• What constitutes a demonstration of effectiveness in the use of hands-on healing from the healers’ perspective?

      Parker-Eames, Martyn; Knibb, Rebecca C.; Johnson, Ashley A. (University of Derby, 2013-05-29)
      As the awareness and use of hands-on healing modalities achieve greater popularity they have slowly edged their way into the sphere of biomedical practices. Proponents of biomedicine, as the gatekeeper of medical interventions in Western societies, have argued that hands-on healing modalities show accountability for effective and safe practice. There is at present no accepted measure that demonstrates effective-based practice for these healing modalities. If hands-on healing is to receive greater acceptance, and possibly integration within biomedical practices, these issues need to be addressed. Research of this nature is blighted by there being no dedicated science, so although there is an abundance of published research it is dispersed or difficult to access, leading it to be unsuccessful in generating awareness. Historically, research evaluating effectiveness of hands-on healing has focused on predetermined outcomes from biomedical diagnosis. This has placed the focus of hands-on healing on the healee, and neglected aspects of the healer, leading to limited available research detailing the perceptions of healers. The research enquiry was performed around the charity, the Healing Trust. The Healing Trust training program was completed to acquaint the author in how hands-on healing is performed within the charity. Ten experienced healers, who are members of the Healing Trust, were interviewed regarding their practices of hands-on healing. Discussion was focused on how healers perceived what constituted an effective intervention from performing hands-on healing on a healee. Respondents answered a set of open-ended questions from which they were encouraged to expand on their experience of practicing hands-on healing. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Grounded Theory to create a generalised theory of perceptions of effectiveness. Within the thesis a discussion is presented that theorises that effectiveness is perceived as enacting a ‘change’ within the healee that is acknowledged by both the healer and healee as a therapeutic outcome. Therapeutic outcomes of this calibre are not accepted by biomedicine as genuine markers of success, due to their lack of objective measurement. If hands-on healing is to acquire better recognition there needs to be a consensus as to what effectiveness means, and how to measure it.
    • What makes Geography a worthwhile school subject? An exploration of the current controversy in geography teaching

      Hayes, Dennis; Haden-Walker, James (University of DerbyPGR Student, 2019-05-16)
      Geography as a school subject is in controversy. This controversy is given expression in an on-going debate between the opposing views of two leading academics Alex Standish and David Lambert. The Standish/Lambert debate reflects the discussion by the philosopher Paul Hirst in the 1960s of the nature of geography as a ‘field’ of knowledge rather and an independent ‘form’ of knowledge. The ‘field’ that is geography is said by Standish (2007) to be politicised while Lambert (2009) argues that this is just geography in modern form. In this dissertation Standish, Lambert and other leading geographers were interviewed to explore the nature of their disagreement and how it relates to what Michael Young (2007) has described as the need to give all pupils ‘powerful knowledge’. In addition to interviews with experts and teachers, this study carried out a questionnaire of geography teachers in Staffordshire. This study found that this dispute in the academic world reflected real divisions in what teachers understood as the value and nature of geography. Some teachers saw knowledge, or skills, as more relevant while others emphasised values and attitudes. They had a varied range of views relating to geographical knowledge and the impact of wider environmental issues alongside concerns over time allocation for the subject and its hierarchical position in relation to other ‘core’ subjects such as Mathematics, Science, and English. The study concluded that geography will remain in controversy until the Standish/Lambert debate is more fully discussed and debated among teachers. This thesis is a contribution to that debate.
    • Working with psychological trauma: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of trauma-focused CBT and EMDR

      Folland, Caroline H; University of Derby (2017-04-12)
      Purpose: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acknowledged repeated or extreme indirect exposure to aversive details of traumatic event(s) in the course of professional duties, can lead to symptoms of PTSD. This has led to discussions around impact and prevalence of vicarious trauma in psychological therapists treating trauma clients. This study considers how therapists delivering trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) make sense of their experiences and protect themselves from any negative effects of the work. Furthermore, it considers if there is a distinction in therapist experience between the two modalities. Methodology/Method: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was conducted to explore how trauma-focused CBT and EMDR therapists engaged in trauma work, interpreted and made sense of their experiences; with a view to identifying any protective practice that informed clinical practice and helped ameliorate vicarious trauma. Recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with CBT and EMDR therapists (N=11). Before analysis, interviews were transcribed verbatim and sent to individual participants for validation of their authenticity. Data was analysed using descriptive, linguistic and conceptual comments to identify an initial seventy nine emergent themes. When refined, four master themes of ‘Nature of Trauma’, ‘Participant sense of self and managing the process of hearing trauma narrative’, ‘Participant experience of delivering the trauma models’ and ‘Protecting and sustaining the participant sense of self’ were identified to answer the research question and are discussed herein. Findings: This study forms part of the growing body of evidence towards understanding therapist vicarious traumatisation. It both supports and challenges findings of previous studies. It also introduces new concepts in relation to the vicarious trauma phenomenon. Whilst there are clear limitations associated with making generalisations from an IPA study, the findings from the study suggest EMDR may be a protective factor against the negative effects of hearing repeated trauma narrative. Furthermore, certain strategies such as time management, comprehensive trauma training and specific trauma supervision, may also reduce the negative effects of hearing trauma narrative. Finally, regardless of the difficulties faced, therapists enjoy their trauma work and feel a great sense of professional satisfaction. Implications/Recommendations: Indications from the findings of the study are that therapists working within primary care in particular, are becoming increasingly pressurised by cuts to funding within mental health services. Recommendations are that those components of trauma work which promote therapist wellbeing should be supported. In particular, realistic timeframes within which to work, good quality training and supervisors, ideally external to the workplace, who can provide trauma-specific supervision.
    • ‘Wuthering Heights’ and the Othering of the Rural

      Broome, Sean; University of Derby (2015)
      This thesis explores the notion of rurality as a form of constructed identity. Just as feminist and postcolonial studies identify the formation of hierarchies within gender and ethnicity, I argue that the rural is constructed as inferior in opposition to its binary counterpart, the urban. The effect of this is the othering of the rural. This thesis takes Emily Brontë’s novel Wuthering Heights as a case study, using a critical approach to explore the ways in which it presents rurality, and to consider its role in the creation and reproduction of rural identity. The case study suggests that the adoption of a ‘rural reading’, in which an awareness of rural othering is fostered, can be a useful and productive strategy in textual analysis and interpretation. The first three chapters of this thesis focus on rural construction generally. Chapter 1 draws on semiotic theory to examine the creation of binaries, and Derridean notions of linguistic hierarchies to suggest reasons for the inferior position of the rural. Chapter 2 considers the historical location of the urban/rural binary in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, within the context of the Enlightenment, the growth of capitalism, industrialisation and rapid urban expansion. Chapter 3 explores rural othering as a feature of contemporary culture, examining the textual presence of idyllic and anti-idyllic versions of the rural. Chapter 4 introduces the methodology of the case study, explaining the relevance of Wuthering Heights to the study of rural othering, providing a précis of the novel and an overview of previous critical responses. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 explore the three themes of nature, deviance and space. These are derived from the examination of rural construction in Chapter 3. In Chapter 5, the representation of nature in Wuthering Heights is explored, and the presence of animals within the novel in particular. In Chapter 6, the depiction of deviance in Wuthering Heights is discussed, with special focus given to the presence of deviant speech patterns, reflecting changing expectations of behavioural norms in the early nineteenth century. Chapter 7’s consideration of the relationship between space and rurality within Brontë’s novel considers her representation of landscape. Chapter 8 argues that a similar rural reading can be applied to other texts, literary and otherwise, opening up a fresh set of perspectives and possibilities for interpretation.
    • Youth mentoring across professional settings: a pedagogic approach to social inclusion

      Morgan, Shaun (University of DerbyICeGS, 2012-10-01)
      Youth mentoring is often used to engage increasing numbers of disaffected and marginalised young people. As such, this research explores the extent to which key workers, across a range professional settings, adopt and integrate mentoring practices into their primary role. The research suggests that key workers recognise an informal and caring dimension to their primary role and use the term mentoring to capture the diversity of this activity. However, the attempt to facilitate integration into mainstream values and norms suggests that key workers and youngsters are actually engaged in a form of social pedagogy; undertaking social action to promote the personal development and general wellbeing of the youngster. As a piece of qualitative action research – based primarily on semi-structured interviews with key workers and young people – this inquiry also explores the extent to which practitioner mentoring, or social pedagogy, is successful as a transformation strategy – that is, the extent to which young people alter their attitudes, behaviours and beliefs as a result of being supported in this manner. The findings suggest that the informality of the interactions, a shared activity, the strength of the relationships and the duration of contact, are important aspects of social pedagogy/youth mentoring. The research has clear implications for practitioners, since the development of a ‘pedagogic perspective’ introduces a body of social theory into work previously undertaken intuitively. This, in turn, requires practitioners across professional settings to; engage with ‘clients’ on an a personal level to build trust and rapport, develop pedagogic opportunities that facilitate access to mainstream activities and, finally, maintain meaningful relationships until social inclusion is secure.