• A Qualitative Exploration of Drug and Alcohol Using Parents’ Experiences in Drug/Alcohol Treatment when Social Services are Involved.

      Montague, Jane; Elander, James; Goddard, Kashmir (University of DerbyCollege of Health, Psychology and Social Care, 2021-02-05)
      This thesis is concerned with the lives of drug and alcohol using parents, who access treatment for their addiction. Parents who are drug and alcohol users may experience stigma, fear, shame, and denial around their misuse, which means that many fail or feel fearful to access any treatment for fear of official intervention. This thesis aims to explore the narratives of Class A drug users and alcohol users who access drug and alcohol treatment and who have been referred to Children’s Social Services when a Child Protection issue has been raised. Qualitative data was generated during the three studies. Semi-structured interviews took place during each study (1, 2 and 3). Study 2 allowed the use of photographs taken by participants to be examined. Study 3 allowed the use of a journal to capture the experience of the participants. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was applied to the verbatim transcripts. Key findings are presented as four superordinate themes in chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8. Each chapter focused on one of the four superordinate themes that were identified in the data analysis, which combined data from all three studies. ‘Risk and vulnerabilities’ in Chapter Five suggested that when these parents were teenagers’ drugs and alcohol were easily accessible, and there was trauma in their lives, which meant exposure to drug and alcohol use was a way of escape. Parents described addiction as a cycle they were continually on, and regardless of what they did the power of this cycle made it difficult to break free. This, for some, developed into committing a crime to fund their addiction. The theme of drug and alcohol use and parenting is discussed in Chapter Six. This chapter suggested that parents’ mental health was severely impacted as a result of their drug and alcohol use. This left the parents feeling stigmatised and experiencing a tainted identity. Parents expressed grief and trauma about their experience and how this impacted on family attachments and affected partner relationships. Parent’s emotional reaction to Social Services and Child Protection in Chapter Seven suggested a loss of control and negative emotions such as anxiety, anger feeling embarrassed, scared, guilt, and frustration when professionals became involved. Parents wanted professionals to understand addiction, and they hoped the professionals supporting them would be supportive to help them change. Recovery and change in Chapter Eight suggested coming to the point of realisation that they had no choice but to change their behaviour. There was also an understanding that their behaviour had impacted their children. Parents expressed the difficulty of treatment without proper effective interventions and, at times, relapse and how this was frowned upon. The subordinate themes linked to one another and some similar themes appeared in several chapters. Chapter Nine, the final chapter summaries the thesis as it provides a glimpse into the complex nature of being a drug/alcohol addicted parent. Key findings suggest a change in professional practice to meet the needs of the user and the wider family.
    • Quantification of colour emotion and colour harmony

      Ou, Li-Chen (University of Derby, 2004)
    • Quantifying the colour appearance of displays.

      Kwak, Youngshin (University of Derby, 2003)
    • Registered trade mark protection in Jordan

      Al-Nuemat, Ahmed Adnan (University of Derby, 2008)
    • Reimagining the blues: A new narrative for 21st century blues music

      Martin, Nigel James (University of Derby, 2019-12-11)
      This project explores the extent to which blues music in the 21st century is linked to its cultural past through identification and examination of the key concepts and relationships that may contribute to a contemporary understanding of the blues and cultural artefacts, as circulated and consumed in popular music practices. Despite the vast amount of scholarship on blues music, including revisionist literature that emerged in the late 20th century and in the first decade of this century, there has been no singular study of popular music or the blues that has specifically addressed the sociocultural and musicological links between the traditions of the past in the context of 21st century popular music in sufficient depth and so research into contemporary interpretations of blues music as it exists in the 21st century remains relatively scarce. This project provides an account of the cultural resonances and development of the blues genre in popular music culture to establish what the blues means, how it means, and to who it is meaningful through the formulation of a conceptual framework offered as a unique methodological tool for identifying and exploring blues music in the 21st century. Within this interdisciplinary framework, concepts including those concerned with technological mediation, intertextuality, cultural identity, memory, and meaning, are mobilised, refined, and combined in order to reveal and explore problematic relationships that exist in and between concepts of race, place, and technology as connected to blues music in the 21st century. Through an ethnomusicological strategy of enquiry and largely inductive approach to the collection of qualitative and quantitative data, the results of analyses conducted using a broad range of methods including music theoretic analysis, semiotics, intertextuality, survey, and interview are presented in order to both address how and why a contemporary blues music revival may be perceived to be taking place and to offer a fresh historical review of the context in which the blues has developed from a 21st century platform. This study finds that popular music performers and consumers are continually reimagining the blues through engagement with the traditions of the past and accordingly argues for an extension to the boundaries of blues music in its stylistic and cultural categorisation in 21st-century discourse. It is also argued that the results of research presented here also go some way in illustrating both how such engagement with the traditions of the past may directly reflect tensions in contemporary society, and how blues-marketed artefacts are demarcated and declassified within the music industry.
    • Relevance and rationalisation in the Wason selection task

      Lucas, Erica Jane (University of Derby, 2007)
    • The reliability, practicality and acceptability of using ultrasonography to monitor the progress of labour and delivery.

      Wiafe, Yaw Amo; University of Derby (2018-03-23)
      Introduction: It had been suggested by a number of recent studies that ultrasonography could become an alternative to digital vaginal examination (VE) for assessing the progress of pregnant women in labour. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of ultrasonography was available. Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the success rate of ultrasonography in comparison with digital VE and the level of agreement between the two methods, in terms of estimating fetal head position, head station and cervical dilatation. Systematic Review Findings: This review found that ultrasonography has a higher success rate than digital VE in estimating fetal head position. Ultrasonography was also in high agreement with digital VE in estimating cervical dilatation, with insignificant difference in the success rate of the two methods in terms of detecting cervical dilatation. There was also a significant correlation between the two methods in estimating head station. However, it was also found by the review that, existing primary studies were mainly conducted in tertiary settings of developed countries. Further research was therefore needed from the perspective of non-tertiary settings and also from developing country settings. In addition, further research was also needed to assess the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in detecting active labour, since it is associated with cervical dilatation. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound in detecting engaged fetal head had also not been investigated, which is necessary because it is associated with head station. Primary Research Aim: As a consequence of these systematic review findings, a primary study was conducted in another clinical setting in a developing country. The aim was to investigate the reproducibility, practicality and acceptability of using ultrasonography to monitor the progress of pregnant women in labour. Research Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Ghana. The agreement between ultrasound and digital VE was statistically analysed for the estimation of fetal head position, head station and cervical dilatation. Further statistical analysis was conducted on the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in detecting engaged fetal head, and the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in detecting active labour. A quantitative survey of mothers’ acceptance of intrapartum ultrasound was also conducted. Lastly, caregivers’ views on the practicality of using ultrasound in this developing country setting was also investigated in a qualitative survey. Results of Primary Research: The results regarding reproducibility were as follows: (i) a high between-method agreement was found in the estimation of cervical dilatation, with high ultrasound sensitivity and specificity in detecting active labour; (ii) a statistically significant between-method agreement was found in the estimation of head station, with high ultrasound sensitivity and specificity in detecting engaged fetal head; (iii) a weak between-method agreement was found in the estimation of fetal head position, with ultrasound having a higher success rate than digital VE. The results regarding acceptability showed that most mothers accepted the use of intrapartum ultrasound, and were willing to have the procedure for their future care during labour and childbirth. They also preferred ultrasound to digital VE. With regards to practicality, the responses of caregivers indicate that the introduction of intrapartum ultrasound in this setting could serve as a good complement to digital VE in a number of ways. However, putting it into practice would require wider availability of physical and technical resources. Conclusion: The findings of the reproducibility study were consistent with existing studies in other clinical settings which were investigated in the systematic review. This suggests that ultrasound is a reliable method for assessing the progress of pregnant women in labour. In addition, the unique contribution to existing knowledge obtained from this study was a high ultrasound sensitivity and specificity in detecting active labour and engaged fetal head which were reported for the first time. The findings on mothers’ acceptability were also consistent with existing studies in other settings, which is an indication that there is high acceptance of intrapartum ultrasound by mothers from different settings and cultures. Lastly, caregivers’ views on the practicality of the use of ultrasound during labour indicate that the regular use of intrapartum ultrasound for assessing the progress of labour in pregnant women may require additional resources to make it practicable in this and other similar settings.
    • Research on digital image watermark encryption based on hyperchaos

      Zhao, Zhengxu, Professor; Wu, Pianhui (University of DerbyFaculty of Business, Computing and Law, 2013-11-05)
      The digital watermarking technique embeds meaningful information into one or more watermark images hidden in one image, in which it is known as a secret carrier. It is difficult for a hacker to extract or remove any hidden watermark from an image, and especially to crack so called digital watermark. The combination of digital watermarking technique and traditional image encryption technique is able to greatly improve anti-hacking capability, which suggests it is a good method for keeping the integrity of the original image. The research works contained in this thesis include: (1)A literature review the hyperchaotic watermarking technique is relatively more advantageous, and becomes the main subject in this programme. (2)The theoretical foundation of watermarking technologies, including the human visual system (HVS), the colour space transform, discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the main watermark embedding algorithms, and the mainstream methods for improving watermark robustness and for evaluating watermark embedding performance. (3) The devised hyperchaotic scrambling technique it has been applied to colour image watermark that helps to improve the image encryption and anti-cracking capabilities. The experiments in this research prove the robustness and some other advantages of the invented technique. This thesis focuses on combining the chaotic scrambling and wavelet watermark embedding to achieve a hyperchaotic digital watermark to encrypt digital products, with the human visual system (HVS) and other factors taken into account. This research is of significant importance and has industrial application value.
    • The rise and demise of the 14-19 diploma

      Senior, Lynn; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2015-08)
      The introduction of the 14-19 Diploma into the English Qualifications framework was the most developed attempt at creating a vocational qualification which advanced beyond mere job training. The Diploma offered vocational education with occupational capacity, underpinned by functional skills and academic subject content. It was truly the first hybrid qualification that attempted to combine the hitherto separate vocational and academic curricula. This study examines the educational policies that led to the introduction of the Diploma and the reasons behind its ultimate failure and demise. The study comprises two parts. The first is an investigation into the continuing professional development needs that this new initiative created for teachers. This led to the publication in 2010 of a book, The Essential Guide to Teaching 14-19 Diplomas, a description and account of which is presented in this thesis. This book was the first of its kind aimed at supporting teachers working with the Diploma. The key research findings addressed were the need to understand the structure and constituent elements of the Diploma and to provide practical advice on how to deliver effective Initial Advice and Guidance (IAG), Personal Thinking and Learning Skills (PTLS) and Functional Skills. The second part of the study is concerned with the aftermath of the Diploma. This involved an examination of the professional ethos and standing of vocational subject teachers within the author’s consortium of colleges and schools involved in teacher training, and their reactions to the withdrawal of support for the qualification following the change of government in 2010. The study concludes with an analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews or ‘conversations’ with leading educationalists concerning their attitudes to, and involvement with, the development of the Diploma and any ‘lessons for the future’. The key findings from the second part of the study are there were several issues in the development and implementation of the Diploma that were critical factors leading to its demise. The first issue that arose from both the initial and final phases of the research was that the vocational Diploma was introduced very quickly following the rejection of Sir Mike Tomlinson’s proposals for linking academic and vocational learning. The qualification that was developed, the Vocational Diploma introduced in 2008, later renamed as the ‘Diploma’, only went part way to achieving the proposals put forward by Tomlinson. This was due to the complexity of collaboration between three sectors, pre- and post-compulsory education and employers, plus the complexity and breadth of the component parts of the qualification. Also arising from the research is that the rushed introduction did not allow the developers to pilot, review or consult effectively with the major stakeholders. The second issue, which is a thread throughout the research, is that the rush to implementation, coupled with the complexity of the qualification, demonstrated that there was a clear need for professional development within the teaching profession tasked with implementing the qualification. Indeed, the initial phase of the research highlights clear areas that teachers were unfamiliar with and were anxious about. The third issue that arises focuses on the demise of the qualification and the impact that it has had upon the teaching profession tasked with delivering it. The demise has created a certain disillusionment and loss of professional identity amongst the Diploma teachers and the teachers of vocational curriculum. There is now an uncertainty and mistrust in new vocational qualifications and there are real questions as to whether the Technical Baccalaureate, introduced in 2013, and the new 16-19 vocational study programmes are fit for purpose. The final issue is whether we should be looking back at the original proposals put forward by Tomlinson or whether we should be looking at a return to job-specific training. In conclusion, the common theme that arose from both sets of participants in the final stage of the study was of lost opportunities and the recognition that, after the demise of the diploma, there is a continuing state of policy confusion and that any new development needs to be from the ‘bottom up’.
    • A risk management system for healthcare facilities service operators

      Gombera, Peter Pachipano (University of Derby, 2003)
    • Risk, morality and pleasure in practice :

      Owen, Cherryl Marie. (University of Derby, 2002)
    • Risk-taking and expenditure in digital roulette: Examining the impact of tailored dynamic information and warnings on gambling attitudes and behaviours.

      McGivern, Paul R.; University of Derby (2018-07-20)
      Digital gambling is the fastest growing form of gambling in the world (Reilly & Smith, 2013a). Technological advancements continually increase access to gambling, which has led to increased social acceptance and uptake (Dragicevic & Tsogas, 2014) with Roulette being among the most popular games played both online and on Electronic Gaming Machines. In response, gambling stakeholders have drawn on the structural characteristics of gambling platforms to develop and improve Responsible Gambling (RG) devices for casual gamblers. Many RG data-tracking systems employ intuitive ‘traffic-light’ metaphors that enable gamblers to monitor their gambling (e.g. Wood & Griffiths, 2008), though uptake of voluntary RG devices is low (Schellinck & Schrans, 2011), leading to calls for mandatory RG systems. Another area that has received considerable RG research focus involves the use of pop-up messages (Auer & Griffiths, 2014). Studies have examined various message content, such as correcting erroneous beliefs, encouraging self-appraisal, gambling cessation, and the provision of personalised feedback. To date, findings have been inconsistent but promising. A shift towards the use of personalised information has become the preferred RG strategy, though message content and timing/frequency requires improvement (Griffiths, 2014). Moreover, warning messages are unable to provide continuous feedback to gamblers. In response to this, and calls for a ‘risk meter’ to improve monitoring of gambling behaviours (Wiebe & Philander, 2013), this thesis tested the impact of a risk meter alongside improved pop-up warning messages as RG devices for within-session roulette gambling. The thesis aimed to establish the optimal application of these devices for facilitating safer gambling behaviours. In support of the aims of RG research to evaluate the impact of devices on gambling attitudes and behaviours, the Elaboration Likelihood Model was identified as a suitable framework to test the proposed RG devices (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). Both the interactive risk meter and pop-up messages were developed based on existing methods and recommendations in the RG literature, and examined via a series of laboratory-based roulette simulation experiments. Overall, results found the risk meter to be most effective when used as an interactive probability meter. Self-appraisal/Informative pop-up warnings were examined alongside expenditure-specific and hyrbid warnings. Findings showed that hybrid messages containing both types of information to be most effective, with optimal display points at 75%, 50%, 25% and 10% of remaining gambling credit. The final study tested both optimised devices (probability meter and hybrid messages). Results showed that using both RG devices in combination was most effective in facilitating reduced gambling risk and early within-session gambling cessation. Findings support the use of personalised, interactive RG devices using accurate context-specific information for the facilitation of safer gambling. The ELM was shown to be an effective model for testing RG devices, though findings suggested only temporary shifts in attitude change and a lack of impact on future gambling intentions. Overall, support for the implementation of RG devices that facilitate positive, temporary behaviour change that do not negatively impact on broader gambling attitudes or gambling enjoyment. Implications for theory, implementation, and RG frameworks are discussed, alongside recommendations for future research.