• Business Leaders: Career Capital and Role Transitions

      Wond, Tracey; Hooley, Tristram; Brown, Cathy (University of Derby, 2019-01-29)
      Whilst it is recognised that the organisational career is still prevalent within today’s career landscape, there is a lack of research exploring the career capital needed to ease intra-organisational transitions. This thesis reviews this gap and explores the career capital required by business leaders to facilitate their own voluntary, sideward or upward macro work role transitions. The research questions include: 1. What aspects of career capital facilitate such role transitions? 2. How and to what extent are these role moves supported by career capital? 3. What barriers inhibit such role transitions? 4. What are the implications for business leaders and organisations of these role transition experiences? Drawing upon an interpretivist research approach, with a social constructionist stance and using event-based narrative interviews, this study explores the experiences of 36 business leaders who have undertaken a role transition within a UK business within the previous three years. This case organisation operates within the construction sector and is part of an international establishment. This research study enhances our appreciation of career capital; it offers unique contributions to knowledge from theoretical, empirical and practice perspectives. By developing a new career capital theoretical framework, our understanding of the career capital aspects that ease organisational role transitions is deepened. Such findings reaffirm the relevance of context and emphasise the importance of the Bourdieusian notion of the field and symbolic capital. Moreover, the insights offered by this research study recognise the relevance of Bourdieu’s capital convertibility within the context of career capital. Furthermore, this research study identifies new characteristics, including where career capital can: act as a barrier, overcome barriers, be eroded, be influenced by the role holder’s levels of personal agency and organisational attachment, and connect together to increase impact. Conclusively, this research study confirms the relevance of career capital within transition management. Additionally, given the importance of transitions within career theories, career capital is an important concept for the career management field as a whole.
    • Knowledge and discourse matters

      Longbottom, David; Self, Richard; Crane, Lesley (University of DerbyFaculty of Business, Law and ComputingJ Wiley & Sons, 2015-05-19)
      This work draws on the discipline of Discursive Psychology for a theory of language, shown to be all but absent in the organizational knowledge management literature, and a methodology for the study of discourse. Organizational knowledge sharing is selected as the topic of primary research for its accessibility to analysis, and because it is considered to be an underpinning action to new knowledge creation. The research approaches discourse as action-orientated and locally situated, as constructed and constructive, with function and consequence for speakers. Indicative research questions are concerned with the discursively accomplished phenomena of trust, risk, identity and context, how these are accomplished in rhetorical interaction and with what effect on organizationally situated knowledge sharing. Recordings of organizations’ everyday knowledge sharing meetings, as well as an online discussion forum, are analysed focusing on these four themes. Findings show them to be accomplished as speakers’ live concerns in knowledge sharing talk. It is claimed that trust, risk and identity, as contexts displayed and oriented to by speakers themselves, are tacitly and collaboratively accomplished actions, shown to be co-relational and influential to knowledge sharing scope and directions. A further claim is that the analysis of discourse for what contexts in general speakers invoke displays speakers’ orienting to trust, risk and identity. Limitations of the present study are discussed, along with speculated implications for knowledge management and future directions for research. This work aims to contribute to the field of knowledge management in three ways. First, in extending the directions that some scholars and practitioners are already indicating through focusing the interest of study on organizational discourse. Secondly, the study seeks to understand how tacit knowing, as a phenomenon invoked by speakers themselves, is accomplished and how it influences the scope and directions of knowledge sharing actions, and with what effect. Finally, it is claimed that the research provides some support for those theorists in the knowledge management field who promote the knowing how-knowing that formulation, and those who are critical of conventional knowledge management’s heavy reliance on technology to deliver its objectives.
    • E-government iImplementation and adoption: the case study of Botswana Government

      Antonopoulos, Nikolaos; Horton, Keith; Moatshe, Racious M. (University of Derby, 2014-10-28)
      ABSTRACT The advancements in the ICT and internet technologies challenge governments to engage in the electronic transformation of public services and information provision to citizens. The capability to reach citizens in the physical world via e-government platform and render a citizen-centric public sector has increasingly become vital. Thus, spending more resources to promote and ensure that all members of society are included in the entire spectrum of information society and more actively access government online is a critical aspect in establishing a successful e-government project. Every e-government programme requires a clear idea of the proposed benefits to citizens, the challenges to overcome and the level of institutional reform that has to take place for e- government to be a success in a given context. E-government strategy is fundamental to transforming and modernising the public sector through identification of key influential elements or strategy factors and ways of interacting with citizens. It is therefore apparent that governments must first understand variables that influence citizens’ adoption of e-government in order to take them into account when developing and delivering services online. Botswana has recently embarked on e-government implementation initiatives that started with the e-readiness assessment conducted in 2004, followed by enactment of the National ICT policy of 2007 and the approval of the e-government strategy approved in 2012 for dedicated implementation in the 2014 financial year. Significant developments have taken place around national and international connectivity including initiatives that offer connectivity to citizens such as the I- partnership, community run Nteletsa projects, post office run tele-centres and Sesigo projects that have been deployed on a wider Botswana. In spite of these remarkable initiatives there is no change management strategy in place and evidence to suggest that citizens cluster groups, government employees, key influential citizens’ stakeholders and other local government administrative governing structures at district levels have been appropriately informed, consulted, engaged and participated in the design, development and implementation initiatives. This position has contributed largely to low e-readiness indices for Botswana, low PC, Internet and broadband penetration levels, which do not commensurate with levels of connectivity initiatives already in place and operational. The strategy development, which is the viability business plan for the entire project has been initiated and concluded without the appropriate input of citizens, employees and local government structures at the districts. Considering that that e-government is new and narrowly researched in Botswana. There is non existing research on both the impact of strategy factors to e-government implementation success and citizens’ involvement and participation in the e-government design and implementation through to adoption and continual use. This study therefore explores and investigates empirically the key e-government strategy influential success elements and the how citizens’ involvement and participation in e-government development can be secured, supported and facilitated towards adoption and continual future use. This culminates in the proposal of both theoretically supported and empirically validated e-government strategy framework and citizen centric conceptual model. The study is crucial as it aims understand how can influences upon success in e-government project be better understood and citizens’ stakeholder adoption of e-government enhanced to facilitate successful development of e-government in Botswana and is also timely as it comes at the time when Botswana has not yet implemented her e-government strategy, hence factors identified are critical to both strategy re-alignment and design of the citizens’ involvement and participation change management strategy to support both implementation and citizens’ adoption of e-government in Botswana. The study utilises the mixed methods research, employing both qualitative and quantitative methods to address the research question and triangulated data collection approaches used to select survey sample for two questionnaire sets carried on opinion holders within government and non government structures and ordinary citizens, use of observations on operating tele-centres, interviews with key e-government strategic stakeholders and document analysis which included e-government policies and related documentations as well as extensive review of e-government published literature including applied implementation and citizens adoption experiences of developing and developed countries. In the analysis of data the multiple regression analysis has been utilised and multivariate analysis performed to ensure linearity, normality and collinearity. The linear regression has been used to test the hypothesis through the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Keywords E-government, strategy critical success factors, key influential elements, citizen centric conceptual model, strategy framework, Botswana.
    • The Transformation of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) into the UK Legal Order: Two Legislative Models

      Platsas, Antonios E.; Georgiado, Katerina (University of Derby, 2014-09-02)
      A number of common law countries such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States have already successfully implemented the CISG. Furthermore, leading civil law countries such as Germany and the Scandinavian countries have also implemented the UN Convention there is reason to believe that if applied by the UK, it will prove beneficial. From a political perspective, the United Kingdom reflects a negative image as being a reluctant participant in international trade law initiatives. UK law does not have a special body of rules applicable to international sales; it has a body of common rules which are not devised for international transactions. This thesis suggests that the CISG may be transformed in the UK legal order through two legislative models: 1. À la carte Model The CISG is an ‘à la carte’ Convention; provisions may be selected from the CISG in the same way we choose a meal from a restaurant’s menu. This is the à la carte model. In other words, the UK when creating the Act transforming the CISG in the UK legal order may amend the UN Convention 1980 in order to adjust it to the UK legal system. In that sense, the UK may declare at the time of ratification, according to Article 92 of the CISG, to either omit part II or III of the Convention. This model comprises of three sub-models and if implemented will be an ‘add on’ to the Sale of Goods Act 1979. 2. Parallel Model In legislative terms, the CISG could exist parallel to the Sales of Goods Act 1979, parties wishing to enter into an international transaction may conclude a contract either on CISG terms or under the Sales of Goods Act 1979. In this model a CISG Act will be required. This model will satisfy both the traders who wish to employ modern law especially designed for international contracts and those who are rather conservative and prefer to employ the old and familiar Sales of Goods Act 1979.
    • Professional accountants’ perceptions of servant-leadership: contexts, roles and cultures

      Jones, Christine; Dupernex, Simon; Gande, Tapiwa (University of DerbyDerby Business School, 2014-05-28)
      The study takes servant-leadership and attempts to find if there is an equivalent concept in management. Leadership and management have been extensively compared and contrasted in research and theory and while there are divergent views of exactly what each entails, others hold the view that they might be equal and complementary. The research design follows a positivist philosophy. An instrument that measures distinct leader, manager and professional role preferences is used to check the discrete operation of three contexts among a sample of members of the accountancy profession. The instrument is derived from contextualising pre-developed and pre-tested servant-leadership measuring instruments. Items from the role preference map instrument are added together with demographic details to come up with a meta-instrument adapted for the study. After validating it through pilot-testing, the instrument is applied in real-world research. The research was conducted among a sample of professional accountants working in 28 countries across four continents in organisations with over 82,000 employees. Statistical analysis, employing; analysis of variance, correlations, frequencies, significances, means, variances and tests of scale reliability was performed on both the data and the instruments. The research found clear and reliable servant-leadership-type behaviours exhibited across the three discreet roles and contexts of leader, manager and professional. Some professional accountancy courses are delivered across many countries in the world. The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) is one such professional accountancy body that offers qualifications on a global scale. However, as accountants originate from, and practice in diverse cultures and economies around the world they are trained by institutes like ACCA from a common syllabus that has elements of management as a subject. Servant-leadership is a type of leadership that is theorised to be humanistic and spiritual rather than rational and mechanistic. Management practice on the other hand needs rationality and contains some mechanistic elements in typical management functions like coordinating and controlling. The implication is whether servant-leadership attributes can be exhibited if professional accountants contextualise themselves as leaders, managers or professionals. The study focuses on the profession of accountants and tests the operation of servant-leadership behaviours from the manager, leader and professional contexts using pre-tested servant-leadership scales and applying them in specific leader and manager contexts. This approach is new in its treatment of servant-leadership in this fashion. A further original approach is the use of the accountancy profession. This treatment of instruments from other fields like psychology and sociology is new.
    • A data dependency recovery system for a heterogeneous multicore processor

      Hill, Richard; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Jones, Clifton; Kainth, Haresh S. (University of Derby, 2014-01-29)
      Multicore processors often increase the performance of applications. However, with their deeper pipelining, they have proven increasingly difficult to improve. In an attempt to deliver enhanced performance at lower power requirements, semiconductor microprocessor manufacturers have progressively utilised chip-multicore processors. Existing research has utilised a very common technique known as thread-level speculation. This technique attempts to compute results before the actual result is known. However, thread-level speculation impacts operation latency, circuit timing, confounds data cache behaviour and code generation in the compiler. We describe an software framework codenamed Lyuba that handles low-level data hazards and automatically recovers the application from data hazards without programmer and speculation intervention for an asymmetric chip-multicore processor. The problem of determining correct execution of multiple threads when data hazards occur on conventional symmetrical chip-multicore processors is a significant and on-going challenge. However, there has been very little focus on the use of asymmetrical (heterogeneous) processors with applications that have complex data dependencies. The purpose of this thesis is to: (i) define the development of a software framework for an asymmetric (heterogeneous) chip-multicore processor; (ii) present an optimal software control of hardware for distributed processing and recovery from violations;(iii) provides performance results of five applications using three datasets. Applications with a small dataset showed an improvement of 17% and a larger dataset showed an improvement of 16% giving overall 11% improvement in performance.
    • Research on digital image watermark encryption based on hyperchaos

      Zhao, Zhengxu, Professor; Wu, Pianhui (University of DerbyFaculty of Business, Computing and Law, 2013-11-05)
      The digital watermarking technique embeds meaningful information into one or more watermark images hidden in one image, in which it is known as a secret carrier. It is difficult for a hacker to extract or remove any hidden watermark from an image, and especially to crack so called digital watermark. The combination of digital watermarking technique and traditional image encryption technique is able to greatly improve anti-hacking capability, which suggests it is a good method for keeping the integrity of the original image. The research works contained in this thesis include: (1)A literature review the hyperchaotic watermarking technique is relatively more advantageous, and becomes the main subject in this programme. (2)The theoretical foundation of watermarking technologies, including the human visual system (HVS), the colour space transform, discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the main watermark embedding algorithms, and the mainstream methods for improving watermark robustness and for evaluating watermark embedding performance. (3) The devised hyperchaotic scrambling technique it has been applied to colour image watermark that helps to improve the image encryption and anti-cracking capabilities. The experiments in this research prove the robustness and some other advantages of the invented technique. This thesis focuses on combining the chaotic scrambling and wavelet watermark embedding to achieve a hyperchaotic digital watermark to encrypt digital products, with the human visual system (HVS) and other factors taken into account. This research is of significant importance and has industrial application value.
    • The Inter-cloud meta-scheduling

      Bessis, Nik; Antonopoulos, Nikolaos; Sotiriadis, Stelios (University of DerbySchool of Computing and Mathematics, 2013-07-09)
      Inter-cloud is a recently emerging approach that expands cloud elasticity. By facilitating an adaptable setting, it purposes at the realization of a scalable resource provisioning that enables a diversity of cloud user requirements to be handled efficiently. This study’s contribution is in the inter-cloud performance optimization of job executions using metascheduling concepts. This includes the development of the inter-cloud meta-scheduling (ICMS) framework, the ICMS optimal schemes and the SimIC toolkit. The ICMS model is an architectural strategy for managing and scheduling user services in virtualized dynamically inter-linked clouds. This is achieved by the development of a model that includes a set of algorithms, namely the Service-Request, Service-Distribution, Service-Availability and Service-Allocation algorithms. These along with resource management optimal schemes offer the novel functionalities of the ICMS where the message exchanging implements the job distributions method, the VM deployment offers the VM management features and the local resource management system details the management of the local cloud schedulers. The generated system offers great flexibility by facilitating a lightweight resource management methodology while at the same time handling the heterogeneity of different clouds through advanced service level agreement coordination. Experimental results are productive as the proposed ICMS model achieves enhancement of the performance of service distribution for a variety of criteria such as service execution times, makespan, turnaround times, utilization levels and energy consumption rates for various inter-cloud entities, e.g. users, hosts and VMs. For example, ICMS optimizes the performance of a non-meta-brokering inter-cloud by 3%, while ICMS with full optimal schemes achieves 9% optimization for the same configurations. The whole experimental platform is implemented into the inter-cloud Simulation toolkit (SimIC) developed by the author, which is a discrete event simulation framework.
    • Building a relational capability in business service relationships: the exploration of learning needs in stages of relationship development

      Longbottom, David; Zeniou, Maria (University of Derby, 2013-04-15)
      Context and Objectives: There is an increasing recognition that there is great potential in utilizing learning in client relationships as this can enable service providers to develop relational capabilities and more successfully manage relationships. Building on this premise, the present study argues that learning in relationships relates to the ability to learn from the local context to leverage relationship success. To do this, requires an understanding of what drives success in each stage of relationship development and how this can be achieved to ensure success. The aim of the research is to explore the potential for learning in business service relationships, through the exploration of learning needs relevant in stages of relationship development. Learning needs are defined as what service providers need to learn about how to leverage successful relationships at each stage of development. Research Methodology: The study employs two qualitative case studies of business service providers that provide contextually differing embedding conditions for relationships and learning. Data has been gathered through interviews with individual service providers, observation of practice and organisational documentation. The research undertaken explores service providers’ approach towards relationship development, with the aim of identifying critical factors influencing success in each relationship stage and corresponding opportunities for learning through the experiences and challenges faced by service providers in practice. Findings: Results highlights that learning from the local context is critical for managing relationship success. Critical success factors for each stage are identified from the experiences and challenges faced by service providers across the two cases. These are translated into learning needs for each stage that aim to guide service providers’ attempts to learn from the local context in order to inform and adapt their approach. The appreciation of learning needs in relation to the unique context of each organisation directs attention to corresponding guidelines for practice. The research concludes with the proposition of a theoretical model for learning in relationships as well as a practical learning needs framework that can be incorporated in service providers’ practices for managing client relationships. Importantly results suggest that becoming relationally capable requires a transition to embracing a learning orientation in terms of both philosophy and process. Research Relevance and Implications: The study extends the potential for the creation of a relational capability in business relationships through the exploration of learning needs. Findings suggest that relationship management can be viewed as a cyclical process of learning and adaptation where success at each stage rests on the ability to read and learn from the local context and engage in appropriate actions in practice. The study contributes towards practice, by providing a practical framework through which service providers can develop relational learning. Exploration and appreciation of learning needs in stages of relationship development can aid service providers in the establishment of appropriate approaches towards intervention or stimulation of relationship success.
    • Exploring determinants of entrepreneurial performance

      Dakin, John; Thompson, Roy H. (University of Derby, 2013-02-11)
      This thesis reports research into elements of entrepreneurial performance with a particular focus on gender differences and their determinants. Inductive research during the initial literature review uncovered a range of factors affecting performance leading to an investigation of smallholder dairy entrepreneurs in Central Malawi. The primary research utilised a mix of both quantitative and qualitative instruments including innovative use of an adaptation of the ‘circle and stones’ proportional piling instrument. This participatory technique explored changes in the household economy following the introduction of the dairy enterprise, including projecting entrepreneurial intentions into the future. A notable feature of the research was the use of a range of context-specific performance measures developed from an outcomes model. These were both separately applied in a performance ranking exercise, and compiled into an overall performance rating (OPR) which was then compared with the initial post-interview field performance rating (FPR). The research involved extensive use of internal and external triangulation of information sources, comparing results from different instruments in the field research, and situating and comparing primary research findings with those from the academic literature and analysis of secondary data. Despite controlling for factors including industry-type, size of enterprise, provision of business and extension support, and taking into account differences in age and educational background, the research uncovered gender disparities in entrepreneurial performance. The performance disparity was greater for those females who are the de facto head of their households, and lesser for those who have the support of a resident male partner. The finding of female underperformance runs contrary to the a priori expectation of industry key informants in Malawi, and much of the academic literature. The research included exploration of risk mitigation strategies and their potential effect on entrepreneurial performance, as possible explanatory factors. Follow-on fieldwork then sought alternative explanations for the gender differentials through focus group discussions and key informant interviews, which uncovered time constraints of females as a potential factor in underperformance. Future research direction indicated includes an in-depth exploration of the intra-household dynamics of time allocation in managing enterprises.
    • Computational and theoretical aspects of iterated generating functions

      Clapperton, James Anthony (University of Derby, 2013)
      The thesis offers an investigation into the analysis of so-called iterated generating functions and the schemes that produce them. Beginning with the study of some ad hoc scheme formulations, the notion of an iterated generating function is introduced and a mechanism to produce arbitrary finite sequences established. The development of schemes to accommodate infinite sequences leads – in the case of the Catalan sequence – to the discovery of what are termed Catalan polynomials whose properties are examined. Results are formulated for these polynomials through the algebraic adaptation of classical root-finding algorithms, serving as a basis for the synthesis of new generalised results for other infinite sequences and their associated polynomials.
    • An assessment of excellence in formulating strategic plan :

      Bin Sultan, Abdalla Abdelrahman Yousif Ali (University of Derby, 2012)
    • A cluster based incentive mechanism for P2P systems

      Zhang, Kan (University of Derby, 2011)
    • An online intelligent system for teaching engineering design technologies

      Oraifige, Amal Yousef Nour (University of Derby, 2010)