• The emerging professional: exploring student teachers’ developing conceptions of the relationship between theory and practice in learning to teach.

      Poultney, Val; Knight, Rupert (University of Derby, 2014-10-23)
      A shift of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) towards school-based training is underway in England, calling into question the place of a theoretical basis for teaching. Re-examining the relationship between educational theory and classroom practice is therefore particularly timely and links to long-standing discussions in the literature on what constitutes teachers’ professional knowledge, the specific tensions between theory and practice in education and the implications for the structure of ITE. The study is rooted in models of teacher knowledge, of theory and practice nexus and of student teacher development. Within this context, the research offers new insight, picking up where previous studies have left off, by charting over a period of time what happens to students’ initial preconceptions about theory and practice and investigating whether, how and why these change in the course of the subsequent journey to first employment. This is a longitudinal case study: five participants, representing a diverse range of profiles from a 2011-12 cohort, form the case group and data were collected before the course, through various stages of the programme and into first teaching posts through interviews, focus groups and documentary analysis. To contextualise the central case study, survey data from the wider Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) cohort were also gathered. The research finds these students to be far from naïve as they entered training but identified important shifts in the understanding and role of theory during the PGCE experience. Openness to theoretical perspectives is evident and far from being diminished by practical experience, this comes to assume a more prominent place as the course progresses. By exploring this journey, which culminates in a profile of the thinking of a newly qualified professional in the workplace, a contribution is made to current understanding of the development of knowledge for teaching that may help to inform future programme design. More specifically, the role of the university is reconsidered and suggestions are made for ways of working with students at the various stages of the process.
    • The evaluation of a cognitive behavioural treatment protocol on perfectionism & low self-esteem amongst clients with mood and anxiety disorders : an interpretative phenomenological approach

      Townend, Michael; Brannigan, Chris; Pantelidi, Irene C. (University of DerbyUniversity of Derby, 2015-01-16)
      Perfectionism can be constructed as a trans diagnostic concept that co exists and probably contributes to the onset development and maintenance of a number of Axis 1 disorders. There is also a significant relationship between perfectionism and low self- esteem. There is considerable theoretical debate in the literature concerning whether perfectionism is uni or multi-dimensional with most therapies being based upon uni dimensional conceptualisations and thus overlooking interpersonal factors. This is also reflected in the relative absence of qualitative studies that explore perfectionism from a lived experience perspective. Aims: This study aims to explore the experiences of perfectionism and low self-esteem in different life domains. It also aims to evaluate the client’s experiences and efficacy of a proposed treatment protocol that targets perfectionism from a multidimensional perspective. Method: The study is divided into three phases. A Multiple baseline design is used to evaluate the treatment protocol including cognitive and behavioural interventions, compassionate mind training and assertiveness training to target perfectionism and low self-esteem. Two clinical groups experiencing Axis 1 disorders and high perfectionism are divided amongst the different phases of this study, 13 and 8 participants respectively. Mixed methods are administered to analyse the data with greater emphasis on the qualitative ones. Measures administered include the Beck Depression & Anxiety Inventories; the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale; the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale by Frost and the Perfectionistic Self Presentation Scale. 8 semi-structured interviews are analysed utilising Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA). Results: from the analysis of data it is evident that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct with strong interpersonal features that affect several different life domains. The proposed treatment protocol appears significantly effective in reducing perfectionism and Axis 1 disorder symptomatology. Additionally, there is a significant increase in self- esteem. Interventions that appear most helpful are behavioural experiments, assertiveness training, compassionate mind training, continuum and positive logging.
    • Evolved mechanisms in adolescent anxiety and depression symptoms

      Irons, Christopher Paul (University of Derby, 2007)
    • Executive coaching

      Eriksson, Kristina (University of Derby, 2011)
    • An exploration of compassion and eating disorders

      Gale, Corinne (University of Derby, 2012)
    • An exploration of healthcare professionals' attitudes and perceptions towards a local hospital drug formulary and their impact on prescribing practice

      Townend, Michael; Allwood, Mike; Bagga, Sandeep Kumar (University of Derby, 2013-08-28)
      Background: Hospital drug formularies are developed in order to support safe, effective and cost-effective prescribing. Their utilisation is based on the assumption that prescribers and other users will follow guidance outlined within them. The role of formulary users’ attitudes has been largely overlooked in the research literature. The nature and impact of attitudes to formularies on influencing prescribing practice have not been fully investigated. This study seeks to address this issue through a local practice based research project. Objectives: To determine the attitudes and experiences of users and key stakeholders with the utilisation of a new formulary at a local hospital trust. Methodology: Semi-structured interviews were conducted exploring the views of doctors, pharmacists and non-medical prescribers. An online self-completion questionnaire was sent to all key stakeholders. In addition prescribing data was also extracted from the Pharmacy computer system to assess impact of the new formulary. Data collection was thus split into two phases with modifications made to the formulary based on preliminary findings and emerging themes. Results: The local formulary symbolises a ‘critical split’ in the approach to resource management and patient care. Pharmacists are ‘closely bound’ to the formulary, relying on it for retrospective decision-support and ultimately seen to improve pharmacists’ autonomy while prescribers consider it to be over-rationalisation eroding their professional autonomy. Although the quantitative data in this study demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in doctors’ perceptions of using the formulary, the distinct divide between doctors’ and pharmacists’ attitudes towards the formulary remained. Prescribing data extracted showed no significant impact of the formulary on prescribing practice. Conclusion: The study confirms the existence of deeper sociological constructs, particularly concerning autonomy and professionalism. Doctors claim an ability to manage uncertainty during patient consultations while pharmacists claim to be drug ‘experts’. The monopoly on drug knowledge is therefore contested ground. This study concludes that both the formulary and the pharmacy profession need to be more influential, and embrace a more ‘humanised-bureaucracy.’ It is recommended that pharmacists build on a new philosophical union with the formulary and focus on asserting their claim and dominance on the monopoly of drug knowledge.
    • A framework for interpretivist information systems :

      Wilson, Casey McQuinn. (University of Derby, 2000)
    • From incarceration to decarceration :

      Hill, Adrian (University of Derby, 2004)
    • The Guru-Disciple Relationship in Diaspora

      Shridhar, Paras (University of Derby, 2008)
      Gurus claim that they are able to act as mediators to put disciples on the path of spiritual development in diaspora. This study aims to investigate this claim, researching the hypothesis ‘that changing cultural environments in the United Kingdom, compared to those of the Indian sub-continent, requires a different model of the guru-chela (guru-disciple), relationship?’ In effect it seeks to test the differences, based on the stability and sustainability of the relationship in diaspora? This claim was endorsed by psychotherapist, J S Neki (1973), in a meeting in America and was published in The Journal of Ortho-psychiatry Volume 3. It discusses the possibility of the ‘guru-chela (disciple) relations’ acting as a model for ‘therapeutic care for the Hindu patient in diaspora.’ This research aims to examine critically the effectiveness of the guru-disciple relationship in light of changes the gurus have made in the delivery and quality of instructions they provide and the changes in the disciples’ aspirations in the new environment. The study investigates the meeting ground for science-based western psychotherapy and intuition-based spirituality. Both subjects deal with pastoral care components for their respective respondents, but are diametrically opposed in their approaches. The research sample in the study, are taken from Leicester, where the researcher is based, as the area provides a diverse group in the Heart of Hindu England, through which to examine the guru-disciple phenomena in diaspora.
    • Human exposure assessment of fluoride from tea(Camellia Sinensis L.) with specific reference to human bioaccessibility studies

      Chan, Laura (University of Derby, 2014-06-18)
      This study aims to determine the concentrations of fluoride in UK tea products and their infusions. This is related to the uptake and distribution of fluoride within tea plants Camellia sinensis (L.). Human oral bioaccessibility of fluoride from the consumption of tea infusions was estimated, using an in vitro approach. The possible health significance from fluoride exposure is discussed. Fluoride in tea products and the distribution within the tea plant was determined using a method, involving alkali fused digestion with ion chromatography and a conductivity detector for the instrumentation. For the aqueous infusions and the supernatants in the bioaccessibility experiments, ion selective electrode with a voltmeter was adopted. Mean fluoride concentrations in tea products and their infusions varied significantly (p<0.001; n=3) and were related to the type of tea product and the retail cost. The higher priced teas, such as Darjeeling, Assam and Oolong, had lower fluoride concentrations. The lower priced supermarket Economy ranged teas were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fluoride and exhibited concentrations similar to Chinese Brick tea, which is prepared using mature tea leaves. The higher quality products are prepared by selecting the finest tips of tea (buds), whereas an Economy products use coarser harvesting techniques to include mature leaves in the product. Fluoride affinity and tolerance of C. sinensis was assessed by a series of fluoride dosing experiments, ranging from 0 to 200 mg. Following fluoride dosing, a rapid uptake and accumulation occurred throughout the tea plants, resulting in partial necrosis of random leaves. Despite the necrosis, the plants tolerated the fluoride and continued to increase in height, although at a significantly slower rate (p<0.05) compared to the control plants. Accumulation of fluoride was observed to be mostly in the mature leaves followed by younger buds, then the roots. This relates to the part of the plant used to produce the tea types, with mature leaves for Economy products and the buds for the finer teas. The in vitro bioaccessibility assessment of fluoride estimated that over 91.4% of fluoride from a tea infusion is available in the human gastric compartment, with 92.1% in the gastro-intestinal compartment. The addition of milk reduced fluoride absorption in the gastric and gastro-intestinal compartments to 73.8 and 83.1%, respectively, possibly reacting to form calcium fluoride. Despite the percentage bioaccessibility, the concentration of fluoride available for absorption in the human gut was dependent upon choice of tea product. Based on an adult male, the findings suggest that consuming a litre of Economy tea can fulfil or exceed (75 to 120%) the recommended dietary reference intake (DRI) of fluoride at 4 mg a day, but only partially fulfil (25 to 40%) when consuming a more expensive Pure blend such as Assam. With regards to health, tea consumption is a source of fluoride in the diet and is highly available for absorption in the human gut. Tea alone can fulfil an adult fluoride DRI, but is dependent upon choice of tea product. Excess fluoride in the diet can lead to detrimental health effects such as fluorosis of the teeth and skeletal fluorosis and consuming economy branded tea can lead to a higher exposure.