• One story, many journeys: an auto/biographic narrative case study of a community-university partnership

      Walker, Peter; University of Derby (2016-10-07)
      This is the story of a project to connect the resources of a university to the struggles of a group of Congolese asylum seekers in the city of Derby. It represents a case study of a whole process: this includes a specific project established to explore how a university might fulfil its stated goals of being closely anchored in the local and regional community; and how it might engage and marshal its resources to provide educational and maybe research opportunities, while giving priority to community-based projects that tackle social disadvantage. The thesis is made up of a number of overlapping elements: there is the story of the project itself, of why the University became involved, and the nature of the interaction with a particular community, as seen through the eyes of some of the Congolese and me the project coordinator/researcher. It includes my struggles to establish a steering committee with the Congolese and the creation of a range of educational/recreational resources to help members of a community manage the difficult, stressful and even traumatic processes of asylum. The project led to the establishment of a community association and various initiatives to dialogically engage with the community and gather diverse narratives. Finally it led to various outcomes leading to what might be a ‘Reconnecting the hearts and minds’ project, that created spaces for story telling for a number of women and men migrants. The project also included an evaluation, which developed at its core, into a collection of narratives chronicling the difficult processes of forced migration, where people experience the pain of family separation, the dislocation of landing in a foreign country. A country whose language was different, whose customs were strange and where the processes of claiming asylum could be alienating, and where racism is experienced. We can call this project and its evaluation a piece of action research with a series of narratives at its heart. The project and evaluation together raise questions about the role of creative activity and narrative in managing painful transitions. There is another story within the bigger one, however, a story of a project coordinator and his relationship with the community and the University of Derby... of initial enthusiasm followed by marginalisation and the closure of a supportive community development unit in the University; and of the placement of this role, for want of a better home, in the marketing department. This is also a narrative of registering for a doctorate, of being rejected, and of seeking to think through, with the help of others, what a good enough doctorate might entail. The end product has become a process of auto/biographical narrative reflexive research in which the narratives of the migrants intertwine with the researcher’s own; around the themes of dislocation, and of the struggles for voice and agency. The basic threads of the study are of a dislocating experience, and of how resources of hope can be found in creative activity – whether a sewing class, telling stories, fashion shows or engaging in auto/biographical narrative reflexivity. The basic argument has to do with tokenism and the disrespect that can surround university civic engagement as well as how asylum seekers are treated callously more generally; but also how resources of hope can make a difference. There is also the troubling issue of voice in research and whose story really counts; of a white, middle class male engaging with distressed women migrants, and of what might have been a silencing of the women concerned. But through values of commitment, and of learning to listen, the project became more dialogical, as evidenced in the women’s stories.
    • An online intelligent system for teaching engineering design technologies

      Oraifige, Amal Yousef Nour (University of Derby, 2010)
    • Our School Days: A Narrative Inquiry of the Lived Experiences of Former Pupils in Derbyshire Primary Schools from 1944 to 2009

      Tupling, Claire; Charles, Sarah; Shelton, Fiona (University of Derby, 2021-01-25)
      The aim of this study was to explore narratives of former pupils, who attended primary school between 1944 and 2009, to understand educational change and the everyday experience of educational policy. By exploring education through a lens of experience, the study adopted narrative inquiry as a method to awaken hidden stories of the ordinary, everyday experiences of the participants (narrators) to gain insight into their memories of primary school. Drawn together, these individual experiences form a ‘collected memory’ which provides insight into primary education across the different decades. The findings demonstrate how narrative inquiry offers insight into primary school experiences by examining stories as data sources, which bring to bear the experience of school from the perspective of former pupils. The stories, combined with an examination of literature and legislation, highlight how and why teachers are remembered, the curriculum, educational inequity, memories of playground games and books read at school. An implication for teacher educators is to include the understanding of experience and the impact that teaching methods and policy implementation can have in later life. Significantly, it is the stories themselves which bring to bear the experience of policy as recalled by the narrators and highlights the narrator-researcher relationship in awakening and interpreting the stories, demonstrating the value of story as a method for understanding education. Examination of the literature surfaces the rise of neoliberal ideology in education and the impact of this on children’s learning experiences. In addition, the government’s promulgation of the feminisation of the primary school, constructed through the government’s casting of women in the primary phase is observed. Education makes claims about inclusion, equality, access and social justice, it is hailed as the leveller for a more just and equal society, the stories elicited in this research demonstrate that the many facets of the education system are complicit in the notion of power (James, 2015). Therefore, those in positions of educational and political power in our society should not be generators of prevailing inequalities of policy but seek to identify and remove barriers to raise standards for all. The recommendations call for a repositioning of teachers as experts, and not merely ‘deliverers’ of policy and curriculum context. The performativity agenda of testing and inspections drives behaviours in schools, which are neither allied to the ethos of many teachers, nor to their pedagogical and subject expertise, therefore political and legislative change is required for teachers to be able to reassert themselves, to reclaim their authority and to lobby for greater democracy within the school system, particularly in relation to policy and curriculum development. Raising the profile of teachers and pupils as stakeholders is critical so that all stakes are equally valued and understood. An original contribution of this research demonstrates the value of story in gaining insights into how policy was experienced by the narrators and from which lessons can be learned. Thus, through application of narrative inquiry, it can be argued that story is a powerful method of understanding the experience of policy as remembered by former pupils. The concept of awakening, in bringing the story to bear, is key in this research, expanding Clandinin and Connelly’s (2000) notion of wakefulness. This was evident in the co-production of stories and the artefacts that were presented through the opening of narrative spaces in the interview process to awaken the story. This study therefore makes an original contribution, by using narrative inquiry as a methodological basis for awakening stories from the past, to understand the experience of educational policy set against the lived experience of the narrators over six decades of primary school education.
    • Outcomes of a marketing knowledge intervention using a metaphoric story-line approach: a mixed-methods study of 5 Israeli SMEs.

      Cohen, Josef; Derby U.K (2017-05-23)
      The purpose of this mixed-methods research is to determine the effectiveness of the Kingdom Marketing (KM) intervention for improving Israeli SME marketing knowledge among managers and employees of Israeli small and medium-sized business. The secondary objective of the study was to portray the process of change in participating organisations. The newly developed KM intervention programme was designed to enhance Israeli SMEs’ marketing knowledge and marketing strategy, imparting new marketing skills and allowing SMEs to operate with better marketing knowledge. The intervention uses a metaphoric story-line approach to teach participants in mediator-led sessions to understand and use important marketing concepts, such as the difference between sales and marketing. Although the intervention has been used in business settings, it has not yet been empirically validated using rigorous methods. This study was conducted using a mixed methods paradigm with an embedded experimental design. Five Israeli based SMEs were recruited to take part in the training programme. The research consisted of three phases. In Phase 1, I administered a preintervention evaluation to measure five variables: awareness of marketing processes, mistaken marketing attitudes, incorrect marketing process beliefs, organisational marketing skills, and marketing need awareness. Participants were also interviewed during Phase 1. In Phase 2, I administered the KM intervention and collected qualitative data in the form of daily open-ended feedback and a researcher diary. In Phase 3, I administered a postintervention evaluation to assess change in the five quantitative variables, and I conducted a second round of interviews. The findings indicated that the KM intervention programme (a) increased awareness of marketing processes, (b) reduced mistaken marketing attitudes, (c) reduced incorrect marketing process believes, and (d) increased marketing need awareness. However, the intervention had no significant effect on organisational marketing skills. Qualitative analysis confirmed that, although the KM intervention empowered participants with marketing knowledge and skills, it did not result in broad organisational changes. I conclude that the KM intervention programme is valid and worthy of wider use for promoting the survival of SME businesses through marketing knowledge and skill improvement. However, the intervention should be used in conjunction with internal efforts to translate increased knowledge into lasting organisational change.
    • Pain responses in athletes:

      Thornton, Claire; University of Derby (2018-09-04)
    • Paradoxical performance: Predictors and mechanisms associated with the yips and choking

      Clarke, Philip; Akehurst, Sally; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2017)
      In sport, the ability to perform under heightened levels of pressure is one of the largest differences between those who are successful and those who are not. There are a number of phenomena associated with breakdowns in an athlete’s performance in high pressure environments, collectively known as paradoxical performances (Baumeister & Showers, 1986). The two most prevalent and researched forms of paradoxical performance are the yips and choking. Although choking has been identified as playing a key role in understanding the yips, to date, no literature has explored these phenomena simultaneously. The current literature highlights potential mechanisms which may explain the yips and choking, such as the Attentional Control Theory (Eysenck & Derekshan, 2011) and the Conscious Processing Hypothesis (Masters, 1992). However, there is limited literature on the potential predictors that may increase the susceptibility of both these paradoxical performances and those which do, focus on golf. There are three aims of this thesis. The first aim was to develop a definition that best encompasses all aspects of the yips. This was achieved by conducting a systematic review of the yips literature which supported the development of a new two dimensional yips model including individuals with both focal dystonia and choking (type-III). The second aim was to investigate potential predictors associated with both the yips and choking that was achieved by completing two studies. The first explored the lived experiences of elite level archers who have experienced both choking and the yips and revealed a number of potential predictors associated with both the yips and choking. The second study tested these predictors using online questionnaires with elite level archers and golfers, and confirmed two discrete predictive models for yips and choking. The final aim of the thesis was to investigate the potential mechanisms associated with performance under pressure. A lab-based study where golfers and archers performed under both high and low pressure found that pressure elicited a range of psychological, physiological and kinematic changes in performance. The proposed two dimensional model from the systematic review received initial support for its application. A number of participants met the criteria for each of the different classifications: type-I, those who experience focal dystonia like symptoms; type-II, those who experience choking like symptoms and; type-III, those who experience both focal dystonia and choking like symptoms. This thesis also highlights the role of social predictors of the yips and choking with perfectionistic self-presentation being the most influential for those susceptible for the yips. These findings will enable practitioners to have a better understanding to effectively classify those who experience choking and the yips. This will allow practitioners to more effectively intervene with those who experience different classifications of the yips. The thesis also highlights the issues in the current literature that surround the measurement and conceptualisation of the yips type-I, type-II and type-III behaviour and provides future directions.
    • Parallaxical identities: Architectural semantics of contemporary arts institutions and the curation of cultural identity

      Tracada, Eleni; D'Arcy-Reed, Louis (University of Derby, 2019-09-19)
      The research project interrogates the identity forming principles beneath contemporary arts museum architecture across physical and psychoanalytical dimensions. In identifying a metaphysical distance, or barrier, between the unconscious of the cultural architectural intervention and the identity within the cities’ fabric, the state of a parallaxical identity manifests itself. The parallaxical identity, developed from Slavoj Žižek’s parallax gap in psychoanalysis, elicits the presentation of ego-ideal, ideal-ego, and superego of architectural interventions seen as regenerative for culture, the city and its communities. Developing the parallax within architecture allows the thesis to include a rigorous interrogation of theory across disciplines of psychoanalysis, architecture, contemporary art and museology, whilst also remediating the position of architectural practice beyond its conventional boundaries and rhetoric. Adopting a mixed methodology across theoretical and practical disciplines, the thesis reveals unconscious interpretations and embodied analyses through a weaving of para-architectural methods including, photography, questionnaires, exploratory installations, written prose, and imagined cultural visualisations. Three major arts institutions act as case study analysands for psychoanalytical observation and diagnosis to take place, informing the resulting framework for observing parallaxical identities, whilst also producing recommendations for the future of the cultural institution of the museum/gallery. Alongside the thesis’ position as a critical commentary, a supplementary PhD exhibition proposal centered on Parallaxical Identities questions the role of architecture as a discipline that necessitates para-architectural and psychoanalytic methodologies, whilst also presenting new artistic works in response to the thesis to reveal to audiences’ the haptic and hidden structures within architecture and the ‘expected or unexpected’ parallaxical interventions of place.
    • The perceived and actual effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania: Case study of Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora.

      Msuya, Asmahan Mssami; University of Derby (2017-12-07)
      Remittances to sub-Saharan Africa have steadily been on increase in recent decades. However, the full socio-economic benefits of remittances to some countries, such as Tanzania are far from clear. Consequently, the importance of this economic phenomenon in Tanzanian society is rather inconclusive, because their effects on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania are based largely on evidence from the regional area (i.e. sub-Saharan Africa) and from other developing countries. This study has examined the perceived and actual effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania from the viewpoint of Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora and the remittance receivers’ in Tanzania. The study was, therefore, based in two places, Leicester (United Kingdom- UK) and Tanzania. It adopts an inductive approach to enquiry for which both qualitative and quantitative data were collect from the three case studies: The first case study is Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora (the remittances senders), the second case study is remittance receivers in Tanzania (the remittances users), and third case study is Tanzanian government officials (i.e. researchers, policy makers and regulatory bodies). The significance of this study is that it is a two-way process conducted from the remittance senders’ (the Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora) and remittance the receivers’ perspectives (the remittance users in Tanzania). The study, therefore, involve tracking of remittances from Leicester to Tanzania. The study provides better insight and understanding of the effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania. It help to understand how best to harness diaspora and remittances through the understanding of diaspora’s capabilities and interests, as well as types of remittances sent to Tanzania, channels of sending, and any obstacles that hamper the effectiveness of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania. The study also offers insight into why the Tanzanian diaspora continues to remit. Amongst other reasons, it includes the retained belief in the Ujamaa ideology (family-hood or brother-hood). In turn, this adds significant contributions on the theories of migration and development, and motives to remit. The overall finding of this study is that remittances remain important to Tanzanian society, because they help to increase the amount of disposable money for spending on education, health, consumption, business formation, and investments. Unlike other international aid, remittances go directly to receivers. Thus, remittances tend to have immediate and direct effects on the livelihoods of the receivers. Remittances received from Leicester, therefore, help to improve the quality of lives of the recipients. Hence, they help to reduce depth and severity of poverty on the receiving communities. Nevertheless, the findings of this study clearly show that from a developmental perspective, one of the major challenges to the effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania is to motivate the diaspora to conduct their remittance transfer operations through formal channels. This has remained a major challenge because of high fees associated with transfer of financial and material remittances, lack of formal channels in rural areas of Tanzania, and a total lack of appropriate formal channels for transmitting social remittances to Tanzania. The study recommends that policies on diaspora and remittances should be designed to encourage diaspora to send remittances through formal channels with low transaction costs. This is important because it will make easier to channel remittances into sustainable developmental projects that could fuel community and national development, thereby touching not only the direct recipients but also the general public. The study also recommends that both Tanzania and the UK government need to ensure social remittances (e.g. skills, technology-know-how, knowledge and experiences) are effectively being acquired, utilized and transmitted to Tanzania for the development of the country. This can be achieved by create a common platform for dialogue between diaspora, Tanzania and the UK governments, which will enable to understand local needs alongside the skills, knowledge, capacities and interests of the diaspora. The study concludes that in spite of other interventions and perhaps a lesser emphasis on social remittance sending to Tanzania nowadays, diaspora remittances remain a critical input into poverty reduction and development in Tanzania.
    • A phenomenological study of students with hidden disabilities in higher education: A cross sectional study of learning support needs in a University in the UK.

      Shepherd, Rosemary; University of Derby (2018-05)
      This phenomenological study was designed and conducted in a Post 1992 ‘new university’ situated in the UK. The aims of the study were a) to investigate inclusive practice amongst disabled students in higher education, b) to explore students’ perceptions on their lived experiences of the support provided c) to explore disabled students’ experiences of the process in gaining support d) to identify the kind of practices disabled students used to support their own effective learning in HE. A sample of 14 students, aged 19 to 56 volunteered to participate in the study. The study was underpinned by inclusive theory and equality policy provided for higher education institutions. Rich data from phenomenological interviews was analysed using thematic and narrative analysis. Analysis of the data uncovered new knowledge for lecturers and support staff in understanding disabled students’ lived experiences as they approached support systems and classrooms in higher education. The key findings involved a) barriers to communication and collaboration between students and lecturers, b) attitudes of staff and the asymmetries of power experienced by students in accessing support, c) issues around student anxiety, dependence and independence and ownership of learning, d) the idea that a reasonable adjustment could be unreasonable and embarrassing and evidence of tokenism in supporting students. The recommendations included a) the need for more in-depth training for all staff in equality and inclusive practice and inclusive course design, b) more support for students in negotiating their Study Needs Assessment, c) bridging the communication gap between Student Wellbeing, lecturers and students. The changes in funding to the Disabled Students’ Allowance came into force during 2016 which has consequently reduced or removed support for students who have disclosed a disability. Due to such changes, it will be even more important for universities to support the training of students, lecturers and support staff in creating and maintaining more inclusive environments in the future.
    • THE PHOTOGRAPH REFLECTED: APPROPRIATIONS OF THE VERNACULAR IN CONTEMPORARY ART

      Alves, Cesário; College of Arts, Humanities and Education of the University of Derby (2018)
    • Place matters: young people’s transitions to the labour market.

      Hutchinson, Jo; University of Derby (2017-12)
      Career guidance is a core element of labour market and education policy. Young people’s transitions from education to employment need support through active career guidance. This body of research examines aspects of place and partnership working as it applies to career policy and practice for young people with a particular focus on the role of schools. The engagement of diverse partners from different sectors and interests has become an essential element of public policy and its implementation. To understand partnership working it is critical to pay attention to the relationship between the selection of partners, their combined remit, the scale of their activities and the diverse places in which they emerge. Many of the issues that policy attempts to address are also shaped by, and in, the places in which they are experienced. The research informing these papers has been undertaken as either academic research projects or as funded research over more than two decades. Many have used place-based case studies. The overall finding of this is that deliberative multi-partner engagement has become essential to the provision of pathways to the labour market that would otherwise be blocked for some young people. The centre of gravity in these discussions is the school. As organisations with a geographic footprint, the active engagement of schools in partnerships builds infrastructures, pathways and new spaces of engagement that help their pupils understand the work place. Through the twin policy paths of territorial economic development policy and a progressive socio-political approach to career guidance, policy makers have endowed schools with this responsibility. Schools are spaces of engagement with a wider world and simultaneously they are places that reflect their economic, social and cultural context. Their role as partner and place-maker needs acknowledgement within any national careers strategy that hopes to connect a spatially sensitive industrial policy with a locally enacted careers and labour market policy.