Recent Submissions

  • MARINE: Man-in-the-middle attack resistant trust model IN connEcted vehicles

    Ahmad, Farhan; Kurugollu, Fatih; Adnane, Asma; Hussain, Rasheed; Hussain, Fatima; University of Derby; Loughborough university; Innopolis University, Russia; API Delivery & Operations, Royal Bank of Canada, Toronto, Canada (IEEE, 2020-01-17)
    Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET), a novel technology holds a paramount importance within the transportation domain due to its abilities to increase traffic efficiency and safety. Connected vehicles propagate sensitive information which must be shared with the neighbors in a secure environment. However, VANET may also include dishonest nodes such as Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attackers aiming to distribute and share malicious content with the vehicles, thus polluting the network with compromised information. In this regard, establishing trust among connected vehicles can increase security as every participating vehicle will generate and propagate authentic, accurate and trusted content within the network. In this paper, we propose a novel trust model, namely, Man-in-the-middle Attack Resistance trust model IN connEcted vehicles (MARINE), which identifies dishonest nodes performing MiTM attacks in an efficient way as well as revokes their credentials. Every node running MARINE system first establishes trust for the sender by performing multi-dimensional plausibility checks. Once the receiver verifies the trustworthiness of the sender, the received data is then evaluated both directly and indirectly. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance and accuracy of MARINE rigorously across three MiTM attacker models and the bench-marked trust model. Simulation results show that for a network containing 35% MiTM attackers, MARINE outperforms the state of the art trust model by 15%, 18%, and 17% improvements in precision, recall and F-score, respectively.
  • The Great War and British identity

    Whitehead, Ian; University of Derby (Pen & sword, 2018-06-18)
    In the context of the centenary commemorations, the chapter discusses the influence of the First World War on the evolution of British identity. It examines how the continued reinterpretation of the First World War has reflected different, often antagonistic, yet co-existing views of Britain and what it means to identify as British.
  • Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea

    Kapadi, Romaana; Elander, James; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-24)
    Primary dysmenorrhea causes menstrual pain that affects women’s quality of life (QoL) and analgesics are only moderately effective. Pain coping and pain acceptance influence QoL among people affected by other chronic pain conditions, so we examined pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of QoL among women with primary dysmenorrhea. 145 women with primary dysmenorrhea completed an online survey including the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), questions about analgesic use, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12), a measure of physical and mental health-related QoL. In multiple regression, pain acceptance predicted better physical and mental QoL, whereas pain coping did not predict mental or physical quality of life. Being married or cohabiting and menstrual pain that was less severe and shorter in duration predicted better physical QoL, and those effects were mediated by pain acceptance. Being older at the onset of painful periods predicted better mental QoL and that effect was also mediated by pain acceptance. More severe menstrual pain and congestive rather than spasmodic dysmenorrhea predicted worse mental QoL but those effects were not mediated by other factors. Analgesic use did not predict physical or mental QoL. The results show the impact that menstrual pain has on women’s quality of life, and suggest that initiatives to increase pain acceptance among women with menstrual pain are worthwhile. More research is needed to understand more fully the factors that influence health-related quality of life among women with menstrual pain.
  • Of apples and oranges? The evolution of “monogamy” in non-human primates

    Huck, Maren; Di Fore, Anthony; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre; University of Texas at Austin; Yale University (Frontiers, 2020-01-10)
    Behavioral ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and anthropologists have been long fascinated by the existence of “monogamy” in the animal kingdom. Multiple studies have explored the factors underlying its evolution and maintenance, sometimes with contradicting and contentious conclusions. These studies have been plagued by a persistent use of fuzzy terminology that often leads to researchers comparing “apples with oranges” (e.g., comparing a grouping pattern or social organization with a sexual or genetic mating system). In this review, we provide an overview of research on “monogamy” in mammals generally and primates in particular, and we discuss a number of problems that complicate comparative attempts to understand this issue. We first highlight why the muddled terminology has hindered our understanding of both a rare social organization and a rare mating system. Then, following a short overview of the main hypotheses explaining the evolution of pair-living and sexualmonogamy, we critically discuss various claims about the principal drivers of “monogamy” that have been made in several recent comparative studies.We stress the importance of using only high quality and comparable data. We then propose that a productive way to frame and dissect the different components of pair-living and sexual or genetic monogamy is by considering the behavioral and evolutionary implications of those components from the perspectives of all participants in a species’ social system. In particular, we highlight the importance of integrating the perspective of “floater” individuals and considering their impacts on local operational sex ratios, competition, and variance in reproductive success across a population. We stress that pair-living need not imply a reduced importance of intrasexual mate competition, a situation that may have implications for the sexual selection potential that have not yet been fully explored. Finally, we note that there is no reason to assume that different taxa and lineages, even within the same radiation, should follow the same pathway to or share a unifying evolutionary explanation for “monogamy”. The study of the evolution of pair-living, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy remains a challenging and exciting area of research.
  • Untangling the origin of ghost gear within the Maldivian archipelago and its impact on olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) populations

    Stelfox, M; Bulling, M; Sweet, M; University of Derby; Olive Ridley Project, Cheshire (Inter-Research Science Center, 2019-12-12)
    There is little documentation available on the impact of abandoned, lost or discarded fishing nets (‘ghost nets’) on turtle populations. Here, we utilise data collected over a 5 year period to assess (1) if a particular net type or characteristic was identifiable as entangling more turtles and (2) if particular fishing practices (i.e. types of nets) could be managed to reduce turtle entanglement in the Maldivian archipelago. A total of 131 turtles were entangled in the 752 reported ghost nets, and olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea appeared to be the most vulnerable (making up 97% of entangled turtles). However, we estimate that the 752 nets in this study, reported over a 51 month period, could have entangled between 3400 and 12200 turtles across the Indian Ocean prior to being detected in the Maldives. Mesh size, seasonality (i.e. north east monsoon), and the presence of floats were all identified as variables significantly affecting the likelihood of turtle entanglement. The probability of entanglement increased as the mesh size increased but decreased when floats were present. Additionally, turtles were more likely to be entangled during the north east monsoon when currents flow from east to west. Cluster analysis indicated that there were at least 11 broadly assigned net types found floating in the study area, and these were dominated by trawl and gill nets. Our analyses highlight the need for a detailed database of existing gear types coupled with gear marking to improve traceability of ghost nets in the Indian Ocean.
  • The development of an eDNA based detection method for the invasive shrimp Dikerogammarus haemobaphes

    Mauvisseau, Quentin; Troth, Chris; Young, Emily; Burian, Alfred; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Surescreen Scientifics Ltd, Morley (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre Oy (REABIC), 2019-06-06)
    Dikerogammarus haemobaphes is a freshwater gammarid crustacean native to the Ponto-Caspian region. However, the species is rapidly spreading throughout Western Europe and is classed as a highly invasive species. Here we present a novel eDNA assay aimed at detecting D. haemobaphes and demonstrate its suitability with validation steps conducted in-silico (computer simulations), ex-situ (test of specificity using closely related species) and in-situ (within the field). A survey of freshwater systems in the West-Midlands, United Kingdom, highlighted that D. haemobaphes was present in 26 out of the 39 sites assessed. We conclude that eDNA detection for D. haemobaphes is a promising tool for assessing and mapping the presence/distribution of this invasive amphipod.
  • Early detection of an emerging invasive species: eDNA monitoring of a parthenogenetic crayfish in freshwater systems

    Mauvisseau, Quentin; Sweet, Michael; Lyko, Frank; Andriantsoa, Ranja; Tonges, Sina; University of Derby; Surescreen Scientifics Ltd, Morley; German Cancer Research Center, Germany (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre Oy (REABIC), 2019-06-06)
    Procambarus virginalis, also known as the Marmorkrebs is a highly invasive crayfish species characterized by parthenogenetic reproduction. As conservation management plans rely on the accuracy of the presence and distribution information of invasive species, a reliable method is needed for detecting such species in aquatic systems. We developed and validated a qPCR-based assay for monitoring P. virginalis at low abundance, by detecting their eDNA traces left in freshwater systems. We were able to implement this new assay in-situ at two separate lakes in Germany, where the crayfish were known to be present. Furthermore, we did not detect the pathogenic fungus Aphanomyces astaci in the locations where the Marmorkrebs were detected. We conclude that the use of eDNA is therefore a reliable tool for the early detection of this “perfect invader”.
  • Customized medicine for corals

    Sweet, Michael; Peixoto, Raquel; Bourne, David; University of Derby; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; IMAM-AquaRio – Rio de Janeiro Aquarium Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; University of California; James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia; Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, QLD, Australia (Frontiers, 2019-11-13)
  • Buckling and strength analysis of panels with discrete stiffness tailoring

    Culliford, Lucie; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T.; University of Bath; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-11-05)
    Continuous variation of stiffness across flat plates has been shown, theoretically, to improve buckling performance by up to 60%. However, steered fibre manufacturing methods cannot achieve the minimum radius of curvature required for improvement whilst maintaining a high deposition rate. An alternative concept, Discrete Stiffness Tailoring (DST), which varies stiffness within a ply through discrete changes of angle, is compatible with high rate deposition methods such as Advanced Tape Laying. Through the simple example of redistribution of the material in a quasi-isotropic [±45/90/0]2S laminate whilst maintaining ply percentages, DST is shown both experimentally and theoretically to improve buckling stress by at least 15% with no indication of failure in regions of discrete angle change (seams). However, the reduced tensile strength of seams obtained by virtual and experimental testing means that increased buckling performance in the principle load direction needs to be balanced against loss of transverse strength
  • A history of nurse education and the clinical nurse educator

    Whitehead, Bill; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-11-26)
    This chapter discusses the potential roles which will be engendered by the new Nursing and Midwifery Council standards and framework for nurse education. Woven throughout the account will be the clinical nurse educator roles which have fulfilled the need for student nurses to receive clinical training and education in practice. The beginning of apprenticeship nurse education appears to be a good starting point, whichever explanation is selected for this phenomenon. The General Nursing Council syllabus and final examination instructions were highly prescriptive to provide national conformity of education and achievement. This included the use of a nationally agreed “nurse’s chart” which was designed to record when the probationer had achieved proficiency in a list of procedures. A logical consequence of single status for initial registration was that nurse educators, who had for decades been divided into clinical teacher and nurse tutors, should both be given the same status.
  • Compositional homogeneity in the pathobiome of a new, slow-spreading coral disease

    Sweet, Michael; Burian, Alfred; Fifer, James; Bulling, Mark; Elliott, David; Raymundo, Laurie; University of Derby; University of Guam (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-22)
    Coral reefs face unprecedented declines in diversity and cover, a development largely attributed to climate change-induced bleaching and subsequent disease outbreaks. Coral-associated microbiomes may strongly influence the fitness of their hosts and alter heat tolerance and disease susceptibility of coral colonies. Here, we describe a new coral disease found in Micronesia and present a detailed assessment of infection-driven changes in the coral microbiome. Combining field monitoring and histological, microscopic and next-generation barcoding assessments, we demonstrate that the outbreak of the disease, named ‘grey-patch disease’, is associated with the establishment of cyanobacterial biofilm overgrowing coral tissue. The disease is characterised by slow progression rates, with coral tissue sometimes growing back over the GPD biofilm. Network analysis of the corals’ microbiome highlighted the clustering of specific microbes which appeared to benefit from the onset of disease, resulting in the formation of ‘infection clusters’ in the microbiomes of apparently healthy corals. Our results appear to be in contrast to the recently proposed Anna-Karenina principle, which states that disturbances (such as disease) trigger chaotic dynamics in microbial communities and increase β-diversity. Here, we show significantly higher community similarity (compositional homogeneity) in the pathobiome of diseased corals, compared to the microbiome associated with apparently healthy tissue. A possible explanation for this pattern is strong competition between the pathogenic community and those associated with the ‘healthy’ coral holobiont, homogenising the composition of the pathobiome. Further, one of our key findings is that multiple agents appear to be involved in degrading the corals’ defences causing the onset of this disease. This supports recent findings indicating a need for a shift from the one-pathogen-one-disease paradigm to exploring the importance of multiple pathogenic players in any given disease.
  • Combining ddPCR and environmental DNA to improve detection capabilities of a critically endangered freshwater invertebrate

    Mauvisseau, Quentin; Davy-Bowker, John; Bulling, Mark; Brys, Rein; Neyrinck, Sabrina; Troth, Christopher; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Freshwater Biological Association, Dorset; Natural History Museum, London; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-01)
    Isogenus nubecula is a critically endangered Plecoptera species. Considered extinct in the UK, I. nubecula was recently rediscovered (in one location of the River Dee, Wales), after 22 years of absence. In a similar way to many other species of Perlodidae, I. nubecula could be utilised as a bio-indicator, for assessing water quality and health status of a given freshwater system. However, conventional monitoring of invertebrates via kick-sampling, is invasive and expensive (time consuming). Further, such methods require a high level of taxonomic expertise. Here, we compared the traditional kick-sampling method with the use of eDNA detection using qPCR and ddPCR-analyses. In spring 2018, we sampled eDNA from twelve locations on the River Dee. I. nubecula was detected using kick-sampling in five of these locations, three locations using both eDNA detection and kick-sampling and one location using eDNA detection alone – resulting in a total of six known and distinct populations of this critically endangered species. Interestingly, despite the eDNA assay being validated in vitro and in silico, and results indicating high sensitivity, qPCR analysis of the eDNA samples proved to be ineffective. In contrast, ddPCR analyses resulted in a clear detection of I. nubecula at four locations suggesting that inhibition most likely explains the large discrepancy between the obtained qPCR and ddPCR results. It is therefore important to explore inhibition effects on any new eDNA assay. We also highlight that ddPCR may well be the best option for the detection of aquatic organisms which are either rare or likely to shed low levels of eDNA into their environment.
  • Ex situ co culturing of the sea urchin, Mespilia globulus and the coral Acropora millepora enhances early post-settlement survivorship

    Craggs, Jamie; Guest, James; Bulling, Mark; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Newcastle University (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-09-10)
    Reef restoration efforts, utilising sexual coral propagation need up-scaling to have ecologically meaningful impact. Post-settlement survival bottlenecks, in part due to competitive benthic algae interactions should be addressed, to improve productivity for these initiatives. Sea urchins are keystone grazers in reef ecosystems, yet feeding behaviour of adults causes physical damage and mortality to developing coral spat. To investigate if microherbivory can be utilised for co-culture, we quantitatively assessed how varying densities of juvenile sea urchins Mespilia globulus (Linnaeus, 1758), reared alongside the coral Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) effected survival and growth of coral recruits. Spawning of both species were induced ex situ. A comparison of A. millepora spat reared in three M. globulus densities (low 16.67 m−2, medium 37.50 m−2, high 75.00 m−2) and a non-grazed control indicated coral survival is significantly influenced by grazing activity (p < 0.001) and was highest in the highest density treatment (39.65 ± 10.88%, mean ± s.d). Urchin grazing also significantly (p < 0.001) influenced coral size (compared to non-grazing control), with colonies in the medium and high-densities growing the largest (21.13 ± 1.02 mm & 20.80 ± 0.82, mean ± s.e.m). Increased urchin density did however have a negative influence on urchin growth, a result of limited food availability.
  • Influence of accuracy, repeatability and detection probability in the reliability of species-specific eDNA based approaches

    Mauvisseau, Quentin; Burian, Alfred; Gibson, Ceri; Brys, Rein; Ramsey, Andrew; Sweet, Michael; University of Derby; Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria; Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Belgium (Springer, 2019-01-24)
    Environmental DNA (eDNA) barcoding has a high potential to increase the cost-efficiency of species detection and monitoring in aquatic habitats. However, despite vast developments in the field, many published assays often lack detailed validation and there is little to no commonly (agreed upon) standardization of protocols. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of eDNA detection and quantification using published primers and assays targeting the Freshwater Pearl Mussel as a model organism. We first assessed limits of detection for two different target genes (COI and 16S) following the MIQE guidelines, and then tested the reliability of quantification in a double-blind mesocosm experiment. Our results reveal that different methodological indicators, namely accuracy, repeatability and detection probability affected the reliability of eDNA measurement at the different levels tested. The selection of the optimal analytical method was mainly determined by detection probability. Both the COI and 16S assays were highly specific for the targeted organism and showed similar accuracy and repeatability, whilst the limit of detection was clearly lower for the COI based approach. In contrast, the reliability of eDNA quantification hinged on repeatability, reflected by the scattering (r2 = 0.87) around the relationship between eDNA and mussel density in mesocosms. A bootstrapping approach, which allowed for the assignment of measures associated with repeatability of samples, revealed that variability between natural replicates (i.e. accuracy) strongly influenced the number of replicates required for a reliable species detection and quantification in the field.
  • Afterword: Reading mad men in the era of Trump

    Forde, Teresa; McNally, Karen; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-12-12)
    This edited collection examines the enduringly popular television series as Mad Men still captivates audiences and scholars in its nuanced depiction of a complex decade. This is the first book to offer an analysis of Mad Men in its entirety, exploring the cyclical and episodic structure of the long form series and investigating issues of representation, power and social change. The collection establishes the show’s legacy in televisual terms, and brings it up to date through an examination of its cultural importance in the Trump era. Aimed at scholars and interested general readers, the book illustrates the ways in which Mad Men has become a cultural marker for reflecting upon contemporary television and politics.
  • Olivia Dunham and the new frontier in fringe

    Forde, Teresa; University of Derby (McFarland, 2019-07-12)
    From the Star Wars expanded universe to Westworld, the science fiction western has captivated audiences for more than fifty years. These twelve new essays concentrate on the female characters in the contemporary science fiction western, addressing themes of power, agency, intersectionality and the body. Discussing popular works such as Fringe, Guardians of the Galaxy and Mass Effect, the essayists shed new light on the gender dynamics of these beloved franchises, emphasizing inclusion and diversity with their critical perspectives.
  • New model writer

    Callow, Christos Jr; McFarlane, Anna; Birkbeck, University of London; University of Glasgow (Gylphi, 2016)
    Each chapter in this collection explores the challenge posed to science fiction, literary fiction and contemporary ideas through Roberts’s novels. His use of the science fiction toolkit combined with his sharp and sometimes lyrical prose blurs the distinction that some would wish to maintain between science fiction and mainstream literature.
  • Adam Roberts: Critical essays

    Callow, Christos Jr; McFarlane, Anna; Birkbeck, University of London; University of Glasgow (Gylphi, 2016-10-04)
    Each chapter in this collection explores the challenge posed to science fiction, literary fiction and contemporary ideas through Roberts’s novels. His use of the science fiction toolkit combined with his sharp and sometimes lyrical prose blurs the distinction that some would wish to maintain between science fiction and mainstream literature.
  • Etherotopia or a country in the mind: bridging the gap between utopias and nirvanas

    Callow, Christos Jr; Birkbeck, University of London (Routledge, 2015-02-28)
    Joyce Hertzler concludes his History of Utopian Thought with the phrase ‘Utopia is not a social state it is a state of mind’. Other utopian scholars would argue that the truth is exactly the opposite, that utopia is a purely social matter. There seems to be a false dilemma here where one must choose between two, seemingly conflicting, schools of utopian thinking: social utopias and private ones. In John Carey’s words, ‘Whereas most utopias reform the world, some reform the self’. He says of the later that these ‘solitary utopians are Robinson Crusoes of the mind, inventing islands for themselves to inhabit’ and that they are very unlike ‘normal, public-spirited utopians’. In this essay Christos Callow Jr explores the potential of a utopia that reforms both world and self and proposes Etherotopia as its name.
  • Past and future of science fiction theatre

    Callow, Christos Jr; Gray, Susan; Birkbeck, University of London (2014)
    The article focuses on the past history and future developments of science fiction theatre. It reports that science fiction theatre has existed unofficially since the 19th century and discusses several theatrical plays including "R.U.R," "Back to Methuselah," and "Endgame". It further mentions that science fiction theatre concerns with the impact of technology on our lives and is also capable of providing importance to theatre and science fictional culture in future.

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