic fashion or a professional challenge to keep up-to-date with. The language of disability is however more than fashion and political correctness (Mallett and Slater, 2014), for words gain their meaning from the manner in which they are used (Wittgenstein, 2009). This chapter argues the language of special education shapes SENCOs’ values, expectations, assumptions, responses and practice. Through an exploration of historical and current language usage, this chapter analyses the language of special education and the implications for the school community.
  • Clinical supervision for advanced practitioners

    Reynolds, Julie; Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby (MAG, 2021-04-08)
    This article discusses clinical supervision and its importance in supporting the development of advanced clinical practitioners. It will reflect on the impact of clinical supervision using extracts from research data provided by trainee advanced clinical practitioners and their medical supervisors. This article will consider the latest guidance on how to facilitate quality clinical supervision in the workplace and the potential challenges it may face relating to governance, finances, and time.
  • WAF0042 - Inquiry: Women in the Armed Forces: From Recruitment to Civilian Life

    Spenser, Karin; Childs, Carrie; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby (UK Parliament, 2021-03-03)
    It is acknowledged that once military service is complete, personnel embark on a long metaphorical journey back to civilian life. Women military service leavers (WMSLs) are the fastest growing segment of the armed forces, and for them this transition can be even more traumatic than for their male counterparts. Whilst, it is recognised that to make this change seamless, they must have timely access to high quality women-centric services, it is suggested that such support is both limited and male-focused. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight WMSLs to gain a better understanding of the transition from military to civilian life. Thematic analysis was adopted to identify themes and subthemes. Two main themes were identified from the narratives – an environment of stress and long-term impact of service. Both themes are composed of several subthemes, which capture aspects of each main theme. Findings suggest the being in the military is stressful for all, but there is a perceived lack of support for WMSLs as they move into to civilian life. Their struggle with issues such as housing, employment and mental health was noted. Therefore, this research concludes that women need specific support during and after their military career.
  • The importance of Forest School and the pathways to nature connection

    Cudworth, Dave; Lumber, Ryan; DeMontfort University; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-18)
    Over the past 25 years Forest School in the UK has been growing in popularity as part of a wider resurgence of interest in outdoor learning. A key driver behind this recurrence of interest has been a growing concern over the lack of child exposure to outdoor experiences and with the natural world and their ensuing nature-deficit disorder. This article considers Forest School as linked with the concept of nature connection that is the sensation of belonging to a wider natural community. This sense of belonging developed by being in nature can also be a key factor in promoting attachment and sense of place which in turn is associated with the promotion of health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours. As such the origins towards achieving nature connection are a formal part of the Forest School Association’s (FSA 2016). Forest School principals, with growing research linking Forest School and nature connection as concomitant. Recent work has suggested that contact, emotion, meaning, compassion, and beauty are key pathways for the formation of nature connection and there is a strong need to better understand children’s nature connection in this context. Further, from the premise that what goes on in spaces and places is fundamentally linked to both social and spatial processes, this article also attempts to understand the spatialities of Forest School in order to frame the development of nature connection within a socio-spatial analytic.

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