Recent Submissions

  • Green Lean Six Sigma for Improving Manufacturing Sustainability: Framework Development and Validation

    Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02)
    In the past few decades, a competitive landscape, learned customers and rigorous regulations have forced manufacturing industries to focus on sustainability alongside operational efficiency. The main objective of the present study is to develop a systematic Green Lean Six Sigma (GLSS) framework for improvement in operational efficiency together with environmental and social sustainability. Further, the proposed framework was tested in a leading manufacturing company. The framework was designed with insights gained from the literature and industrial personnel and encompasses the systematic application of different tools of the Green paradigm, Lean, and Six Sigma, from the identification and assessment of the problem to the sustainment of the adopted measures. A systematic application of lifecycle assessment and social lifecycle assessment was used to assess environmental and societal performance. The sustainability focused GLSS framework enhances the environmental capability, process performance and provides a new perspective for researchers and practitioners to support GLSS projects to achieving higher sustainability dynamics.
  • Analysing the discursive psychology used within digital media to influence public opinions concerning female child-killers

    Harris, Kessia; Adhikari, Joanna; Wallace, Louise; University of Derby (CDS Press, 2022-01-05)
    Discursive psychology is used to invoke emotion and social action within receivers, and widespread media is notorious for utilizing these linguistic features to negatively skew the public opinion of an individual or group. This study aims to investigate through discursive thematic analysis the ways in which digitised media articles utilise linguistic features and discursive devices to invoke emotion within readers, and in turn influence their opinions concerning female child-killers. The data gathered for this piece of research were 9 digital newspaper articles published between 2017 and 2021 by any of the top 10 most-read titles according to YouGov (2021) and were sourced using Google Chrome. The key terms used to locate these articles were the names “Rachel Henry”, “Tracey Connelly” and “Louise Porton” followed by the names of the top 10 most-read titles (e.g., “Rachel Henry Daily Mail”). The themes identified suggest a consistent aim within the media to negatively influence the public opinion of the offenders in question by using discursive devices and psychological categories to attack and invalidate these offenders and portray them as being evil, inhuman, delusional individuals who are inherently different from “normal” members of society. The findings produced within this research may have implications regarding the future of mainstream media reporting, as they suggest an excessive use of strategically influential linguistic features within digital newspapers to create extreme negative representations of women who offend, which may prove detrimental to their future access to, and experience of reformation and rehabilitation.
  • In Tune with the Listener: How Local Radio in Ireland has Maintained Audience Attention and Loyalty

    McMahon, Daithí; University of Derby (Bastas Publications, 2021-07-18)
    Local radio has remained relevant and ever-present in Ireland owing to the relationship stations have built with their audiences over time. These strong connections combined with adherence to public service duties and supplying locally relevant content – which the national stations cannot offer – helped local stations repel the double threat of a global recession and the influx of new media. This paper argues that by building on its core strengths while embracing change and adopting the potential offered by digital and social media, local Irish commercial radio stations have managed to survive and remain relevant. Using case studies of two prominent stations Radio Kerry and Beat, and one public service station RTÉ 2fm, this paper will illustrate that by being in tune with the audience’s unique social, cultural and political interests, radio stations have been able to endear their audiences to the brand and compete for their attention in an increasingly competitive mediascape. These stations were able to achieve this partly through the formation of online communities on Facebook, by having a presence in the local community and by actively engaging with the audience. This paper posits that local radio holds an important place in the lives of the people it serves and therefore must be preserved as not only an invaluable public service but as a beacon of culture and heritage.
  • Development of a scale to measure shared problem-solving and decision-making in mental healthcare

    Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Abdullah, Atiqah Chew; Tan, Bih Yuan; Kamu, Assis; Ho, Chong Mun; Giridharan, Beena; Forman, Dawn; Fyfe, Sue; Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia; Curtin University, Miri, Malaysia; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2022-01-15)
    The aim of this study was to create a measure of collaborative processes between healthcare team members, patients, and carers. Methods: A shared decision-making scale was developed using a qualitative research derived model and refined using Rasch and factor analysis. The scale was used by staff in the hospital for four consecutive years (n = 152, 121, 119 and 121) and by two independent patients’ and carers’ samples (n = 223 and 236). Results: Respondents had difficulty determining what constituted a decision and the scale was redeveloped after first use in patients and carers. The initial focus on shared decision-making was changed to shared problem-solving. Two factors were found in the first staff sample: shared problem-solving and shared decision-making. The structure was confirmed on the second patients’ and carers’ sample and an independent staff sample consisting of the first data-points for the last three years. The shared problem-solving and decision-making scale (SPSDM) demonstrated evidence of convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, measurement invariance on longitudinal data and sensitivity to change. Conclusions: Shared problem-solving was easier to measure than shared decision-making in this context. Practice implications: Shared problem-solving is an important component of collaboration, as well as shared decision-making.
  • How to design hotel gamified applications effectively: Understanding the motives of users as hotel visitors

    Parapanos, Demos; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Cumbria; University of Derby (Springer, 2022-01)
    The service sector including tourism and hospitality have recognized the need for a turn to a customer-centric approach that primarily values tourists’ needs, wants, preferences and requirements as major determinants in travel decisions. Considering that mobile devices are becoming travel buddies and that their use is profoundly influencing traveller’s journey highlights the need of Gamification. As a relatively new phenomenon in the industry, motives encouraging usage behaviour have yet to be researched. Identifying these motives could offer several advantages to hotels by providing relationship marketing, engagement and strengthening customer loyalty. This research tries to fill this gap and enhance existing gamification research by understanding the motives of users’ continuance intention in adopting technology with gamification characteristics. Visual material based on the current definitions of gamification was prepared to create a hotel gamified application to help participants discuss their preferences.
  • Improved Bi-Angle Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Algorithm from AHI Data Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Jin, Chunlin; Jiang, Xingxing; Sun, Yuxin; Wu, Shuhui; Xue, Yong; China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2021-11-20)
    The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) aboard the Himawari-8, a new generation of geostationary meteorological satellite, has high-frequency observation, which allows it to effectively capture atmospheric variations. In this paper, we have proposed an Improved Bi-angle Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval Algorithm (IBAA) from AHI data. The algorithm ignores the aerosol effect at 2.3 μm and assumes that the aerosol optical depth does not change within one hour. According to the property that the reflectivity ratio K of two observations at 2.3 μm does not change with wavelength, we constructed the equation for two observations of AHI 0.47 μm band. Then Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used to solve the nonlinear equation. The algorithm was applied to the AHI observations over the Chinese mainland (80°–135°E, 15°–60°N) between April and June 2019 and hourly AOD at 0.47 μm was retrieved. We validated IBAA AOD against the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites observation, including surrounding regions as well as the Chinese mainland, and compared it with the AHI L3 V030 hourly AOD product. Validation with AERONET of 2079 matching points shows a correlation coefficient R = 0.82, root-mean-square error RMSE = 0.27, and more than 62% AOD retrieval results within the expected error of ±(0.05 + 0.2 × AODAERONET). Although IBAA does not perform very well in the case of coarse-particle aerosols, the comparison and validation demonstrate it can estimate AHI AOD with good accuracy and wide coverage over land on the whole
  • Power Management and Control of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Photovoltaic, Fuel Cells, and Battery Energy Sources

    Mohamed, Naoui; Aymen, Flah; Altamimi, Abdullah; Khan, Zafar A.; Lassaad, Sbita; University of Gabès, Gabès 6072, Tunisia; University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia; Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur 10250, Pakistan; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2022-02-23)
    This paper deals with an energy management problem to ensure the best performance of the recharging tools used in electric vehicles. The main objective of this work is to find the optimal condition for controlling a hybrid recharging system by regrouping the photovoltaic cells and fuel cells. The photovoltaic and fuel cell systems were connected in parallel via two converters to feed either a lithium battery bank or the main traction motor. This combination of energy sources resulted in a hybrid recharging system. The mathematical model of the overall recharging system and the designed power management loop was developed, taking into account multiple aspects, including vehicle loading, the stepwise mathematical modelling of each component, and a detailed discussion of the required electronic equipment. Finally, a simplistic management loop was designed and implemented. Multiple case studies were simulated, statistical approaches were used to quantify the contribution of each recharging method, and the benefits of the combination of the two sources were evaluated. The energetic performance of an electric vehicle with the proposed hybrid recharging tool under various conditions, including static and dynamic modes, was simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink tool. The results suggest that despite the additional weight of PV panels, the combination of the PV and FC systems improves the vehicle’s energetic performance and provides a higher charging capacity instead of using an FC alone. A comparison with similar studies revealed that the proposed model has a higher efficiency. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of each solution are discussed to emphasise the significance of the hybrid recharging system.
  • Interventions for hyperhidrosis

    Dunford, Louise; Clifton, Andrew V; Stephenson, John; Radley, Kathy; McDonald, Louise; Fretwell, Laurice; Cheung, Seau Tak; Hague, Lynne; Boyle, Robert J; De Montfort University, Leicester; et al. (Wiley, 2022-02-14)
    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions for hyperhidrosis.
  • Exploring the Contribution of Personal Qualities to the Personal and Professional Development of Trainee Sport Psychology Practitioners’ Within the Individuation Process

    Verner, Daryl; Chandler, Charlotte; Clarke, Philip; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2021-11-26)
    Since the person behind the practitioner has been recognised as a core foundation of professional practice in sport psychology, research attention has diffused to focus on navigating the ‘rocky road’ towards individuation. As such, this study extended the literature by illuminating the importance of developing personal qualities during the embryonic stages of supervised experience (SE) in sport psychology to help support the individuation process occurring throughout the training journey. Specifically, the aim of the current study was to explore the contribution of personal qualities to the personal and professional development of trainee sport psychology practitioners, within the individuation process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with probationary sport and exercise scientists (psychology) working in a range of elite and professional sports (i.e., premier league football, rugby league, golf, gymnastics, swimming, and several other Olympic sports). The interview schedule was refined following a pilot study. Interview transcripts were content analysed and trustworthiness criteria applied. Interpretative phenomenological analysis identified three main superordinate themes, labelled ‘self-development of personal qualities’, ‘facilitators of supervisee individuation’, and ‘initial consulting experiences of practitioners’. This study extends the literature by illuminating the importance of developing personal qualities during the embryonic stages of SE to help support the individuation process occurring throughout the training journey, thus better preparing sport psychologist’s for self-governed practice once accredited. Considerations are given in relation to how sport psychology education and training programmes could aid the individuation process via the development of personal qualities.
  • “I must do this!”: A latent profile analysis approach to understanding the role of irrational beliefs and motivation regulation in mental and physical health

    Turner, M. J.; Miller, A.; Youngs, H.; Barber, N.; Brick, N. E; Chadha, N. J.; Chandler, C.; Coyle, M.; Didymus, F. F.; Evans, A. L.; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2022-02-27)
    In the research concerning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) in sport and exercise, irrational beliefs are proposed as a risk factor for health. Concurrent to this, researchers have also indicated that autonomous and controlled motivation, as proposed in organismic integration theory could, together with irrational beliefs, determine individual health. However, research is yet to align irrational beliefs and motivation, and explore how this alignment relates to mental health. The present two study paper identifies individual subgroups, drawn from data concerning irrational beliefs, motivation, and health (psychological distress, and physical health), in a sample of exercisers (study 1) and student athletes (study 2). We examined the latent profile structure of irrational beliefs and motivation, and how these latent profiles relate to psychological distress (studies 1 and 2), and physical health (study 2). Results indicate a two class profile whereby class 1 is characterised by high irrational beliefs, low self-determined motivation, and poor health outcomes. Class 2 is characterised by low irrational beliefs, high self-determined motivation, and better health outcomes. The findings are discussed in relation to the theoretical implications for REBT and organismic integration theory, and the practical implications for key stakeholders in the health of exercise participants and athletes.
  • Acute hazard assessment of silver nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation, oral and intravenous injection exposures.

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Mroczko, Agnieszka; Brown, David; Stone, Vicki; University of Derby; National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh (Taylor & Francis, 2022-01-11)
    With ever-increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a necessity to evaluate the probability of consequential adverse effects in individuals exposed to these particles. It is now understood that a proportion of NPs can translocate from primary sites of exposure to a range of secondary organs, with the liver, kidneys and spleen being some of the most important. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive toxicological profiling (inflammation, changes in serum biochemistry, oxidative stress, acute phase response and histopathology) of Ag NP induced adverse effects in the three organs of interest following acute exposure of the materials at identical doses via intravenous (IV), intratracheal (IT) instillation and oral administration. The data clearly demonstrated that bioaccumulation and toxicity of the particles were most significant following the IV route of exposure, followed by IT. However, oral exposure to the NPs did not result in any changes that could be interpreted as toxicity in any of the organs of interest within the confines of this investigation. The finding of this study clearly indicates the importance of the route of exposure in secondary organ hazard assessment for NPs. Finally, we identify Connexin 32 (Cx32) as a novel biomarker of NP-mediated hepatic damage which is quantifiable both (in vitro) and in vivo following exposure of physiologically relevant doses.
  • A review of the generation of requirements specification in natural language using objects UML models and domain ontology

    Abdalazeima, Alaa; Meziane, Farid; University of Bahri, Sudan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-07-14)
    In the software development life cycle, requirements engineering is the main process that is derived from users by informal interviews written in natural language by requirements engineers (analysts). The requirements may suffer from incompleteness and ambiguity when transformed into formal or semi-formal models that are not well understood by stakeholders. Hence, the stakeholder cannot verify if the formal or semi-formal models satisfy their needs and requirements. Another problem faced by requirements is that when code and/or designs are updated, it is often the case that requirements and specifically the requirements document are not updated. Hence ending with a requirements document not reflecting the implemented software.Generating requirements from the design and/or implementation document is seen by many researchers as a way to address the latter issue. This paper presents a survey of some works undertaken in the field of generation natural language specifications from object UML model using the support of an ontology. and analyzing the robustness and limitations of these existing approaches. This includes studying the generation of natural language from a formal model, review the generation of natural language from ontologies, and finally reviews studies about check to generate natural language from OntoUML.
  • Numerical analysis of shock interaction with a spherical bubble

    Onwuegbu, Solomon; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (AIP Publishing, 2022-02-11)
    Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies of a spherical bubble impacted by a supersonic shock wave (Mach 1.25) have been performed to fully understand the complex process involved in shock–bubble interaction (SBI). The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational approach with a coupled level set and volume of fluid method has been employed in the present study. The predicted velocities of refracted wave, transmitted wave, upstream interface, downstream interface, jet, and vortex ring agree very well with the relevant available experimental data. The predicted non-dimensional bubble and vortex velocities are also in much better agreement with the experiment data than values computed from a simple model of shock-induced Rayleigh–Taylor instability (the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability). Comprehensive flow visualization has been presented and analyzed to elucidate the SBI process from the beginning of bubble compression (continuous reflection and refraction of the acoustic wave fronts as well as the location of the incident, refracted and transmitted waves at the bubble compression stage) up to the formation of vortex rings as well as the production and distribution of vorticity. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that turbulence is generated with some small flow structures formed and more intensive mixing, i.e., turbulent mixing of helium with air starts to develop at the later stage of SBI.
  • Attachment relationships and psychological distress in young adults: The mediating role of self-esteem

    Imran, Somia; Jackson, Sophie; Newcastle University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2022-02-16)
    The relationship between attachment security and psychological distress (such as depressive and anxiety symptoms) is well established. However, the role of attachment security beyond primary attachment, referred to as secondary attachment, and the mechanism underlying this relationship is under-explored among young adults. This study sought to investigate the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment on psychological distress with self-esteem as a mediator in young adults. Four hundred and fifty two UK participants aged 18–25 (55.76% females; Mean age = 20.72; SD = 2.29) completed measures of attachment, self-esteem and psychological distress. Using two mediation models, we tested the effects of primary attachment and secondary attachment separately on psychological distress mediated by self-esteem, while controlling for the other type of attachment (i.e. primary or secondary). The findings supported the mediation effects of both primary attachment and secondary attachment through self-esteem on psychological distress. This study provides the first empirical evidence for the individual role of primary and secondary attachment relationships through self-esteem, which has important implications for preventive and intervention strategies to lessen psychological distress among young adults.
  • Hierarchical Energy Management System With a Local Competitive Power Market for Inter-Connected Multi-Smart Buildings

    Hussain, Mirza Shehbaz; Kazmi, Syed Ali Abbas; Khan, Zafar A.; Alghassab, Mohammed; Altamimi, Abdullah; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan; Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur AJK, Pakistan; University of Derby; Shaqra University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, Saudi Arabia (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022-02-09)
    The energy management in new distribution paradigms are amongst one of core research dimension, particularly in smart grids. This paper proposes a hierarchical energy management system for inter-connected multi-smart buildings with an inclusion of local Power Market. As home appliances have huge contribution in load of buildings, the appliances are scheduled in order to minimize operational cost while taking into account the user comfort and other system constraints. The objectives of this paper aim to minimize operational cost, CO 2 emissions, grid dependency while maximize user comfort and revenue. The proposed technique enables a prosumer with two options, either they can sell excess energy to the utility or can bid and sell in market with high price compare to utility. Besides increase in revenue, the consumer is enabled to buy electricity from utility or from local market with low prices compare to utility grid aiming at reducing operational cost. The proposed framework is evaluated across three algorithms namely, JAYA, teacher learning based optimization (TLBO) and Rao1, respectively. As per comparative analysis, the JAYA algorithm outperforms the others in achieving the aimed objectives in-terms of favorable achieved numerical values. Different cases are created in order to test the effectiveness of proposed system. The overall simulation results validate the proposed approach with highest operational cost reduction of 151.48%, peak load reduction 76.76%, grid dependency reduction 95.61%, and minimum emission of CO 2 is 3.70 Kg/Day as compare to base case.
  • Techno-Economic and Environmental Impact Analysis of Large-Scale Wind Farms Integration in Weak Transmission Grid from Mid-Career Repowering Perspective

    Butt, Rohan Zafar; Kazmi, Syed Ali Abbas; Alghassab, Mohammed; Khan, Zafar A.; Altamimi, Abdullah; Imran, Muhammad; Alruwaili, Fahad F.; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan; Shaqra University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur AJK, Pakistan; et al. (MDPI AG, 2022-02-22)
    Repowering a wind farm enhances its ability to generate electricity, allowing it to better utilize areas with high mean wind speeds. Pakistan’s present energy dilemma is a serious impediment to its economic development. The usage of a diesel generator as a dependable backup power source raises the cost of energy per kWh and increases environmental emissions. To minimize environmental emissions, grid-connected wind farms enhance the percentage of wind energy in the electricity system. These wind generators’ effects, on the other hand, are augmented by the absorption of greater quantities of reactive electricity from the grid. According to respective grid codes, integration of commercial onshore Large-Scale Wind Farms (LSWF) into a national grid is fraught with technical problems and inter-farm wake effects, which primarily ensure power quality while degrading overall system operation and limiting the optimal use of attainable wind resources. The goal of this study is to examine and estimate the techno-economic influence of large-scale wind farms linked to poor transmission systems in Pakistan, contemplating the inter-farm wake effect and reactive power diminution and compensating using a range of voltage-ampere reactive (VAR) devices. This study presents a partial repowering technique to address active power deficits produced by the wake effect by raising hub height by 20 m, which contributed to recovering the active power deficit to 48% and so reduced the effects of upstream wind farms. Simulations were conducted for several scenarios on an actual test system modeled in MATLAB for comparative study using capacitor banks and different flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. Using the SAM (System Advisor Model) and RETscreen, a complete technical, economic, and environmental study was done based on energy fed into the grid, payback time, net present value (NPV), and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reduction. The studies suggest that the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is the optimum compensating device via comparison analysis as it improved the power handling capabilities of the power system. Our best-case scenario includes UPFC with hub height augmentation, demonstrating that it is technically, fiscally, and environmentally viable. Over the course of its lifespan, the planned system has the potential to save 1,011,957 tCO2, resulting in a greener environment. When the energy generated annually by a current wake-affected system is compared to our best-recommended scenario, a recovered shortfall of 4.851% is seen, with improved system stability. This modest investment in repowering boosts energy production due to wake effects, resulting in increased NPV, revenue, and fewer CO2 footprints.
  • Effects of mental fatigue on static upright stance and functional balance in older adults

    Fletcher, Lucy J.; Osler, Callum J.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-11-16)
    Cognitive influences on balance control may contribute to greater instability and falls in older adults. In support of this, old age exacerbates the effects of a concurrent cognitive task on balance. Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state experienced following prolonged demanding cognitive activity. However, its effects on static upright stance and functional balance in older adults is unclear. It is also unclear how the effects of mental fatigue and a concurrent task interact. Balance was assessed in ten younger and ten older participants before and immediately after 25 min of the incongruent Stroop colour-word test (mental fatigue) and leisurely reading (control), presented in a randomized counterbalanced order on separate days. Static and functional balance was assessed using the centre of pressure path length when standing still and the ‘Timed Up & Go’ test, respectively. These balance assessments were completed with and without a concurrent backward counting task (i.e. dual-task and single-task, respectively). Under subjectively-confirmed conditions of mental fatigue, sway path length when standing still was 32% greater than the control condition in older adults but unchanged in younger adults. This age-dependant effect of mental fatigue on static balance was similar in single-task and dual-task trials. Mental fatigue did not significantly affect functional balance performance in either age group. These findings are the first to show mental fatigue to impair static balance control in older adults. Therefore, whether due to everyday activities or a symptom of disease, mental fatigue may contribute to poor balance in older adults.
  • Melt Percolation, Melt-Rock Reaction and Oxygen Fugacity in Supra-Subduction Zone Mantle and Lower Crust from the Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    O’Driscoll, Brian; Leuthold, Julien; Lenaz, Davide; Skogby, Henrik; Day, James, M.; Adetunji, Jacob; University of Manchester; Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Zürich, Switzerland; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-17)
    Samples of peridotites and pyroxenites from the mantle and lower crustal sections of the Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC; Norway) are examined to investigate the effects of melt-rock reaction and oxygen fugacity variations in the sub-arc oceanic lithosphere. The LOC is considered to represent supra-subduction zone (SSZ) oceanic lithosphere, but also preserves evidence of pre-SSZ magmatic processes. Here we combine field and microstructural observations with mineral chemical and structural analyses of different minerals from the major lithologies of the LOC. Wehrlite and websterite bodies in both the mantle and lower crust contain clinopyroxene likely formed at a pre-SSZ stage, characterised by high Al, high Cr, low Mg crystal cores. These clinopyroxenes also exhibit low Al, low Cr, high Mg outer rims and intracrystalline dissolution surfaces, indicative of reactive melt percolation during intrusion and disruption of these lithologies by later, SSZ-related, dunite-forming magmas. Chromian-spinel compositional variations correlate with lithology; dunite-chromitite Cr-spinels are characterised by relatively uniform and high TiO2 and Al2O3, indicating formation by melt-rock reaction associated with SSZ processes. Harzburgite Cr-spinel compositions are more variable but preserve a relatively high Al2O3, low TiO2 endmember that may reflect crystallisation in a pre-SSZ oceanic spreading centre setting. An important finding of this study is that the LOC potentially preserves the petrological signature of a transition between oceanic spreading centre processes and subsequent SSZ magmatism. Single crystal Cr-spinel Fe3+/ΣFe ratios calculated on the basis of stoichiometry (from electron microprobe [EPMA] and crystal structural [X-ray diffraction; XRD] measurements) correlate variably with those calculated by point-source (single crystal) Mössbauer spectroscopy. Average sample EPMA Fe3+/ΣFe ratios overestimate or underestimate the Mössbauer-derived values for harzburgites, and always overestimate the Mössbauer Fe3+/ΣFe ratios for dunites and chromitites. The highest Fe3+/ΣFe ratios, irrespective of method of measurement, are therefore generally associated with dunites and chromitites, and yield calculated log(fO2)FMQ values of up to ~ + 1.8. While this lends support to the formation of the dunites and chromitites during SSZ-related melt percolation in the lower part of the LOC, it also suggests that these melts were not highly oxidised, compared to typical arc basalts (fO2FMQ of > + 2). This may in turn reflect the early (forearc) stage of subduction zone activity preserved by the LOC and implies that some of the arc tholeiitic and boninitic lava compositions preserved in the upper portion of the ophiolite are not genetically related to the mantle and lower crustal rocks, against which they exhibit tectonic contacts. Our new data also have implications for the use of ophiolite chromitites as recorders of mantle oxidation state through time; a global comparison suggests that the Fe3+/ΣFe signatures of ophiolite chromitites are likely to have more to do with local environmental petrogenetic conditions in sub-arc systems than large length-scale mantle chemical evolution
  • Paying for end of life in care homes in the UK

    Stubbs, John; Adetunji, Jacob; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2020-10-08)
    To live to a ripe old age, untroubled by health problems, physical or mental, is an almost universal aspiration. But most people are not so lucky and will likely be in care homes for their final years, with varying levels of disease, disability and dementia. Kinley et al [1] maintain that over a fifth of the population of developed countries die in care homes. Moreover, the financial cost of this end of life care, which is the focus of this paper, can be daunting and require much planning [2]. It was reported in 2017 that, in the UK, care home costs are rising up to twice as fast as inflation [3]. Consequently the question arises about the long term affordability of such care to those having to fund it, a question that ever more people both nationally and globally are having to confront.
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Manufacturing Operations and Supply Chain Resilience: Effects and Response Strategies

    Bastas, A; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Emerald, 2022-02)
    Manufacturing organisations are striving towards adapting and responding to the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, along with the operations research streams endeavouring to support their recovery. With a view to bridging our knowledge gap on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on manufacturing operations, this paper investigates the key challenges and strategies formulated by manufacturing organisations operating in the Northern region of Cyprus. The research was conducted through 10 in-depth interviews that analyzed the effects of the pandemic, the associated causes, and the response strategies implemented. The effects of the pandemic on the manufacturing organisations investigated are identified, along with the associated causes, and the response strategies deployed. Learnings and countermeasures implemented to date are established in light of the insights captured from the practitioners. Learnings and countermeasures implemented to date are established in light of the insights captured from the practitioners. Contributions are made to the body of knowledge on manufacturing management and manufacturing supply chain resilience (SCR) through fostering our understanding of the impacts that the pandemic had on manufacturing organisations, and practical contributions are presented through evidencing and transferring of the operations management knowledge and solutions devised in various sectors to date.

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