• Undergraduate learning in therapeutic radiography

      Jackson, Christine Sylvia (University of Derby, 2002)
    • Understanding the Authorial Writer: a mixed methods approach to the psychology of authorial identity in relation to plagiarism.

      Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong (University of DerbyCentre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, 2014-07-08)
      Academic writing is an important part of undergraduate study that tutors recognise as central to success in higher education. Across the academy, writing is used to assess, develop and facilitate student learning. However, there are growing concerns that students appropriate written work from other sources and present it as their own, committing the academic offence of plagiarism. Conceptualising plagiarism as literary theft, current institutional practices concentrate on deterring and detecting behaviours that contravene the rules of the academy. Plagiarism is a topic that often elicits an emotional response in academic tutors, who are horrified that students commit these ‘crimes’. Recently, educators have suggested that deterring and detecting plagiarism is ineffective and described moralistic conceptualisations of plagiarism as unhelpful. These commentaries highlight the need for credible alternative approaches to plagiarism that include pedagogic aspects of academic writing. The authorial identity approach to reducing plagiarism concentrates on developing understanding of authorship in students using pedagogy. This thesis presents three studies that contribute to the authorial identity approach to student plagiarism. Building on the findings of previous research, the current studies used a sequential mixed-methods approach to expand psychological knowledge concerning authorial identity in higher education contexts. The first, qualitative, study used thematic analysis of interviews with 27 professional academics teaching at institutions in the United Kingdom. The findings from this multidisciplinary sample identified that academics understood authorial identity as composed of five themes; an individual with authorial identity had confidence; valued writing; felt attachment and ownership of their writing; thought independently and critically; and had rhetorical goals. In addition, the analysis identified two integrative themes representing aspects of authorial identity that underlie all of the other themes: authorial identity as ‘tacit knowledge’ and authorial identity as ‘negotiation of identities’. The themes identified in the first study informed important aspects of the two following quantitative studies. The second study used findings from the first study to generate a pool of questionnaire items, assess their content validity and administer them to a multidisciplinary sample of 439 students in higher education. Psychometric analyses were used to identify a latent variable model of student authorial identity with three factors: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’ and ‘identification with author’. This model formed the basis of a new psychometric tool for measuring authorial identity. The resultant Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Authorship Scale (SABAS) had greater reliability and validity when compared with alternative measures. The third study used confirmatory factor analysis to validate the SABAS model with a sample of 306 students. In addition, this study identified aspects of convergent validity and test-retest reliability that allow the SABAS to be used with confidence in research and pedagogy. The overall findings of the combined studies present a psycho-social model of student authorial identity. This model represents an important contribution to the theoretical underpinnings of the authorial identity approach to student plagiarism. Differing from previous models by including social aspects of authorial identity, the psycho-social model informs future pedagogy development and research by outlining a robust, empirically supported theoretical framework.
    • Unheard Stories - Navigating Next Level

      Bankale, Sheyi; University of Derby (2017)
      Unheard Stories - Narrating Next Level To publish art – to literally make it public – was a political act, one that challenged the art world and the world at large. Gwen Allen1 This critical appraisal on the published journal Next Level reports the result of my research relating to the body of my work from 2005 to 2016. More specifically, I will survey the creative production of the contemporary photography journal Next Level, currently consisting of seven city editions from a volume of twenty-four editions. This acknowledgement is not intended to emphasise the subjectivity of the journal as a limitation, but rather to provide focus to the lens through which I have been looking at my data with important findings about the outcomes of measurable theoretical, critical and artistic approaches. The journal Next Level periodically publishes a number of editions that present the collection of original data about photography art communities through the exploration of various cities around the world. These editions are developed from data collected through on-the-ground research that is central to this evaluation, which is an examination of and response to a large range of data drawn from seven cities, providing new information. This provides a pivot for the work around which my ideas are put across in a meaningful, comparable and communicable way, creating a mapping of each city, always enabling and never limiting. This methodology of gathering data, consisting of governmental cultural reports, museum archives, catalogues, comment books and newsletters, visual artists’ curriculum vitaes (CVs), interviews and rich contextual material, in turn provides primary research for students, photography professionals, photography enthusiasts and future photography historians. By countering the standard framework of research and production, my work is theoretically, critically and artistically traced, not by making things new, but by comprehensively questioning the characteristics that have shaped things in new ways. This framework manifests itself in the preliminary research and creative practice that provided the foundation for the complete scope of the entire space in the journal, which I present alongside this critical appraisal. Through the dissemination of current photographic discourse, I discuss current traditions and new perceptions through various articles and features. These editorial pieces relating to local communities of contemporary art photography look in particular at their cultural outputs in response to the rise of globalisation. Through the roles of artist-as-editor and curator, the journal is an artefact that I have shaped, utilising print production as part of its aesthetic dimension. I have published and distributed between 8,000 and 20,000 copies per edition to 37 countries. The readership of the journal thus has access to viewpoints that are revealing and politically reflective of specific manifestations of power, representation and the unheard stories that are altering various aspects of the conventions of current photographic discourse.
    • Using images and deep emotions in marketing strategy in higher education.

      Hancock, Charles C.; University of Derby (2016-04)
      Purpose – Understanding student value in the Higher Education Sector has traditionally been conceptualised and measured using cognitive indicators, such as the National Student Survey (NSS). This thesis aims to build on the body of literature of service excellence, and alternative market sensing methods, such as the role of images and emotions in determining a deeper level of value for consumers. To apply a market sensing method to understand student value in an ever increasing complex environment, thus enabling a framework to develop differentiation in marketing strategy and communications for a University Business School. Design/methodology/approach – The focus for this inductive study was a Business School in which both undergraduate and post graduate students (n=24) were interviewed at depth, using a photo elicitation methodology based on Zaltman’s Metaphor Elicitation Technique, (ZMET) to explore their relationship with the business school and their real value. The process consisted of the candidate choosing a number of images, in-depth interview and then constructing emotion/value maps to elicit thoughts and feelings of value and relationship with the business school with respect to their stage of the journey. Findings – Results from the study found a number of emerging themes that were more significant at different stages of the transformational student journey. The study found that students resonated with similar images at respective stages of their programmes, and that a deeper level of understanding of the students emotional factors relating to their relationship with both the Business School and University, thus finding that an emotion based methodology was a better predictor of understanding student value, than cognitive measures of satisfaction such as National Student Survey (NSS). The findings from the ZMET based methodology also enabled better differentiation for market strategy, emotion based marketing communication and identified areas of operational process that could be improved through the internal marketing towards the internal customer. Originality/Value – The thesis establishes the need to use emotional depth methodologies when understanding the customer, to create differentiation in market strategy and customer driven market communications. This is the first time a Zaltman based methodology has been used in the UK Higher Education sector, specifically understanding student value. The thesis also contributes knowledge by extending the ZMET methodology with the development of a “Deep Value Mining” (DVM) depth gauge for understanding quality of data obtained through research methodologies understanding customer value. The research also created Emotional Value Maps (EVM) as a construct tool, creating a further extension to the ZMET methodology, to help researchers understand the association between value and emotion on a customer journey enabling the understanding of what’s really important to the participants of the research subject.
    • Utopias, Magic Realism and Rebellious Spirits: Films of Christine Parker 1990 to 2000

      Templeton-Parker, Christine; University of Derby, College of Arts (2015-11-03)
      Abstract: Utopias, Magic Realism and Rebellious Spirits: Films by Christine Parker 1990-2000. “The More You Look, the more THERE IS to see…” From Hinekaro Goes on a Picnic and Blows up Another Obelisk (Christine Parker, Oceania Parker, 1995) In the 1990s New Zealand was in the grip of free market fundamentalism, neo-liberal deregulation of the economy having begun in the mid-eighties. The Maori protest movement was a major source of societal conflict and feminism had become the ‘F’ word. This study examines my writing and directing during the 1990s in New Zealand. It is proposed that the films contributed to national and international conversations around feminism, colonial struggles, spirituality and the supernatural. It is argued that these works offer a social critique of neoliberalism and the divisive effects of it, on women in particular. In the context of this appraisal neoliberalism is understood to be a set of beliefs that support the functioning of the global free market, with minimal government regulation, except to protect the functioning of private enterprise and the ownership of private property. The short films One Man’s Meat (1991), Peach (1993), and Hinekaro Goes on a Picnic and Blows up Another Obelisk (1995) and the feature film Channelling Baby (1999) are located in an oeuvre of female, Gay, and Maori film makers and artists responding to this environment. The recurrence of alternative utopias, the use of magic realism and the representation of the spiritual and supernatural in my work are also considered in relation to other films made in the period. A case is made that the films were part of a small vanguard of films responding to the 1990s status quo by offering alternative modes of discourse to the dominant economic rationalism. Rich in visual intensity and heightened narrative tropes, such as irony and fragmented narratives, my aesthetic choices, together with recurring themes of chance and fate, agency and identity, are considered to link the films together as a coherent study. While the works are located in an evolving feminist tradition in the 1990s, their continued relevance today, particularly in relation to foregrounding marginal voices and the disruption of dominant paradigms and expectations of female behaviour and identity, underpin the claim for originality.
    • What constitutes a demonstration of effectiveness in the use of hands-on healing from the healers’ perspective?

      Parker-Eames, Martyn; Knibb, Rebecca C.; Johnson, Ashley A. (University of Derby, 2013-05-29)
      As the awareness and use of hands-on healing modalities achieve greater popularity they have slowly edged their way into the sphere of biomedical practices. Proponents of biomedicine, as the gatekeeper of medical interventions in Western societies, have argued that hands-on healing modalities show accountability for effective and safe practice. There is at present no accepted measure that demonstrates effective-based practice for these healing modalities. If hands-on healing is to receive greater acceptance, and possibly integration within biomedical practices, these issues need to be addressed. Research of this nature is blighted by there being no dedicated science, so although there is an abundance of published research it is dispersed or difficult to access, leading it to be unsuccessful in generating awareness. Historically, research evaluating effectiveness of hands-on healing has focused on predetermined outcomes from biomedical diagnosis. This has placed the focus of hands-on healing on the healee, and neglected aspects of the healer, leading to limited available research detailing the perceptions of healers. The research enquiry was performed around the charity, the Healing Trust. The Healing Trust training program was completed to acquaint the author in how hands-on healing is performed within the charity. Ten experienced healers, who are members of the Healing Trust, were interviewed regarding their practices of hands-on healing. Discussion was focused on how healers perceived what constituted an effective intervention from performing hands-on healing on a healee. Respondents answered a set of open-ended questions from which they were encouraged to expand on their experience of practicing hands-on healing. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Grounded Theory to create a generalised theory of perceptions of effectiveness. Within the thesis a discussion is presented that theorises that effectiveness is perceived as enacting a ‘change’ within the healee that is acknowledged by both the healer and healee as a therapeutic outcome. Therapeutic outcomes of this calibre are not accepted by biomedicine as genuine markers of success, due to their lack of objective measurement. If hands-on healing is to acquire better recognition there needs to be a consensus as to what effectiveness means, and how to measure it.
    • What makes Geography a worthwhile school subject? An exploration of the current controversy in geography teaching

      Hayes, Dennis; Haden-Walker, James (University of DerbyPGR Student, 2019-05-16)
      Geography as a school subject is in controversy. This controversy is given expression in an on-going debate between the opposing views of two leading academics Alex Standish and David Lambert. The Standish/Lambert debate reflects the discussion by the philosopher Paul Hirst in the 1960s of the nature of geography as a ‘field’ of knowledge rather and an independent ‘form’ of knowledge. The ‘field’ that is geography is said by Standish (2007) to be politicised while Lambert (2009) argues that this is just geography in modern form. In this dissertation Standish, Lambert and other leading geographers were interviewed to explore the nature of their disagreement and how it relates to what Michael Young (2007) has described as the need to give all pupils ‘powerful knowledge’. In addition to interviews with experts and teachers, this study carried out a questionnaire of geography teachers in Staffordshire. This study found that this dispute in the academic world reflected real divisions in what teachers understood as the value and nature of geography. Some teachers saw knowledge, or skills, as more relevant while others emphasised values and attitudes. They had a varied range of views relating to geographical knowledge and the impact of wider environmental issues alongside concerns over time allocation for the subject and its hierarchical position in relation to other ‘core’ subjects such as Mathematics, Science, and English. The study concluded that geography will remain in controversy until the Standish/Lambert debate is more fully discussed and debated among teachers. This thesis is a contribution to that debate.
    • Working with psychological trauma: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of trauma-focused CBT and EMDR

      Folland, Caroline H; University of Derby (2017-04-12)
      Purpose: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acknowledged repeated or extreme indirect exposure to aversive details of traumatic event(s) in the course of professional duties, can lead to symptoms of PTSD. This has led to discussions around impact and prevalence of vicarious trauma in psychological therapists treating trauma clients. This study considers how therapists delivering trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) make sense of their experiences and protect themselves from any negative effects of the work. Furthermore, it considers if there is a distinction in therapist experience between the two modalities. Methodology/Method: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was conducted to explore how trauma-focused CBT and EMDR therapists engaged in trauma work, interpreted and made sense of their experiences; with a view to identifying any protective practice that informed clinical practice and helped ameliorate vicarious trauma. Recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with CBT and EMDR therapists (N=11). Before analysis, interviews were transcribed verbatim and sent to individual participants for validation of their authenticity. Data was analysed using descriptive, linguistic and conceptual comments to identify an initial seventy nine emergent themes. When refined, four master themes of ‘Nature of Trauma’, ‘Participant sense of self and managing the process of hearing trauma narrative’, ‘Participant experience of delivering the trauma models’ and ‘Protecting and sustaining the participant sense of self’ were identified to answer the research question and are discussed herein. Findings: This study forms part of the growing body of evidence towards understanding therapist vicarious traumatisation. It both supports and challenges findings of previous studies. It also introduces new concepts in relation to the vicarious trauma phenomenon. Whilst there are clear limitations associated with making generalisations from an IPA study, the findings from the study suggest EMDR may be a protective factor against the negative effects of hearing repeated trauma narrative. Furthermore, certain strategies such as time management, comprehensive trauma training and specific trauma supervision, may also reduce the negative effects of hearing trauma narrative. Finally, regardless of the difficulties faced, therapists enjoy their trauma work and feel a great sense of professional satisfaction. Implications/Recommendations: Indications from the findings of the study are that therapists working within primary care in particular, are becoming increasingly pressurised by cuts to funding within mental health services. Recommendations are that those components of trauma work which promote therapist wellbeing should be supported. In particular, realistic timeframes within which to work, good quality training and supervisors, ideally external to the workplace, who can provide trauma-specific supervision.
    • ‘Wuthering Heights’ and the Othering of the Rural

      Broome, Sean; University of Derby (2015)
      This thesis explores the notion of rurality as a form of constructed identity. Just as feminist and postcolonial studies identify the formation of hierarchies within gender and ethnicity, I argue that the rural is constructed as inferior in opposition to its binary counterpart, the urban. The effect of this is the othering of the rural. This thesis takes Emily Brontë’s novel Wuthering Heights as a case study, using a critical approach to explore the ways in which it presents rurality, and to consider its role in the creation and reproduction of rural identity. The case study suggests that the adoption of a ‘rural reading’, in which an awareness of rural othering is fostered, can be a useful and productive strategy in textual analysis and interpretation. The first three chapters of this thesis focus on rural construction generally. Chapter 1 draws on semiotic theory to examine the creation of binaries, and Derridean notions of linguistic hierarchies to suggest reasons for the inferior position of the rural. Chapter 2 considers the historical location of the urban/rural binary in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, within the context of the Enlightenment, the growth of capitalism, industrialisation and rapid urban expansion. Chapter 3 explores rural othering as a feature of contemporary culture, examining the textual presence of idyllic and anti-idyllic versions of the rural. Chapter 4 introduces the methodology of the case study, explaining the relevance of Wuthering Heights to the study of rural othering, providing a précis of the novel and an overview of previous critical responses. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 explore the three themes of nature, deviance and space. These are derived from the examination of rural construction in Chapter 3. In Chapter 5, the representation of nature in Wuthering Heights is explored, and the presence of animals within the novel in particular. In Chapter 6, the depiction of deviance in Wuthering Heights is discussed, with special focus given to the presence of deviant speech patterns, reflecting changing expectations of behavioural norms in the early nineteenth century. Chapter 7’s consideration of the relationship between space and rurality within Brontë’s novel considers her representation of landscape. Chapter 8 argues that a similar rural reading can be applied to other texts, literary and otherwise, opening up a fresh set of perspectives and possibilities for interpretation.
    • Youth mentoring across professional settings: a pedagogic approach to social inclusion

      Morgan, Shaun (University of DerbyICeGS, 2012-10-01)
      Youth mentoring is often used to engage increasing numbers of disaffected and marginalised young people. As such, this research explores the extent to which key workers, across a range professional settings, adopt and integrate mentoring practices into their primary role. The research suggests that key workers recognise an informal and caring dimension to their primary role and use the term mentoring to capture the diversity of this activity. However, the attempt to facilitate integration into mainstream values and norms suggests that key workers and youngsters are actually engaged in a form of social pedagogy; undertaking social action to promote the personal development and general wellbeing of the youngster. As a piece of qualitative action research – based primarily on semi-structured interviews with key workers and young people – this inquiry also explores the extent to which practitioner mentoring, or social pedagogy, is successful as a transformation strategy – that is, the extent to which young people alter their attitudes, behaviours and beliefs as a result of being supported in this manner. The findings suggest that the informality of the interactions, a shared activity, the strength of the relationships and the duration of contact, are important aspects of social pedagogy/youth mentoring. The research has clear implications for practitioners, since the development of a ‘pedagogic perspective’ introduces a body of social theory into work previously undertaken intuitively. This, in turn, requires practitioners across professional settings to; engage with ‘clients’ on an a personal level to build trust and rapport, develop pedagogic opportunities that facilitate access to mainstream activities and, finally, maintain meaningful relationships until social inclusion is secure.