• The evaluation of a cognitive behavioural treatment protocol on perfectionism & low self-esteem amongst clients with mood and anxiety disorders : an interpretative phenomenological approach

      Townend, Michael; Brannigan, Chris; Pantelidi, Irene C. (University of DerbyUniversity of Derby, 2015-01-16)
      Perfectionism can be constructed as a trans diagnostic concept that co exists and probably contributes to the onset development and maintenance of a number of Axis 1 disorders. There is also a significant relationship between perfectionism and low self- esteem. There is considerable theoretical debate in the literature concerning whether perfectionism is uni or multi-dimensional with most therapies being based upon uni dimensional conceptualisations and thus overlooking interpersonal factors. This is also reflected in the relative absence of qualitative studies that explore perfectionism from a lived experience perspective. Aims: This study aims to explore the experiences of perfectionism and low self-esteem in different life domains. It also aims to evaluate the client’s experiences and efficacy of a proposed treatment protocol that targets perfectionism from a multidimensional perspective. Method: The study is divided into three phases. A Multiple baseline design is used to evaluate the treatment protocol including cognitive and behavioural interventions, compassionate mind training and assertiveness training to target perfectionism and low self-esteem. Two clinical groups experiencing Axis 1 disorders and high perfectionism are divided amongst the different phases of this study, 13 and 8 participants respectively. Mixed methods are administered to analyse the data with greater emphasis on the qualitative ones. Measures administered include the Beck Depression & Anxiety Inventories; the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale; the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale by Frost and the Perfectionistic Self Presentation Scale. 8 semi-structured interviews are analysed utilising Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA). Results: from the analysis of data it is evident that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct with strong interpersonal features that affect several different life domains. The proposed treatment protocol appears significantly effective in reducing perfectionism and Axis 1 disorder symptomatology. Additionally, there is a significant increase in self- esteem. Interventions that appear most helpful are behavioural experiments, assertiveness training, compassionate mind training, continuum and positive logging.
    • Modelling institutional values transmission through a comparative case study of three schools

      Hewitt, Des; Trubshaw, Donald Mark Jr (University of Derby, 2014-12-01)
      This thesis presents a model of institutional values transmission through cross-case analysis of values education undertaken in three UK secondary schools. Since the early 1980s a significant amount of research has been carried out on cultural transmission and the transmission of values, though it has focused on intergenerational transmission within families and the interaction between the school and the family in terms of converging and diverging values and worldviews. Very little work has been done on the process of transmission of values in schools or other organisations that is evidence-based. An increasing number of governments and organisations, as well as schools, are beginning to invest seriously in values education programmes, but whether the idea of values education is theoretically coherent is still disputed. Through an evaluation of the philosophical, psychological and sociological literature on values and employing phenomenological and semiotic analyses, a theory of values as transmissible entities is developed, which is then extended to a general concept of values transmission using the twin terms invocation and evocation, to denote modes of bringing value concepts to the awareness of an audience and of generating group cohesion through a shared experience linked to particular values, respectively, these terms themselves emerging from the theory of values. Through data collection, analysis and modelling of values education in three schools – a state comprehensive, a faith school and an independent – a plausible mechanism for institutional values transmission is developed. This mechanism integrates two partial models: a permeation-authority inculcation model of transmission flow with a resistance-transformation model of moral autonomy. At its heart it envisages a systemically robust cycle of institutional values discourse, institutional cultural expectations and the generation of a sense of community shored up by individual commitment. A two tier qualitative approach is used in this research, having both an inductive, theory generating phase of field research, data capture and analysis, and a deductive, hypothesis-led confirmatory phase. The inductive phase uses a case study format and cross-case analysis, providing data for analysis and for testing a set of hypotheses in the deductive phase. The development of a mechanism for institutional values transmission is carried out using an institutional model of the schools as a data collection and analytical instrument, based on three structural aspects: an authority hierarchy; an interiority/exteriority duality in the institutional lived-experience; and a system hierarchy. Multiple data collection and analytic methods are employed in each case study, in order to build up a ‘three-dimensional’ picture of the transmission of values in each school. Both comparative and iterative cross-case analyses are carried out. The findings emerging from the case studies suggest the following tentative conclusions: schools have varying degrees of awareness of the values that they impart, although all consider values education to be an important part of what they do and to impact on student performance and behaviour; while there is some explicit values-oriented pedagogy, most teaching of values is implicit; schools with greater ethnic diversity have more challenges to build a cohesive community, as this is at odds with the ‘spontaneous sociality’ of the pupils; there is a broad convergence on the same values found most widely distributed throughout schools across the widest range possible with respect to forms of governance, educational philosophy and demography. The findings carry a number of pedagogical implications: general support is found for explicit values education programmes and the linking between behavioural standards and academic achievement; the importance of the development of a ‘moral community’ around the ethos of the school and the creation of opportunities for multiple belonging is highlighted; and resistance to institutional authority structures is explored for its significant potential for transformation to an acceptance of institutional values.
    • The emerging professional: exploring student teachers’ developing conceptions of the relationship between theory and practice in learning to teach.

      Poultney, Val; Knight, Rupert (University of Derby, 2014-10-23)
      A shift of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) towards school-based training is underway in England, calling into question the place of a theoretical basis for teaching. Re-examining the relationship between educational theory and classroom practice is therefore particularly timely and links to long-standing discussions in the literature on what constitutes teachers’ professional knowledge, the specific tensions between theory and practice in education and the implications for the structure of ITE. The study is rooted in models of teacher knowledge, of theory and practice nexus and of student teacher development. Within this context, the research offers new insight, picking up where previous studies have left off, by charting over a period of time what happens to students’ initial preconceptions about theory and practice and investigating whether, how and why these change in the course of the subsequent journey to first employment. This is a longitudinal case study: five participants, representing a diverse range of profiles from a 2011-12 cohort, form the case group and data were collected before the course, through various stages of the programme and into first teaching posts through interviews, focus groups and documentary analysis. To contextualise the central case study, survey data from the wider Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) cohort were also gathered. The research finds these students to be far from naïve as they entered training but identified important shifts in the understanding and role of theory during the PGCE experience. Openness to theoretical perspectives is evident and far from being diminished by practical experience, this comes to assume a more prominent place as the course progresses. By exploring this journey, which culminates in a profile of the thinking of a newly qualified professional in the workplace, a contribution is made to current understanding of the development of knowledge for teaching that may help to inform future programme design. More specifically, the role of the university is reconsidered and suggestions are made for ways of working with students at the various stages of the process.
    • Constructing professional identity: the role of postgraduate professional development in asserting the identity of the career practitioner

      Poultney, Val; Davies, David; Neary, Siobhan (University of DerbyInternational Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS), 2014-08-15)
      The professional identity of career practitioners in the UK has become increasingly challenged in recent decades due to the influence of government policy and the dominance of work-based qualifications. Privatisation, multi-professional working and workforce realignment have all contributed to a reshaping of the career guidance professional. This research examines the views of a group of practitioners all undertaking continuing professional development (CPD) in the form of a postgraduate award. The participants were all UK based practitioners working in a career related role; all were either currently on programme, had completed or stepped off with an interim award within a masters programme. The research explored practitioners’ views at a time of significant upheaval, of themselves as professionals, their professional identity and the extent to which postgraduate CPD contributed to this. The research utilised a case study approach employing document analysis, questionnaire, in-depth interviews and narrative biographies. These tools were specifically selected to enable sequential analysis of data allowing findings from each stage to be rigorously tested out by the next research tool. Applications from potential students were initially analysed helping to establish motivation for undertaking a programme of this type, an on-line survey explored practitioners views of themselves as professionals, motivation for postgraduate study and potential outcomes for themselves, their organisation and their profession. In-depth interviews and narrative biographies provided a voice allowing participants to explore their personal journey with their studies and how this engagement contributed to the establishment, maintenance or enhancement of their practitioner professional identity. Continuing professional development was classified as consisting of three types, operational, experiential and formal. Findings suggested participants predominantly valued formal CPD with operational being perceived as only meeting employer contractual compliance. Postgraduate level CPD contributed to professional identity through engagement with reflection, theory, policy and academic study. Ethics and client focus were central to the professional identity of the career practitioner. Postgraduate study was perceived to empower practitioners and to contribute to the professionalisation of the sector and give parity with other public sector professions. The research contributes to both the limited body of knowledge addressing professional identity within the career guidance context and discourse addressing professionalisation of new professions. It offers a shared professional perspective that can inform the evolving policy debate aiming to professionalise the career and allied workforces. The research offers a unique insight into a profession in transition and the voice of practitioners who have experienced successive waves of government policy, which has been often internalised as de-professionalisation.
    • Knowledge that counts: an examination of the theory practice gap between business and marketing academics and business practitioners examined in respect of their respective epistemic stances

      Longbottom, David; Ash, Malcolm (University of DerbyStaffordshire University, 2014-08-06)
      This work examines and presents evidence for the existence of a gap in epistemological views between academic and practice marketers. Few if any academics would seem to challenge the ‘gap’ premise but the importance of any gap and its nature are issues about which little agreement exists. The intractable nature of the academic practitioner gap has a long history of interesting and diverse debate ranging from Dewey’s argument about the true nature of knowing to contributions based on epistemic adolescence, ontological differences and more pragmatic suggestions about different tribes. Others include the rigour versus relevance issue, failures in curriculum or pedagogy and a clash between modernist and postmodernist epistemologies. Polanyi’s description of tacit versus explicit knowledge further extends the debate as do issues of knowledge creation and dissemination in particular through Nonaka. Irrespective of approach actual evidence for a gap was largely based on argument rather than empirical proof. This work address that lack. The intractability of the gap suggests that it is at root, epistemic. To identity the existence of a gap in such terms a domain specific epistemic questionnaire developed by Hofer was used. A factor analytic process extracted a common set of factors for the domain of marketers. Five epistemic factors were identified. Three of these showed significant difference in orientation between practitioners and academics confirming that the theory practice gap is tangible and revealing an indication of its nature Broadly results from factor analysis with interpretation informed by factor item structure and prior theoretical debate suggests that academics and practitioners views on knowledge and how they come to know share similarities and differences. Academics are more likely to see knowledge as stable, based on established academic premise legitimized from academy. Practitioners are more likely to see knowledge as emerging from action, as dynamic and legitimised by results. Other significant findings included the emergence of dialogue as a means of closing the gap, and the emergence of a group of academics with significant practice experience termed here as, hybrids, who are located in the Academy but mostly share their epistemic views with practitioners. Correlation analysis showed that academic propensity to engage in dialogue with practice moved academic factor scores towards practitioners. This shows that dialogue has a clear role in both perpetuating the gap in its absence or reducing it. Fundamentally dialogue plays a clear role in bridging the two epistemologies and in providing for additional epistemic work. Finally a solution to bridging the gap has been proposed. The model called dialogic introspection melds dialogue and introspection to create epistemic doubt, the volition to change and a means of resolution. The model avoids prescription of what form knowledge should take but instead adopts a stance similar to more mature disciplines like medicine in which the status of academic work is enhanced in line with its relevance to practice which itself is embodied in dialogue. This approach recognizes the centrality of epistemology as shaping the conditions necessary for recognizing epistemologies as hierarchies in which the epistemology most capable of additional epistemic work is the most desirable. Such an epistemology would have the capacity to add epistemic work and reinforces Nonaka’s call for epistemology to be recognized as central to knowledge creation.
    • Communities that care: an insight into male career patterns in a small neighbourhood

      Hooley, Tristram; Hope, Antony Steven (University of Derby, 2014-07-09)
      This study will offer an insight into the complex living of a group of mid-thirties males in a small neighbourhood and describe their personal career journeys. In particular, the study will highlight the complex influence of social capital, the men’s personal development through the ‘opportunity structure’ (K. Roberts, 1977) and how chance along with place of residence impact on career advancement. There have been numerous studies that have sought to discover why people make stereotypical career choices. More specifically, how male stereotyping can influence career choice and shape identity. However, many studies fail to tackle the influence of neighbourhood and family bonding which engulfs the male individual to create a very close knit masculine gang of individuals. By taking the epistemological position of interpretivism and using a narrative interview approach, along with a life history tradition, this research addresses these shortcomings. Additionally, Bourdieu’s (1985) concept of social field is employed within this study to represent the various social arenas in which young people spend their time. This notion of fields, along with the concepts of ‘habitus’ and ‘capital’ (Bourdieu, 1985, 1986) are seen to create an effective framework for understanding the social worlds of young people and the community in which they belong. The data is drawn from 10 in-depth interviews with men in their mid-thirties, who were born and raised in an inner city neighbourhood. Despite poverty, deprivation and social exclusion, these 10 men now have a career but choose not to leave the neighbourhood of their birth. They have each turned their life around by being confident, persistent, and determined to succeed, thereby empowering other individuals and their community, to build their own ladders out of poverty and towards a brighter future. However, this is a close knit network of friends and family that according to the headteacher in the local secondary school are ‘unwilling to move the boundaries of opportunity and rely too much on the ways of the past’. Each interviewee has a story to tell and these stories are interwoven and analysed through common themes explored in depth in the thesis. These stories map out a career trajectory that is based on rites of passage into adulthood and an adult sense of masculinity. Throughout the interviews evidence is provided to support the argument that ‘opportunity structure’ (K. Roberts, 1977) plays an important role in the career path of young people. Furthermore, it is argued that career choice is a developmental process with many twists and turns along the way. However, it is further argued that an identity based on age, location, ethnicity, along with common interests and a shared purpose, creates a closed shop ethos, where education and employment are shaped by elders within the family and close friends. In fact, because everyone knows everyone else, a strong common bond between family and friends is displayed, this creates strong loyalties which are manifested in the behaviour of each individual. This situation creates a large gang of individuals whose organisation has a hierarchical structure, starting from new entrants or recruits, through to elders at the top. Membership through birth is non-negotiable and to refuse to be part of this wider family could result in psychological and physiological consequences for the individual.
    • Understanding the Authorial Writer: a mixed methods approach to the psychology of authorial identity in relation to plagiarism.

      Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong (University of DerbyCentre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, 2014-07-08)
      Academic writing is an important part of undergraduate study that tutors recognise as central to success in higher education. Across the academy, writing is used to assess, develop and facilitate student learning. However, there are growing concerns that students appropriate written work from other sources and present it as their own, committing the academic offence of plagiarism. Conceptualising plagiarism as literary theft, current institutional practices concentrate on deterring and detecting behaviours that contravene the rules of the academy. Plagiarism is a topic that often elicits an emotional response in academic tutors, who are horrified that students commit these ‘crimes’. Recently, educators have suggested that deterring and detecting plagiarism is ineffective and described moralistic conceptualisations of plagiarism as unhelpful. These commentaries highlight the need for credible alternative approaches to plagiarism that include pedagogic aspects of academic writing. The authorial identity approach to reducing plagiarism concentrates on developing understanding of authorship in students using pedagogy. This thesis presents three studies that contribute to the authorial identity approach to student plagiarism. Building on the findings of previous research, the current studies used a sequential mixed-methods approach to expand psychological knowledge concerning authorial identity in higher education contexts. The first, qualitative, study used thematic analysis of interviews with 27 professional academics teaching at institutions in the United Kingdom. The findings from this multidisciplinary sample identified that academics understood authorial identity as composed of five themes; an individual with authorial identity had confidence; valued writing; felt attachment and ownership of their writing; thought independently and critically; and had rhetorical goals. In addition, the analysis identified two integrative themes representing aspects of authorial identity that underlie all of the other themes: authorial identity as ‘tacit knowledge’ and authorial identity as ‘negotiation of identities’. The themes identified in the first study informed important aspects of the two following quantitative studies. The second study used findings from the first study to generate a pool of questionnaire items, assess their content validity and administer them to a multidisciplinary sample of 439 students in higher education. Psychometric analyses were used to identify a latent variable model of student authorial identity with three factors: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’ and ‘identification with author’. This model formed the basis of a new psychometric tool for measuring authorial identity. The resultant Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Authorship Scale (SABAS) had greater reliability and validity when compared with alternative measures. The third study used confirmatory factor analysis to validate the SABAS model with a sample of 306 students. In addition, this study identified aspects of convergent validity and test-retest reliability that allow the SABAS to be used with confidence in research and pedagogy. The overall findings of the combined studies present a psycho-social model of student authorial identity. This model represents an important contribution to the theoretical underpinnings of the authorial identity approach to student plagiarism. Differing from previous models by including social aspects of authorial identity, the psycho-social model informs future pedagogy development and research by outlining a robust, empirically supported theoretical framework.
    • Human exposure assessment of fluoride from tea(Camellia Sinensis L.) with specific reference to human bioaccessibility studies

      Chan, Laura (University of Derby, 2014-06-18)
      This study aims to determine the concentrations of fluoride in UK tea products and their infusions. This is related to the uptake and distribution of fluoride within tea plants Camellia sinensis (L.). Human oral bioaccessibility of fluoride from the consumption of tea infusions was estimated, using an in vitro approach. The possible health significance from fluoride exposure is discussed. Fluoride in tea products and the distribution within the tea plant was determined using a method, involving alkali fused digestion with ion chromatography and a conductivity detector for the instrumentation. For the aqueous infusions and the supernatants in the bioaccessibility experiments, ion selective electrode with a voltmeter was adopted. Mean fluoride concentrations in tea products and their infusions varied significantly (p<0.001; n=3) and were related to the type of tea product and the retail cost. The higher priced teas, such as Darjeeling, Assam and Oolong, had lower fluoride concentrations. The lower priced supermarket Economy ranged teas were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fluoride and exhibited concentrations similar to Chinese Brick tea, which is prepared using mature tea leaves. The higher quality products are prepared by selecting the finest tips of tea (buds), whereas an Economy products use coarser harvesting techniques to include mature leaves in the product. Fluoride affinity and tolerance of C. sinensis was assessed by a series of fluoride dosing experiments, ranging from 0 to 200 mg. Following fluoride dosing, a rapid uptake and accumulation occurred throughout the tea plants, resulting in partial necrosis of random leaves. Despite the necrosis, the plants tolerated the fluoride and continued to increase in height, although at a significantly slower rate (p<0.05) compared to the control plants. Accumulation of fluoride was observed to be mostly in the mature leaves followed by younger buds, then the roots. This relates to the part of the plant used to produce the tea types, with mature leaves for Economy products and the buds for the finer teas. The in vitro bioaccessibility assessment of fluoride estimated that over 91.4% of fluoride from a tea infusion is available in the human gastric compartment, with 92.1% in the gastro-intestinal compartment. The addition of milk reduced fluoride absorption in the gastric and gastro-intestinal compartments to 73.8 and 83.1%, respectively, possibly reacting to form calcium fluoride. Despite the percentage bioaccessibility, the concentration of fluoride available for absorption in the human gut was dependent upon choice of tea product. Based on an adult male, the findings suggest that consuming a litre of Economy tea can fulfil or exceed (75 to 120%) the recommended dietary reference intake (DRI) of fluoride at 4 mg a day, but only partially fulfil (25 to 40%) when consuming a more expensive Pure blend such as Assam. With regards to health, tea consumption is a source of fluoride in the diet and is highly available for absorption in the human gut. Tea alone can fulfil an adult fluoride DRI, but is dependent upon choice of tea product. Excess fluoride in the diet can lead to detrimental health effects such as fluorosis of the teeth and skeletal fluorosis and consuming economy branded tea can lead to a higher exposure.
    • The Nowhere Bible: the Biblical passage Numbers 13 as a case study of Utopian and Dystopian readings by diachronic audiences

      Speck, Simon; Chalcraft, David; Aune, Kristin; Uhlenbruch, Frauke (University of DerbyCentre for Society, Religion, and Belief, University of Derby, 2014-03-10)
      Applying utopian theory to the Bible reveals a number of issues surrounding the biblical text within academic disciplines such as biblical studies, which study the Bible as an ancient cultural artefact, and among religious readers of the Bible. The biblical passage Numbers 13 was chosen as a case study of a utopian reading of the image of the Promised Land to demonstrate the Bible’s multifaceted potential by externalising the presupposition brought to the text. The underlying method is derived from an ideal type procedure, appropriated from Weber. Instead of comparing phenomena to each other, one compares a phenomenon to a constructed ideal type. This method enables one to compare phenomena independently of exclusive definitions and direct linear influences. It has been suggested by biblical scholars that utopian readings of the Bible can yield insights into socio-political circumstances in the society which produced biblical texts. Using observations by Holquist about utopias’ relationships to reality it is asked if applying the concept of utopia to a biblical passage allows drawing conclusions about the originating society of the Hebrew Bible. The answer is negative. Theory about literary utopias is applied to the case study passage. Numbers 13 is similar to literary utopias in juxtaposing a significantly improved society with a home society, the motif of travellers in an unfamiliar environment, and the feature of a map which is graphically not representable. Noth’s reading of the biblical passage’s toponyms reveals that its map is a utopian map. Numbers 13 is best understood as a literary utopia describing an unrealistic environment and using common utopian techniques and motifs. Despite describing an unrealistic environment, the passage was understood as directly relevant to reality by readers throughout time, for example by Bradford. Following two Puritan readings, it is observed that biblical utopian texts have the potential of being applied in reality by those who see them as a call to action. If a literary utopia is attempted to be brought into reality, it becomes apparent that it marginalises those who are not utopian protagonists; in the case study passage, the non-Israelite tribes, in Bradford’s reading, the Native Nations in New England. The interplay of utopia and dystopia is explored and it is concluded that a definitive trait of literary utopias is their potential to turn into an experienced dystopia if enforced literally. This argument is supported by demonstrating that the utopian traits of the case study passage contain dystopian downsides if read from a different perspective. A contemporary utopian reading of the case study passage is proposed. Today utopian speculation most often appears in works of science fiction (SF). Motifs appearing in the case study passage are read as tropes familiar to a contemporary Bible reader from SF. Following D. Suvin’s SF theory, it is concluded that the Bible in the contemporary world can be understood as a piece of SF. It contains the juxtaposition of an estranged world with a reader’s experienced world as well as a potential utopian and dystopian message.
    • The effects of anxiety on visual attention for emotive stimuli in primary school children

      Maratos, Frances A.; Lipka, Sigrid; Kelly, Lauren (University of Derby, 2014-02-24)
      Anxiety can be advantageous in terms of survival and well-being, yet atypically high levels may be maladaptive and result in the clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. Several risk factors have been implicated in the manifestation of clinical anxiety, including cognitive biases. In recent years, a plethora of research has emerged demonstrating that anxious adults exhibit biases of attention for threatening stimuli, especially that which is biologically relevant (e.g., facial expressions). Specific components of attentional bias have also been identified, namely facilitated engagement, impaired disengagement, and avoidance. However, the majority of studies have focused on the spatial domain of attention. Furthermore, the area is under-researched in children, despite research demonstrating that symptoms relating to clinical and non-clinical anxiety follow a stable course from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. Consequently, the aim of this thesis was to investigate how anxiety affects children’s visual attention for emotive, particularly angry, faces. In order to provide a more comprehensive understanding, the current research involved examining the role of temporal and spatial attention utilising rapid serial visual presentation with the attentional blink, and the visual probe paradigm, respectively. The main hypothesis was that high state and/or trait anxiety would be associated with an attentional bias for angry, relative to positive or neutral faces in both the temporal and spatial domains. In relation to the temporal domain, key findings demonstrated that high levels of trait anxiety were associated with facilitated engagement towards both angry and neutral faces. It was further found that all children rapidly disengaged attention away from angry faces. Findings related to the processing of angry faces accorded with the main hypothesis stated in this thesis, as well as research and theory in the area. The finding that anxious children preferentially processed neutral faces in an attentional blink investigation was unexpected. This was argued to potentially reflect this stimulus type being interpreted as threatening. Key findings regarding the spatial domain were that high trait anxious children displayed an early covert bias of attention away from happy faces and a later, overt bias of attention away from angry faces. The finding that high trait anxiety was linked to an attentional bias away from happy faces in a visual probe task was also unexpected. This was argued to potentially reflect smiling faces being interpreted as signifying social dominance, thus resulting in the viewer experiencing feelings of subordination and becoming avoidant and/or submissive. To conclude, this thesis has enhanced current knowledge of attentional bias in both the temporal and spatial domains for emotive stimuli in anxious children. It has demonstrated that higher levels of trait anxiety moderate children’s allocation of attentional resources to different stimulus types, whether these are threatening, positive, or neutral. This has important implications for evaluating past research in adults and children, and for further developing theoretical models of attentional bias and anxiety. It also offers important clinical implications, since attending towards or away from specific stimuli may affect the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Recently, a treatment that aims to modify attentional bias in anxious individuals has begun to be developed. In light of the present findings, it may be necessary to review this treatment so that anxious children are re-trained in the specific biases of attention demonstrated here.
    • An investigation into the seasonality of the Pliocene southern North Sea basin: a sclerochronological approach

      Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Balson, Peter S.; Valentine, Annemarie (University of Derby, 2014-02-19)
      The Pliocene world c. 5.3 Ma to c. 2.58 Ma exhibited a relatively stable climate with a warmer global mean surface temperature than present-day by ~2 °C to 3 °C, and palaeoclimate analysis from this interval is used to understand climate drivers in ‘warmer world’. Previous oxygen isotope thermometry investigations of Pliocene southern North Sea Basin (SNSB) Aequipecten opercularis from the Coralline Crag Formation in Suffolk, UK repeatedly reveal evidence of a cold-temperate climate regime. Contrastingly, other biological proxies record a warm-temperate/sub-tropical regime. This investigation concentrated on oxygen, carbon and microgrowth increment widths (MIWS) of fossil shell material from Pliocene SNSB spanning an interval of~4.4 Ma to ~2.5 Ma. The study sites included shallow marine Pliocene formations from the western and eastern SNSB, the Ramsholt Member of the Coralline Crag Formation, Suffolk UK, and the Luchtbal Sands and Oorderen Sands Members of the Lillo Formation, Belgium, and the Oosterhout Formation in the Netherlands. Oxygen isotopic palaeotemperature results showed cooler summer temperatures than presently in the SNSB, which were reflective of a cool-temperate regime. There was no evidence of warm-temperate or sub-tropical summer palaeotemperatures in the Pliocene SNSB as suggested by other planktonic proxies. This investigation discussed the possible causal factors for the cooler – than- expected winter and summer palaeotemperatures in the ‘warmer’ Pliocene world as recorded by this proxy. Discrepancies between the cool summer benthic palaeotemperatures from the bivalves and the warmer sub-tropical or warm-temperate summer palaeotemperature estimations from planktonic biological proxies was rectified by the application of a theoretical summer stratification factor (SSF). However, rectifying the discrepancies between cooler (cold-temperate) benthic winter palaeotemperatures and the warmer winter palaeotemperatures from other proxies was difficult because stratification does not occur during the winter. Dormancy behaviours in the warm- temperate –sub-tropical organisms was proposed as a suitable mechanism to allow their coexistence with the cool-tolerant bivalves, which were able to grow and feed underneath the thermocline during the summer months. Therefore, the investigation showed how the Pliocene SNSB exhibited a greater seasonality than occurs presently in the SNSB. The driver for the cooler winter temperatures in the Pliocene SNSB was not identified. Localised explanations including continental wind effects, interannual variations in MOC strength, and increased storm activity in the winter bringing cooler water into the SNSB were all suggested as potential drivers. Global features of climate including interglacial/glacial cycles and orbital forcing effects were factors also proposed for the overall mixed palaeotemperature signal in the Pliocene SNSB.
    • A case study to evaluate the introduction of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) within a School of Pharmacy

      Townend, Michael; Ellis, Lorraine; O'Hare, Roisin (University of DerbySchool of Health ScienceFaculty of Education, Health and ScienceUniversity of Derby, 2014)
      Healthcare education is continually evolving to reflect therapeutic advances in patient management. Society demands assurances regarding the ongoing competence of HCPs including pharmacists. The use of OSCEs to evaluate competence of medical staff as well as nurses is well documented in the literature however evidence of its use with undergraduate pharmacy students is still sparse.
    • 'Identity Work’ in the context of organisational change: a Gestalt perspective

      Weller, Paul; Brannigan, Chris; Blom, Susanne (University of DerbyEducation, Health, and Sciences, 2013-11-27)
      The purpose of the thesis is to make a contribution to the development of an empirically informed theory of identity work in organisations on the basis of a gestalt paradigm. Since its emergence almost three quarters of a century ago, gestalt has been applied to therapy, personal development, leadership education and organisational consulting. Gestalt remains, however, fundamentally a paradigm, which preferentially projects onto and deals with complex and dynamic organisational phenomena at individual, dyadic or small group levels. It can be argued that, with its focus on phenomenology and awareness, the gestalt paradigm is predominantly methodological, with only ambiguous or weak links to explicitly articulated epistemology or ontology. A long-term professional, consulting relationship with a trade union branch enabled conducting action research in order to explore the constituents and dynamics of its organisational identity, prior to and following significant change. The subsequent dismantling and closure of the branch demanded an adjustment of research design. The new situation offered a unique opportunity to follow the existentially challenged organisation as its members reacted to and made sense of the closure. The research is contextualised in three analytical clusters: identity and identity work, gestalt paradigm, and trade unions as organisations, institutions and social movements. An ontology of the intersectional field is posited, and on this foundation, four statements, seen as fundamental conditions for identity work, are operationalised through six propositions explicating identity work in a gestalt paradigm perspective. Methodologically, the overall design is informed by a constructivist grounded theory approach, moving abductively - iteratively and even recursively - between inductive and deductive analysis and reflection. The empirical component of the thesis comprises participant observation, field notes, in-depth interviews during and subsequently two years after the closure, and memos. The data proved relevant and informative in terms of identity work in the organisation. The result of the research is a hypothesis about identity work in organisations, firmly anchored in and commensurate with a present-day revised gestalt paradigm, which contribute to a formal development of a gestalt organisational theory. The hypothesis states that: “Identity work in organisations is a dialectical positioning, both individual and collective, between the existential polar opposites of inclusion and exclusion. The processes through which identity work is enacted are cognitive, affective, and conative, instrumentally served by the contact boundary dynamics of egotisming, confluencing, projecting, retroflecting, introjecting, and deflecting. “ The empirical findings are considered robust, and the theory formulation meaningful. Acknowledging the specific circumstances of the study organisation and empirical design, however, a more general application of the hypothesis requires further research in diverse contexts for verification and possibly refinement of the gestalt theoretical concepts at the organisational level. The research results are of interest to gestalt practitioners who teach or work in or with organisations, and equally so for those interested in dynamic process perspectives in which attention shifts - whether at the level of the individual, group, or organisation - from static assessment of reified identity to real-time identity work; from structure to mutual interaction and influence, in order to balance the well-being of the human beings “in” and “profitability” of the organisation.
    • Muslim women and the hijab in Britain: contexts and choices.

      Mackay, Kathryn (University of Derby, 2013-11-11)
      This thesis concerns the contexts and choices associated with the wearing of the hijab in Britain, beginning with the impact of events such as 9/11. For many in the West, the hijab has become perceived as a symbol of Islam and as a result hijab wearing women who were living in Britain were identified as being connected with those who had carried out the 9/11 attacks in the United States. There was evidence from this research that there was an increase in first time hijab wearing, particularly in those between the ages of 25-39, however, 9/11 had not been directly responsible for this increase, but the higher profile of Islam due to the attacks had encouraged the women to find out about the religion for themselves and the rulings that related to them. Sales of the hijab have increased along with a more defined Islamic fashion consciousness and a desire by the women to wear what they regard as Islamic dress. This feminist standpoint research, although carried out by a white, non-Muslim from a middle-class background gave the women the opportunity to talk about their lives and explain the wearing or non-wearing of the hijab. A number of related themes were identified: Religion/religious community; Education; Family and friends; Clothing industry/fashion; and 9/11, although the thread that ran through all of these themes was the notion of choice. The women described wearing or not wearing hijab as their choice, although some had more influence from others. When choice theory was examined in relation to the wearing or non-wearing of the hijab it could be seen that although rational choice theory, lifestyle choices, family, habitus and individualization could tell us something about why the women made the choices they did, it was the interplay between individualization and tradition that gave the most accurate explanation as to why these women were making their choices. These theories did not tell the whole story however, and the conclusion discusses a reinterpretation of the Islamic teachings occurring in Britain with the women interpreting the Qur’an and the religious texts for themselves before arriving at their own conclusions as to what they should be wearing. This reinterpretation is driving the changes in behaviour for many Muslim women in Britain.
    • Treatment beyond treatment: exploring the effects of two complementary interventions on patient reported outcomes of gynaecological cancer

      Sowter, Heidi M.; Montague, Jane; Bali, Anish; Archer, Stephanie (University of DerbyFaculty of Education, Health and Sciences, University of Derby, 2013-10-30)
      Gynaecological cancers (which include cancers of the ovary, cervix, uterus, vagina, endometrium, vulva and fallopian tube) account for 19% of all female cancers, and there are approximately 942,000 new cases diagnosed per year worldwide. Treatment for gynaecological cancer is often multi modal and consists of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Current government policy has highlighted the need to focus on improving patient reported outcomes, including the patient experience of all aspects of cancer (including treatment), and the quality of life (QoL) of patients living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis. This thesis focuses on the effects of two different complementary interventions available to patients who were undergoing active treatment for gynaecological cancer at the Royal Derby Hospital between 2010 and 2012. Patient reported outcomes were explored in terms of the patients’ experience of the interventions and their reported levels of quality of life. The first study in this thesis explores the patient experience of an enhanced recovery programme (ERP) which was implemented for gynaecological cancer patients undergoing surgery at the Royal Derby Hospital in 2010. Previous research has found that ERPs (which complement traditional surgery) can decrease length of hospital stay, and they are now being implemented nationwide. However, there is a paucity of research into the patient experience of ERPs, especially in the field of gynaecological cancer. This study utilised a qualitative methodology to explore the experiences of 14 gynaecological cancer patients who took part in the ERP at Derby. Each patient was interviewed using a semi-structured format and the transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The analysis highlighted that patients highly value the programme, and four main themes, fundamental to their experience, emerged from the data: taking part in the programme, the role of home, managing expectations and individual experiences outside of the programme. The second part of this thesis explores whether yoga can improve the quality of life (QoL) of patients undergoing treatment for gynaecological cancer when used as a complementary therapy. Previous research has found that participation in yoga can improve QoL in the breast cancer population, although there have been no similar studies conducted with UK gynaecological cancer patients to date. The study presented here utilised a randomised controlled design; 44 patients receiving treatment for gynaecological cancer were randomly allocated into a control group or a 10 week yoga intervention group. Outcomes were measured using the EORTC QLQ C30 questionnaire pre and post trial alongside visual analogue scales that were incorporated into a weekly diary. The results suggest that there was no significant effect of yoga on QoL, although there was encouraging data from one set of tests within the analysis, which suggested that patients on the yoga arm were seeing more improvement in QoL over time compared to the controls. Methodological improvements to clinical trials investigating complementary interventions are discussed in light of the results of this study. The overall findings of these two studies highlight that the utilisation of mixed methods is efficacious when exploring the effects of complementary interventions on the patient reported outcomes of those with gynaecological cancer. The use of qualitative methods to explore the patient experience of the ERP allowed for an in-depth, unique analysis to take place which was specific to the service delivered at The Royal Derby Hospital. The findings and recommendations from this part of the research have been incorporated into the on-going development of the pathway; it has indicated that more use of qualitative methods is needed in health services research to ensure that the patient experience is being fully explored, in line with the current government policy. Similarly, the second part of the research reported here indicates that further research in the area of yoga and gynaecological cancer is warranted. This requires a narrower focus with regards to both cancer type and point of treatment, to ensure that the number of variables is controlled. In addition, appropriate measurement and analysis techniques need to be considered (such as the generalised additive model used in this research) to preserve the richness of the data as this has not been considered (or utilised) in the many previous pieces of research in the area.
    • An exploration of healthcare professionals' attitudes and perceptions towards a local hospital drug formulary and their impact on prescribing practice

      Townend, Michael; Allwood, Mike; Bagga, Sandeep Kumar (University of Derby, 2013-08-28)
      Background: Hospital drug formularies are developed in order to support safe, effective and cost-effective prescribing. Their utilisation is based on the assumption that prescribers and other users will follow guidance outlined within them. The role of formulary users’ attitudes has been largely overlooked in the research literature. The nature and impact of attitudes to formularies on influencing prescribing practice have not been fully investigated. This study seeks to address this issue through a local practice based research project. Objectives: To determine the attitudes and experiences of users and key stakeholders with the utilisation of a new formulary at a local hospital trust. Methodology: Semi-structured interviews were conducted exploring the views of doctors, pharmacists and non-medical prescribers. An online self-completion questionnaire was sent to all key stakeholders. In addition prescribing data was also extracted from the Pharmacy computer system to assess impact of the new formulary. Data collection was thus split into two phases with modifications made to the formulary based on preliminary findings and emerging themes. Results: The local formulary symbolises a ‘critical split’ in the approach to resource management and patient care. Pharmacists are ‘closely bound’ to the formulary, relying on it for retrospective decision-support and ultimately seen to improve pharmacists’ autonomy while prescribers consider it to be over-rationalisation eroding their professional autonomy. Although the quantitative data in this study demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in doctors’ perceptions of using the formulary, the distinct divide between doctors’ and pharmacists’ attitudes towards the formulary remained. Prescribing data extracted showed no significant impact of the formulary on prescribing practice. Conclusion: The study confirms the existence of deeper sociological constructs, particularly concerning autonomy and professionalism. Doctors claim an ability to manage uncertainty during patient consultations while pharmacists claim to be drug ‘experts’. The monopoly on drug knowledge is therefore contested ground. This study concludes that both the formulary and the pharmacy profession need to be more influential, and embrace a more ‘humanised-bureaucracy.’ It is recommended that pharmacists build on a new philosophical union with the formulary and focus on asserting their claim and dominance on the monopoly of drug knowledge.
    • Do haemodynamic responses to mental stress tests predict future blood pressure one year later? Prospective studies in the United Kingdom and Thailand

      Sheffield, David; Baker, Ian S.; Maratos, Frances A.; Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong (University of Derby, 2013-08-21)
      This thesis explored whether haemodynamic responses to psychological stress test predict future blood pressure (BP) levels: the Reactivity Hypothesis. The research included a systematic review and two prospective cohort studies in the UK and Thai samples. In addition, the Blunted Reactivity Hypothesis, which posits that cardiovascular reactivity is inversely related to symptoms of anxiety and depression, was examined in cross-sectional analyses. A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression with 41 prospective cohort studies (from 1950 to 2012) examined whether cardiovascular responses to psychological stress tests predict future BP levels, hypertension status, preclinical coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiac events. Three possible moderators were included in analyses: type of task (active versus passive coping), age group (children versus adults), and duration of follow-up (short versus long-term follow-up). The review found that systolic BP reactions to psychological stress tests predict future systolic BP levels and that there was better prediction in child samples with shorter follow-up periods. Similarly, diastolic BP reactions to psychological stress predicted future diastolic BP levels. Cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress tests did not predict hypertension, preclinical CHD, or cardiac events. Cross-sectional analysis of two studies conducted in the UK and Thailand provided some evidence that anxiety and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with cardiovascular reactivity: these findings supported the Blunted Cardiovascular Hypothesis. However, these relationships were observed in the UK sample, but not in the Thai sample. Further, Thai participants responded to psychological stress task with large cardiovascular reactions, of a similar magnitude to the UK participants and observed in previous studies of Europeans and North Americans. Finally, prospective analyses revealed that systolic BP responses to mental arithmetic predict future systolic BP levels after one year of follow-up in both UK and Thai individuals, after controlling for baseline cardiovascular activity and traditional risk factors. In contrast, haemodynamic responses did not predict future BP. These results provide support for the “Reactivity Hypothesis” although the effect sizes were relatively small. However, responses to only one of the three stressors, mental arithmetic, predicted future BP implicating beta-adrenergically mediated cardiovascular responses. However, there was no physiologic evidence (i.e., cardiac output responses) that suggested beta-adrenergic mechanisms. Accordingly, future studies should examine alternate mechanisms (e.g., platelet aggregation and endothelial function) and cardiovascular responses in larger samples with a longer follow-up to further clarify the predictive value of reactivity in the development of hypertension, along with potential mechanisms.
    • An investigation into formal and informal learning in outdoor adventure: a case study of a local authority adventure team

      Poultney, Val; Ritson, Linda (University of Derby, 2013-07)
      This thesis develops understanding in using outdoor adventure as a tool for learning for young people. It examines how adventure pedagogy may be applied in conjunction with classroom education to offer physical and visual means to enhance classroom theory. The core of the study was the examination of a local authority Adventure Team, identified by the Authority management as having strayed from its roots, although not perceived as ‘failing’. The researcher became insider-researcher to combine professional experience with research knowledge, envisaging this study as the pre-cursor to an action research team development project. The aims of the research were whether the Team was delivering the ‘learning’ mandated by its youth work location and whether it could strengthen its delivery. The study defines adventure, before exploring the underpinning concepts making up the elements of ‘The Adventure Team’ and its identity within the local authority. Literature advocates adventure as a powerful tool to develop social and emotional literacy, which dovetails into Government agendas on health and education. Although the study was undertaken prior to the current coalition Government, the principal agenda remains consistent with the previous regime. The Government at the time of the research promoted adventure as a means to help young people learn about the world in which they live, and the current Government has not rescinded this ambition. This work embodies learning as an interactive process whereby adventure can engage the individual on an agenda of personal and social awareness, as well as cognitive learning. Using case study as the research approach, data collection was achieved using interviews, participant observation and secondary data. The research found that the Team could achieve more by developing closer working relationships and by the Authority leadership being strengthened to offer greater direction and support. The framework of delivery was centralising the Team such that it had become isolated, with little governance and without partnerships to make the programmes as powerful as they could be. The conclusion is that the Team could fortify its delivery through alliances to provide visual and physical means to reinforce and support traditional learning, which enhances understanding. Informal learning helps young people to understand how they learn and how they can apply learning, which augments motivation and creates ownership of the learning. The research is a forerunner to at least two future research studies. Firstly an examination of the legacy of the ‘Learning Outside the Classroom’ Manifesto (2006) and secondly, an exploration of the influence of the coalition Government’s assumption of power on multi-agency partnerships, early intervention and targeted youth support, as was envisaged under the previous regime as the ‘Every Child Matters’ (2003) agenda. In addition to this, a book exploring how adventure can be used to address formal and informal learning as an ‘off the shelf’ resource to present activities and potential outcomes has enormous potential in the sustained delivery of outdoor learning as a valuable learning tool.
    • What constitutes a demonstration of effectiveness in the use of hands-on healing from the healers’ perspective?

      Parker-Eames, Martyn; Knibb, Rebecca C.; Johnson, Ashley A. (University of Derby, 2013-05-29)
      As the awareness and use of hands-on healing modalities achieve greater popularity they have slowly edged their way into the sphere of biomedical practices. Proponents of biomedicine, as the gatekeeper of medical interventions in Western societies, have argued that hands-on healing modalities show accountability for effective and safe practice. There is at present no accepted measure that demonstrates effective-based practice for these healing modalities. If hands-on healing is to receive greater acceptance, and possibly integration within biomedical practices, these issues need to be addressed. Research of this nature is blighted by there being no dedicated science, so although there is an abundance of published research it is dispersed or difficult to access, leading it to be unsuccessful in generating awareness. Historically, research evaluating effectiveness of hands-on healing has focused on predetermined outcomes from biomedical diagnosis. This has placed the focus of hands-on healing on the healee, and neglected aspects of the healer, leading to limited available research detailing the perceptions of healers. The research enquiry was performed around the charity, the Healing Trust. The Healing Trust training program was completed to acquaint the author in how hands-on healing is performed within the charity. Ten experienced healers, who are members of the Healing Trust, were interviewed regarding their practices of hands-on healing. Discussion was focused on how healers perceived what constituted an effective intervention from performing hands-on healing on a healee. Respondents answered a set of open-ended questions from which they were encouraged to expand on their experience of practicing hands-on healing. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Grounded Theory to create a generalised theory of perceptions of effectiveness. Within the thesis a discussion is presented that theorises that effectiveness is perceived as enacting a ‘change’ within the healee that is acknowledged by both the healer and healee as a therapeutic outcome. Therapeutic outcomes of this calibre are not accepted by biomedicine as genuine markers of success, due to their lack of objective measurement. If hands-on healing is to acquire better recognition there needs to be a consensus as to what effectiveness means, and how to measure it.
    • Assessment of higher level practice in nursing: an exploration of the support required by practice assessors

      Stoneley, Helen; Wesson, Wendy (University of DerbyUniversity of DerbyN/A, 2012-11-01)
      Nurse education is continually adapting to meet the requirements of employers to develop increasingly autonomous practitioners who can provide evidence-based, high quality care. The work-based project examines the support available to mentors, known as practice teachers, in their role as assessors of nursing students in higher level practice. A qualitative study: the project employs a grounded theory approach to the analysis of data elicited from practice teachers and academics. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups alongside regular reviews of the literature are utilised to elicit data, and via an inductive process, categories emerging from the analysis are constructed to present new insights and understanding of the subject under scrutiny. Whilst it is clear that a degree of support is available to practice teachers in response to a rudimentary understanding of their role in higher level practice, it is also clear that this support is limited by a number of factors. The product of practice assessment for the employer is a newly-qualified practitioner who is able to carry out a role based on a specified set of competencies. For the educator, whether within the higher education institution or in practice, the process of education is ongoing; producing a practitioner with the capability to utilise higher level practice in ever-changing contexts and situations. Support for the practice teacher can only be enhanced if recognition of the role is promoted. This requires a shared understanding of the importance of developing both competence and capability for higher level practice. Only then will the vital contribution made by the practice teacher in the student’s development be understood by those supporting them. Converging rather than competing philosophies of training for competence and educating for capability are necessary to maintain the status and commitment of the practice teacher and consequently the rigour required of assessment in practice.