Recent Submissions

  • Use of artificial intelligence to improve resilience and preparedness against adverse flood events

    Saravi, Sara; Kalawsky, Roy; Joannou, Demetrios; Rivas Casado, Monica; Fu, Guangtao; Meng, Fanlin; Loughborough University (MDPI AG, 2019-05-09)
    The main focus of this paper is the novel use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in natural disaster, more specifically flooding, to improve flood resilience and preparedness. Different types of flood have varying consequences and are followed by a specific pattern. For example, a flash flood can be a result of snow or ice melt and can occur in specific geographic places and certain season. The motivation behind this research has been raised from the Building Resilience into Risk Management (BRIM) project, looking at resilience in water systems. This research uses the application of the state-of-the-art techniques i.e., AI, more specifically Machin Learning (ML) approaches on big data, collected from previous flood events to learn from the past to extract patterns and information and understand flood behaviours in order to improve resilience, prevent damage, and save lives. In this paper, various ML models have been developed and evaluated for classifying floods, i.e., flash flood, lakeshore flood, etc. using current information i.e., weather forecast in different locations. The analytical results show that the Random Forest technique provides the highest accuracy of classification, followed by J48 decision tree and Lazy methods. The classification results can lead to better decision-making on what measures can be taken for prevention and preparedness and thus improve flood resilience.
  • A model-based engineering methodology and architecture for resilience in systems-of-systems: a case of water supply resilience to flooding

    Joannou, Demetrios; Kalawsky, Roy; Saravi, Sara; Rivas Casado, Monica; Fu, Guangtao; Meng, Fanlin; Loughborough University (MDPI AG, 2019-03-08)
    There is a clear and evident requirement for a conscious effort to be made towards a resilient water system-of-systems (SoS) within the UK, in terms of both supply and flooding. The impact of flooding goes beyond the immediately obvious socio-aspects of disruption, cascading and affecting a wide range of connected systems. The issues caused by flooding need to be treated in a fashion which adopts an SoS approach to evaluate the risks associated with interconnected systems and to assess resilience against flooding from various perspectives. Changes in climate result in deviations in frequency and intensity of precipitation; variations in annual patterns make planning and management for resilience more challenging. This article presents a verified model-based system engineering methodology for decision-makers in the water sector to holistically, and systematically implement resilience within the water context, specifically focusing on effects of flooding on water supply. A novel resilience viewpoint has been created which is solely focused on the resilience aspects of architecture that is presented within this paper. Systems architecture modelling forms the basis of the methodology and includes an innovative resilience viewpoint to help evaluate current SoS resilience, and to design for future resilient states. Architecting for resilience, and subsequently simulating designs, is seen as the solution to successfully ensuring system performance does not suffer, and systems continue to function at the desired levels of operability. The case study presented within this paper demonstrates the application of the SoS resilience methodology on water supply networks in times of flooding, highlighting how such a methodology can be used for approaching resilience in the water sector from an SoS perspective. The methodology highlights where resilience improvements are necessary and also provides a process where architecture solutions can be proposed and tested
  • Surface Stability in Drylands is Influenced by Dispersal Strategy of Soil Bacteria

    Elliott, David R.; Thomas, Andrew D.; Strong, Craig L.; Bullard, Joanna; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, University of Derby (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019-10-09)
    Microbial adaptations for survival and dispersal may directly influence landscape stability and potential for dust emission in drylands where biological soil crusts (biocrusts) protect mineral soil surfaces from wind erosion. In the Lake Eyre basin of central Australia we operated a wind tunnel on sandy soils and collected the liberated material, which was subjected to DNA sequencing to identify the microbial community composition. Microbial composition of entrained dust was compared with that of the source sand dune soil in addition to nearby claypan and nebkha soils, and water channels which together form a recycling sediment transport system. Wind was found to preferentially liberate 359 identified taxa from sand dunes whereas 137 identified taxa were found to resist wind erosion. Water channel communities included many taxa in common with the soil samples. We hypothesise that the ease with which soil microbes become airborne is often linked to whether the organism is adapted for dispersal by wind or vegetative growth, and that biocrust organisms found in water channels may sometimes use a fluvial dispersal strategy which exploits rare flooding events to rapidly colonise vast pans which are common in drylands. We explain likely geomorphic implications of microbial dispersal strategies which are a consequence of organisms engineering the environment to provide their particular needs. By identifying microbes fitting expectations for these dispersal strategies based on differential abundance analyses, we provide a new perspective for understanding the role of microbiota in landscape stability.
  • Self-injury and self-concept

    Ducasse, D.; Van Gordon, William; Courtet, P; Ollie, E; University of Derby; Neuropsychiatry Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, Franc; Lapeyronie Hospital, Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post Acute Care, CHRU Montpellier, France (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
  • Integration and evaluation of QUIC and TCP-BBR in longhaul science data transfers

    Lopes, Raul H. C.; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; Duncan, Rand; Jisc, Lumen House; University of Derby, College of Engineering and Technology; Brunel University London, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences (EDP Sciences, 2019-09-17)
    Two recent and promising additions to the internet protocols are TCP-BBR and QUIC. BBR defines a congestion policy that promises a better control in TCP bottlenecks on long haul transfers and can also be used in the QUIC protocol. TCP-BBR is implemented in the Linux kernels above 4.9. It has been shown, however, to demand careful fine tuning in the interaction, for example, with the Linux Fair Queue. QUIC, on the other hand, replaces HTTP and TLS with a protocol on the top of UDP and thin layer to serve HTTP. It has been reported to account today for 7% of Google’s traffic. It has not been used in server-to-server transfers even if its creators see that as a real possibility. Our work evaluates the applicability and tuning of TCP-BBR and QUIC for data science transfers. We describe the deployment and performance evaluation of TCP-BBR and comparison with CUBIC and H-TCP in transfers through the TEIN link to Singaren (Singapore). Also described is the deployment and initial evaluation of a QUIC server. We argue that QUIC might be a perfect match in security and connectivity to base services that are today performed by the Xroot redirectors.
  • State-of-the-art review of 3DPV technology: structures and models

    Cui, Yuanlong; Zhu, Jie; Stamatis, Zoras; Chen, Xiangjie; Bi, Haixia; Qiao, Yaning; Soleimani, Zohreh; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; China University of Mining and Technology (Elsevier, 2019-10-05)
    Increasing energy conversion efficiency from sunlight to power is one of the key solutions for the world’s energy shortage and greenhouse gas reduction, but the conventional flat photovoltaic module without sun tracking mechanism has the low sunlight energy collection ability. This paper presents the state-of-the-art three-dimensional photovoltaic (3DPV) technology with high photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency, which is able to absorb off-peak sunlight and reflected light more effectively, thereby it can generate more power. At first, this paper is to catalogue and critique different 3DPV structures and models, as well as assess their characteristics. Afterwards, the main influence factors on the 3DPV structures and models including shape, height and spacing of the solar cells, latitude of the installation, optimal device design and shadow cast, are reviewed. Finally, the challenges and future technological developments of 3DPV structures and models are highlighted. This study demonstrated that the 3DPV technology can increase the captured sunlight approximately 15–30% in comparison with the conventional flat PV technology.
  • A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature

    McEwan, Kirsten; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Ferguson, Fiona; Brindley, Paul; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2019-09-12)
    In an increasingly urbanised world where mental health is currently in crisis, interventions to increase human engagement and connection with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing, most widely accessible, and cost-effective ways of improving human wellbeing. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of a smartphone app-based wellbeing intervention. In a randomised controlled trial study design, the app prompted 582 adults, including a subgroup of adults classified by baseline scores on the Recovering Quality of Life scale as having a common mental health problem (n = 148), to notice the good things about urban nature (intervention condition) or built spaces (active control). There were statistically significant and sustained improvements in wellbeing at one-month follow-up. Importantly, in the noticing urban nature condition, compared to a built space control, improvements in quality of life reached statistical significance for all adults and clinical significance for those classified as having a mental health difficulty. This improvement in wellbeing was partly explained by significant increases in nature connectedness and positive affect. This study provides the first controlled experimental evidence that noticing the good things about urban nature has strong clinical potential as a wellbeing intervention and social prescription.
  • A holistic approach to the decolonisation of modules in sustainable interior design

    Di Monte-Milner, Giovanna; University of Johannesburg (Design Education Forum of Southern Africa, 2017-09)
    This paper stems from the need to develop and deliver a new module in sustainable interior design (BASD6B2) at a 2nd year level within a new Degree programme at the University of Johannesburg, in 2017. This module’s development however relies on a reflection on another sustainable interior design module (BASD6B1) in the curriculum, offered at a 1st year level. The paper also secondly arises from the national call for the transformation and decolonisation of education programmes in South African tertiary institutions. This new BASD6B2 module thus needs to demonstrate a deeper connection with African roots, rather than make use of over-emphasised Eurocentric ideals. Like the global Ubuntu education approach, decolonisation requires an advancement of indigenous knowledge, expertise, teaching and learning. Thirdly, there is also a need for interior design education, worldwide, to align itself with changing notions of sustainability, which requires educators to embrace a new, emerging ecological paradigm. In this paradigm, regenerative thinking seeks to push sustainable design from merely sustaining the health of a system, towards more holistic, systems thinking, reconnecting us to place and the rituals of place (Reed 2007, p. 677). A reflection on both the sustainable interior design modules’ designs reveals several gaps. Firstly, there is no specific requirement that the emerging ecological paradigm, and the notion of regenerative thinking, be taught within the module. Secondly, one of the module outcomes requires that students be taught about sustainability through the use of a rating tool, the Green Star SA (GSSA) Interiors Rating Tool, which, while valuable, is too mechanistic and does not support holistic thinking. Thirdly, another gap is that the Green Building Council of South Africa’s (GBCSA) Green Star SA – Interiors v1 Technical Manual includes little to no reference of African studies, methods and skills in the technical manual. This issue is revealed in my ongoing PhD study, which uses a constructivist grounded theory approach. Fourthly, the tool is based on an Australian tool which is, in turn, based on an American tool, and it thus deploys western constructs. The aim of this paper is thus to develop a teaching strategy that can complement the design of both modules, with a focus however on the new module BASD6B2, in order to teach students about sustainability more holistically, while celebrating and advancing African building methods and skills. The main findings reveal that the sustainable interior design modules (based on the given outcomes) do not support a holistic and decolonised approach to teaching and learning. A holistic teaching strategy is thus necessary to promote an African identity. The paper concludes that this pro-active teaching strategy can augment the sustainable interior design modules. Firstly both modules can include a holistic introductory lesson. A second tactic in the strategy could be to include diverse curriculum content and regenerative design concepts into the BASD6B2 module. This strategy generally aims to advance students’ mindsets about sustainable design, while encouraging them to be co-creators of local knowledge, while designing sustainably, for an African identity.
  • An effective pedagogical practise for integrating HIV and AIDS into tertiary education: an interior design case study

    Di Monte-Milner, Giovanna; Gill, A; University of Johannesburg (South African Journal of Higher Education, 2017)
    This article discusses a pedagogical practise used to introduce HIV and AIDS content into an existing Interior Design curriculum from a creative praxis perspective. Curriculum-integration is a key strategy of the Higher Education HIV/AIDS Programme (HEAIDS), which was established to develop and support HIV-mitigation programmes at South Africa’s public Higher Education Institutions. Students within the Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture at the University of Johannesburg engaged in a spatial intervention project that was structured around project-based learning strategies and constructivist teaching values. Students’ proposals were analysed against their ability to promote HIV and AIDS prevention and create appropriate meaning amongst the target group. The paper suggests that the methodology proved effective because it did not require radical curriculum transformation; aligned with existing programme outcomes; and demonstrated potential to contribute to the ‘new literacy of AIDS’ required to counter ‘AIDS fatigue’.
  • Addressing the needs of the other 90% - the role of cycling in developing the sustainable agenda in Johannesburg

    Di Monte-Milner, Giovanna; Breytenbach, Amanda; University of Johannesburg (The Greenside Design Centre, University of Johannesburg (CUMULUS), 2014)
    Cycling is an energy efficient nonpolluting form of transport and is considered as one of the most sustainable means of transport. In South Africa cycling has been poorly recognized and supported by government and citizens as a sustainable mode of transport. However, drastic changes are proposed for the transport systems in the City of Johannesburg (also Joburg) and citizens are showing a growing interest in cycling for both recreation and commuting purposes. This paper investigates the changing cycling culture in Johannesburg and the extent to which cycling is recognized by government and included in the development of a sustainability agenda that addresses the socio-economic needs of Johannesburg citizens. National cycling projects, cycling associations and cycling events such as the monthly Johannesburg Critical Bike Mass Ride events are briefly described and used as reference points to illustrate the growing interest expressed by non-profit organizations and citizens to accommodate cyclists on public roads. This investigation aims to make a contribution to the sustainable design project through reflecting on a drastic proposed change for Johannesburg city transport which will impact on various design disciplines that can provide specialist knowledge in the development of a sustainable transport system. This paper therefore acknowledge the complex dynamic system in which society operates and argue that through paying attention to the needs of citizens, designers can become co-creators within the system
  • Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles grown in situ and anchored to titanium dioxide nanotubes on titanium implant against Staphylococcus aureus

    Gunputh, Urvashi F.; Le, Huirong; Lawton, Kiruthika; Besinis, Alexandros; Tredwin, Christopher; Handy, Richard D.; University of Derby; Plymouth University (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-30)
    Medical grade titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NTs) grown on the surface and then decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) is proposed to enhance the antimicrobial properties of the bone/dental implants. However, the decoration with Ag NPs is not consistent and there are concerns about the direct contact of Ag NPs with human tissue. The aim of this study was to achieve a more even coverage of Ag NPs on TiO2-NTs and determine their biocidal properties against Staphylococcus aureus, with and without a top coat of nano hydroxyapatite (nHA). The decoration with Ag NPs was optimised by adjusting the incubation time of the TiO2-NTs in a silver ammonia solution, and using biocompatible δ-gluconolactone as a reducing agent. The optimum incubation in silver ammonia was 7 min, and resulted in evenly distributed Ag NPs with an average diameter of 47.5 ± 1.7 nm attached to the surface of the nanotubes. The addition of nHA did not compromise the antimicrobial properties of the materials; high-resolution electron microscopy showed S. aureus did not grow on the composite with nHA and with >80% biocidal activity measured by the LIVE/DEAD assay, also limited lactate production. Dialysis experiment confirmed the stability of the coatings, and showed a slow release of dissolved silver (3.27 ± 0.15 μg/L over 24 h) through the top coat of nHA.
  • The adoption of IPSAS (accrual accounting) in Indonesian local government: a neo-institutional perspective

    Boolaky, Pran; Mirosea, Nitri; Omoteso, Kamil; Griffith University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-10-02)
    This study investigates the speed and drivers of IPSAS adoption in Indonesia. Using data from 205 local government entities, the results show while the interaction between auditors and representatives of opposition on the council has more impact on the speed of adoption than with the councillors representing the government, the timing of the council meeting has delayed the adoption of IPSAS accrual. Government grant, Supreme Audit Office, councillors and religious beliefs are the isomorphic drivers of IPSAS adoption. Our results support the hypotheses that the three institutional pressures (coercive, mimetic and normative) influence the speed of IPSAS adoption.
  • Socrates for Teachers

    Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-04-04)
    This chapter introduces Plato’s Socrates and his philosophy. The nearest we can get to authentic Socratic thought is in Plato’s earlier dialogues where he presents the views of his tutor in powerful dramatic form. Socrates embodies in his life, and death, a commitment to freedom of speech that was not shared by the polis of Athens (or by most people today). Sections of Plato’s dramatic dialogues are presented at length to illustrate his life, his commitment to argument and to examining all beliefs however strongly held. Socrates embodies the critical spirit and the understanding that freedom of speech was the only way to knowledge. To convince anyone of the power of Socrates’ thinking and his moral example cannot be achieved through any introduction. The success of this chapter will be decided by those who go on to read the dialogues. If you stop here and pick up and read any of the Socratic dialogues, the Apology, the Crito, the Phaedo, the Protagoras, the Meno, or the Theaetetus then you will know the man without any intermediary other than Plato. The lesson of this chapter is: ‘always study the original texts’.
  • An English version of the mathematics teaching anxiety scale

    Hunt, Thomas E.; SARI, Mehmet Hayri; University of Derby; Veli University (IJATE, 2019-10-15)
    This study represents the implementation of an English version of the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MTAS), originally published in Turkey (Sari, 2014). One hundred and twenty-seven primary school teachers from across the U.K. completed the survey, including 74 qualified teachers and 53 trainees. Following item-reduction and factor analysis, the 19-item MTAS was found to have excellent internal consistency (α = .94) and has a two-factor structure. Factor one, labelled Self-Directed Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, includes 12 items pertaining to a teacher's own teaching practice and perceived ability, whereas factor two, labelled Pupil/Student-Directed Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, includes 7 items pertaining to anxiety concerning pupils/students failing assessments or not reaching curriculum/school targets. Pre-service teachers, compared to in-service teachers, self-reported significantly higher overall maths teaching anxiety. Among in-service teachers, there was a significant negative correlation between length of service and maths teaching anxiety. These findings are important in the context of retention issues in newly qualified teachers and the need to support trainees and newer teachers if they experience anxiety related to teaching maths.
  • Group singing has multiple benefits in the context of chronic pain: an exploratory pilot study

    Irons, J. Yoon; Kuipers, Pim; Wan, Aston; Stewart, Donald E; Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-09-05)
    This paper reports findings of a pilot singing intervention to assist people living with chronic pain. Pain Management Clinic out-patients participated in 10 weekly group singing sessions. Benefits of the intervention and its impact on participants’ (N=4) experience of pain were explored qualitatively. Three main themes comprising over 20 separate codes indicated physical, psychological and social dimensions associated with the intervention. People with chronic pain identify multiple benefits from participating in a group singing program. Group singing in chronic pain settings has multiple benefits; and can be a beneficial adjunct to conventional pain management care and nursing, which may positively complement clinical outcomes.
  • Understanding the implications of chemical regulations, circular economy and corporate social responsibility for product stewardship

    Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (IOS Press, 2019-09-10)
    Chemical regulations exist to limit and control the amount of hazardous chemical substances being used by industry to mitigate potential risks. Increasing awareness of diminishing natural resources, increasing pollution, and reducing the amounts of harmful waste, has led towards pressure on industry to change from the traditional linear economic model (closed-loop manufacturing), towards the adoption of the Circular Economy (CE) activities. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) extends the relationship between industry and society, defining strategy and communications. The speed at which chemical regulations, CE and CSR adoption takes place will depend on: (1) the speed at which natural resources become more depleted; (2) increasing awareness of the effects of chemical substances by regulators and consumers; (3) increasing numbers of chemical substances being regulated as hazardous, and; (4) increasing consumer and societal pressures for change. Product Stewardship (PS) can be viewed as: (1) involving a wide range of functional areas (design, manufacture, purchasing, sales, support); (2) identifying health and safety, and environmental impacts of product(s); (3) ensuring adequate measures are in place to understand, control or limit impact(s) against a product throughout its lifecycle. The aim of this paper is to focus on using a literature review. The conclusions from this paper will attempt to outline a framework for PS to align with CE and CSR.
  • Privacy verification of photoDNA based on machine learning

    Nadeem, Muhammad Shahroz; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; Zhai, Xiaojun; University of Derby, College of Engineering and Technology; University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering (The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2019-10-09)
    PhotoDNA is a perceptual fuzzy hash technology designed and developed by Microsoft. It is deployed by all major big data service providers to detect Indecent Images of Children (IIOC). Protecting the privacy of individuals is of paramount importance in such images. Microsoft claims that a PhotoDNA hash cannot be reverse engineered into the original image; therefore, it is not possible to identify individuals or objects depicted in the image. In this chapter, we evaluate the privacy protection capability of PhotoDNA by testing it against machine learning. Specifically, our aim is to detect the presence of any structural information that might be utilized to compromise the privacy of the individuals via classification. Due to the widespread usage of PhotoDNA as a deterrent to IIOC by big data companies, ensuring its ability to protect privacy would be crucial. In our experimentation, we achieved a classification accuracy of 57.20%.This result indicates that PhotoDNA is resistant to machine-learning-based classification attacks.
  • Synthesis and characterization of tungsten and barium co-doped La2Mo2O9 by sol-gel process for solid oxide fuel cells

    Shao, Lingbo; Ji, Dongdong; Yang, Jie; Xie, Jinsong; Yin, Qiyi; Le, Huirong; Hefei University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-09-30)
    Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of W and Ba co-doped La2Mo2O9 (LBMWO) nanocrystalline powder by a sol-gel process. In all the compositions have general formulae La1.9Ba0.1Mo2–xWxO8.95 (x = 0–0.40). The crystal structure, microstructure and conductivity of LBMWO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the thermal and decomposition properties of the LBMWO gel were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry - thermogravimetric. The results reveal that all LBMWO powders calcined at 700 °C have a cubic structure; the average crystallite size is about 48 nm. The unit cell parameter of LBMWO powders increases with increase in W content. The as-synthesized nanocrystalline LBMWO samples exhibit excellent sinterability and a relatively lower sintering temperature of 900 °C. A high relative density of ∼96% is achieved after sintering at 900 °C which is in good agreement with the results of the SEM. Moreover, W and Ba co-doping suppresses the phase transition and effectively stabilizes the β-phase at low temperature. At the same time, La1.9Ba0.1Mo1.85W0.15O8.95 exhibits high ionic conductivity, 3.07 × 10−2 S/cm at 800 °C. It is therefore concluded that co-doping can improve the properties of La2Mo2O9 electrolytes.
  • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels differ between week and weekend ways in British preschool children

    Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2019-09-12)
    Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days.
  • First observation of an attractive interaction between a proton and a cascade baryon

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adhya, S. P.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; et al. (American Physical Society (APS), 2019-09-13)
    This Letter presents the first experimental observation of the attractive strong interaction between a proton and a multistrange baryon (hyperon) Ξ−. The result is extracted from two-particle correlations of combined p−Ξ−⊕¯p−¯Ξ+ pairs measured in p−Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV at the LHC with ALICE. The measured correlation function is compared with the prediction obtained assuming only an attractive Coulomb interaction and a standard deviation in the range [3.6, 5.3] is found. Since the measured p−Ξ−⊕¯p−¯Ξ+ correlation is significantly enhanced with respect to the Coulomb prediction, the presence of an additional, strong, attractive interaction is evident. The data are compatible with recent lattice calculations by the HAL-QCD Collaboration, with a standard deviation in the range [1.8, 3.7]. The lattice potential predicts a shallow repulsive Ξ− interaction within pure neutron matter and this implies stiffer equations of state for neutron-rich matter including hyperons. Implications of the strong interaction for the modeling of neutron stars are discussed.

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