• The needs of clients coming to counselling following an experience of second harm: A Q Methodology study

      Whiffin, Charlotte; Townend, Michael; Kenward, Linda (University of DerbyUniversity of Cumbria, 2021-02)
      Introduction Successive reports identified that psychological harm (second harm) can be caused to patients by poor responses of healthcare providers to initial errors or neglect. Aim To explore the needs of clients coming to counselling following experience of second harm. Method A Q methodology study involving ten participants UK wide was undertaken. Participants sorted 42 statements online constructed from a concourse comprising sources on experiences of second harm. Concourse sources focused on the deficits of interpersonal relationships, therefore statements focused on what participants needed from interpersonal relationships with counsellors moving towards recovery. Data analysis Factor Analysis via PQMethod was undertaken on the Q sort data. The interview data was used to elucidate the nuances of the Factors as viewpoints. Findings Two Factors were extracted from the Q sort data that demonstrated the viewpoints of participants: Viewpoint 1 – Needs that are both past and present focused: being understood. Viewpoint 2 – Needs that are both present and recovery focused: making me well. From these two viewpoints 11 perceived needs were identified. Nine were identified as generic needs within the counselling relationship; however, two were identified as specific to those attending counselling for second harm. Counselling needs specific to second harm were; the need for participants to not be blamed for what happened and, the need to have the counsellor understand the impact of the harm and the complaints and litigation system including issues of control, power, and autonomy. Conclusion Findings of this study revealed people who seek counselling following experiences of second harm have specific needs beyond those expected from a general counselling relationship. Furthermore this study was able to define second harm for the first time and offers this to the research and practice community in the hope it will advance the field by helping counsellors to understand the concept, nature, and impact of second harm in addition to the expected skill set for any counsellor supporting those who have experienced second harm. Further research is required to evaluate the impact of educating counsellors in second harm and further testing of the definition of second harm.
    • Negotiation strategy in Egyptian multinational enterprises.

      Abouhamada, Abdelmawgoud Abdalla (University of Derby, 2001)
    • “New public Management reforms, an empirical study of human resources critical factors, in the context of the Greek Public sector”

      Liveris, Panagiotis D.; University of Derby (2015-08-25)
      This work is an endeavour on the subject of the Critical Success Factors imposed by Human Resources, in the process of reforms, under the context of New Public Management, particularly, as this applies in the Greek Public Sector and more specifically in the cases of ISO implementation. The fundamental issues it attempts to elucidate are the Human Resources policies that must be applied, so that employees become an integral element for the successful implementation of any introduced reforms. Many scholars have pointed out the gap in literature regarding the effect of New Public Management (NPM) reforms on the human factor. Moreover, in the current Greek reality, in the context of the economic recession and the debt crisis, where public administration reforms are mandatory, the thorough examination of the vital issues, pertaining to Human Resources, consists a major priority. The qualitative research method applied with the employees of the reformed organisations has further aspired to ponder and determine what really matters during the transformational process from the employees’ point of view. The conclusions we have reached underpin the importance of Human Resources motivational factors in the reform process, taking into consideration that the employee is the catalyst for any change effort. Some of those factors were found to be also part of the ISO concept per se, thus, their implementation would boost the employees’ morale, while others must be carefully analysed, planned and implemented by all the stakeholders to further facilitate the change process. We have to bear in mind that, especially under the current dire economic environment, quality reforms could be a challenge, as they combine fiscal discipline and at the same time aspire to increase the employees’ and citizens’ satisfaction. This study goes further to suggest that, the implementation of ISO reforms could help all the participants, provided that the decision makers take into serious consideration the Critical Success Factors outlined herewith, that have been extracted from a survey conducted pertinent to our research. This study focused on the reforms/ISO process as implemented by the Intermediate Managing Authority of the Ionian Islands. Further research on the implications from the implementation of NMP doctrines on Human Resources should be conducted in other Greek governmental organisations, in order to reaffirm the results and possibly enhance the suggested model. Conclusively, our ultimate target is to assist decision makers and encourage them to utilise the arguments depicted, towards the successful implementation of NPM doctrines.
    • A novel approach to the control of quad-rotor helicopters using fuzzy-neural networks

      Wu, Mian Hong; Bousbaine, Amar; Hu, Huosheng; Poyi, Gwangtim Timothy (University of DerbyCollege of Engineering and Technology, 2014-12-01)
      Quad-rotor helicopters are agile aircraft which are lifted and propelled by four rotors. Unlike traditional helicopters, they do not require a tail-rotor to control yaw, but can use four smaller fixed-pitch rotors. However, without an intelligent control system it is very difficult for a human to successfully fly and manoeuvre such a vehicle. Thus, most of recent research has focused on small unmanned aerial vehicles, such that advanced embedded control systems could be developed to control these aircrafts. Vehicles of this nature are very useful when it comes to situations that require unmanned operations, for instance performing tasks in dangerous and/or inaccessible environments that could put human lives at risk. This research demonstrates a consistent way of developing a robust adaptive controller for quad-rotor helicopters, using fuzzy-neural networks; creating an intelligent system that is able to monitor and control the non-linear multi-variable flying states of the quad-rotor, enabling it to adapt to the changing environmental situations and learn from past missions. Firstly, an analytical dynamic model of the quad-rotor helicopter was developed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software, where the behaviour of the quad-rotor helicopter was assessed due to voltage excitation. Secondly, a 3-D model with the same parameter values as that of the analytical dynamic model was developed using Solidworks software. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was then used to simulate and analyse the effects of the external disturbance on the control and performance of the quad-rotor helicopter. Verification and validation of the two models were carried out by comparing the simulation results with real flight experiment results. The need for more reliable and accurate simulation data led to the development of a neural network error compensation system, which was embedded in the simulation system to correct the minor discrepancies found between the simulation and experiment results. Data obtained from the simulations were then used to train a fuzzy-neural system, made up of a hierarchy of controllers to control the attitude and position of the quad-rotor helicopter. The success of the project was measured against the quad-rotor’s ability to adapt to wind speeds of different magnitudes and directions by re-arranging the speeds of the rotors to compensate for any disturbance. From the simulation results, the fuzzy-neural controller is sufficient to achieve attitude and position control of the quad-rotor helicopter in different weather conditions, paving way for future real time applications.
    • A Novel Mathematical Layout Optimisation Method and Design Framework for Modularisation in Industrial Process Plants and SMRs

      Wood, Paul; Hall, Richard; Robertson, Daniel; Wrigley, Paul (University of DerbyInstitute for Innovation in Sustainable EngineeringUniversity of Derby, 2021-01-19)
      Nuclear power has been proposed as a low carbon solution to electricity generation when intermittent wind and solar renewable energy are not generating. Nuclear can provide co-generation through district heating, desalination, hydrogen production or aid in the process of producing synfuels. However, current new large nuclear power plants are expensive, time consuming to build and plagued by delays and cost increases. An emerging trend in the construction industry is to manufacture parts off the critical path, off site in factories, through modular design to reduce schedules and direct costs. A study from shipbuilding estimates work done in a factory may be 8 times more efficient than performing the same work on site. This productivity increase could be a solution to the problems in nuclear power plant construction. It is an emerging area and the International Atomic Energy Agency records over 50 Small Modular Reactor designs in commercial development worldwide. Most Small Modular Reactor designs focus on integrating the Nuclear Steam Supply System into one module. The aim of this Applied Research Programme was to develop an efficient and effective analysis tool for modularisation in industrial plant systems. The objectives were to understand the state of the art in modular construction and automating design through a literature review. The literature review in this thesis highlighted that automating earlier parts of the plant design process (equipment databases, selection tools and modular Process and Instrumentation Diagrams) have been developed in modular industrial process plant research but 3D layout has not been studied. It was also found that layout optimisation for industrial process plants has not considered modularisation. It was therefore proposed to develop a novel mathematical layout optimisation method for modularisation of industrial plants. Furthermore, the integration within the plant design process would be improved by developing a method to integrate the output of the optimisation with the plant design software. A case study was developed to analyse how this new method would compare against the current design process at Rolls-Royce. A systems engineering approach was taken to develop the capabilities of the optimisation by decomposing the three required constituents of modularisation: development of a model to optimise layout of modules utilising the module designs from previous research (Lapp, 1989), development of a model to optimise the layout equipment within modules and development of a combined and integrated model to optimise assignment and layout of equipment to modules. The objective function was to reduce pipe length as it can constitute up to 20% of process plant costs (Peters, Timmerhaus, & West, 2003) and to reduce the number of modules utilised. The results from the mathematical model were compared against previous layout designs (Lapp, 1989), highlighting a 46-88.7% reduction in pipework and considering pipework costs can be up to 20% of a process plant cost, this could be a significant saving. This does not consider the significant schedule and productivity savings by moving this work offsite. The second model (Bi) analysed the layout of the Chemical Volume and Control System and Boron Thermal Regeneration System into one and two modules, reducing pipe cost and installation by 67.6% and 85% respectively compared to the previously designed systems from (Lapp, 1989). The third model (Bii) considered the allocation of equipment to multiple modules, reducing pipe cost and installation by 80.5% compared to the previously designed systems from (Lapp, 1989), creating new data and knowledge. Mixed Integer Linear Programming formulations and soft constraints within the genetic algorithm function were utilised within MATLAB and Gurobi. Furthermore, by integrating the optimisation output with the plant design software to update the new locations of equipment and concept pipe routing, efficiency is vastly improved when the plant design engineer interprets the optimisation results. Not only can the mathematical layout optimisation analyse millions more possible layouts than an engineering designer, it can perform the function in a fraction of the time, saving time and costs. It at least gives the design engineer a suitable starting point which can be analysed and the optimisation model updated in an iterative process. This novel method was compared against the current design process at Rolls-Royce, it was found that an update to a module would take minutes with the novel optimisation and integration with the plant design software method, rather than days or weeks for the manual process. However, the disadvantage is that more upfront work is required to convert engineering knowledge into mathematical terms and relationships. The research is limited by the publicly available nuclear power plant data. Future work could include applying this novel method to wider industrial plant design to understand the broader impact. The mathematical optimisation model can be developed in the future to include constraints in other research such as assembly, operation and maintenance costs.
    • A novel service discovery model for decentralised online social networks.

      Yuan, Bo; University of Derby (2018-03)
      Online social networks (OSNs) have become the most popular Internet application that attracts billions of users to share information, disseminate opinions and interact with others in the online society. The unprecedented growing popularity of OSNs naturally makes using social network services as a pervasive phenomenon in our daily life. The majority of OSNs service providers adopts a centralised architecture because of its management simplicity and content controllability. However, the centralised architecture for large-scale OSNs applications incurs costly deployment of computing infrastructures and suffers performance bottleneck. Moreover, the centralised architecture has two major shortcomings: the single point failure problem and the lack of privacy, which challenges the uninterrupted service provision and raises serious privacy concerns. This thesis proposes a decentralised approach based on peer-to-peer (P2P) networks as an alternative to the traditional centralised architecture. Firstly, a self-organised architecture with self-sustaining social network adaptation has been designed to support decentralised topology maintenance. This self-organised architecture exhibits small-world characteristics with short average path length and large average clustering coefficient to support efficient information exchange. Based on this self-organised architecture, a novel decentralised service discovery model has been developed to achieve a semantic-aware and interest-aware query routing in the P2P social network. The proposed model encompasses a service matchmaking module to capture the hidden semantic information for query-service matching and a homophily-based query processing module to characterise user’s common social status and interests for personalised query routing. Furthermore, in order to optimise the efficiency of service discovery, a swarm intelligence inspired algorithm has been designed to reduce the query routing overhead. This algorithm employs an adaptive forwarding strategy that can adapt to various social network structures and achieves promising search performance with low redundant query overhead in dynamic environments. Finally, a configurable software simulator is implemented to simulate complex networks and to evaluate the proposed service discovery model. Extensive experiments have been conducted through simulations, and the obtained results have demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed model.
    • The Nowhere Bible: the Biblical passage Numbers 13 as a case study of Utopian and Dystopian readings by diachronic audiences

      Speck, Simon; Chalcraft, David; Aune, Kristin; Uhlenbruch, Frauke (University of DerbyCentre for Society, Religion, and Belief, University of Derby, 2014-03-10)
      Applying utopian theory to the Bible reveals a number of issues surrounding the biblical text within academic disciplines such as biblical studies, which study the Bible as an ancient cultural artefact, and among religious readers of the Bible. The biblical passage Numbers 13 was chosen as a case study of a utopian reading of the image of the Promised Land to demonstrate the Bible’s multifaceted potential by externalising the presupposition brought to the text. The underlying method is derived from an ideal type procedure, appropriated from Weber. Instead of comparing phenomena to each other, one compares a phenomenon to a constructed ideal type. This method enables one to compare phenomena independently of exclusive definitions and direct linear influences. It has been suggested by biblical scholars that utopian readings of the Bible can yield insights into socio-political circumstances in the society which produced biblical texts. Using observations by Holquist about utopias’ relationships to reality it is asked if applying the concept of utopia to a biblical passage allows drawing conclusions about the originating society of the Hebrew Bible. The answer is negative. Theory about literary utopias is applied to the case study passage. Numbers 13 is similar to literary utopias in juxtaposing a significantly improved society with a home society, the motif of travellers in an unfamiliar environment, and the feature of a map which is graphically not representable. Noth’s reading of the biblical passage’s toponyms reveals that its map is a utopian map. Numbers 13 is best understood as a literary utopia describing an unrealistic environment and using common utopian techniques and motifs. Despite describing an unrealistic environment, the passage was understood as directly relevant to reality by readers throughout time, for example by Bradford. Following two Puritan readings, it is observed that biblical utopian texts have the potential of being applied in reality by those who see them as a call to action. If a literary utopia is attempted to be brought into reality, it becomes apparent that it marginalises those who are not utopian protagonists; in the case study passage, the non-Israelite tribes, in Bradford’s reading, the Native Nations in New England. The interplay of utopia and dystopia is explored and it is concluded that a definitive trait of literary utopias is their potential to turn into an experienced dystopia if enforced literally. This argument is supported by demonstrating that the utopian traits of the case study passage contain dystopian downsides if read from a different perspective. A contemporary utopian reading of the case study passage is proposed. Today utopian speculation most often appears in works of science fiction (SF). Motifs appearing in the case study passage are read as tropes familiar to a contemporary Bible reader from SF. Following D. Suvin’s SF theory, it is concluded that the Bible in the contemporary world can be understood as a piece of SF. It contains the juxtaposition of an estranged world with a reader’s experienced world as well as a potential utopian and dystopian message.
    • Numerical Study of Track-Trailer Gap Aerodynamics

      Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; Charles, Terrance Priestley (University of Derby, 2020-12-08)
      Aerodynamics have become an essential design process for ground vehicles in order to improve the fuel consumption by lowering the emissions along with increasing the range of vehicles using different source of power. A significant portion of the world CO2 emissions is a result of ground vehicles with a more significant portion of these contributed by trucks. The boxy nature of trucks is the desired shape to carry maximum payload. However, a box shaped geometry is not aerodynamically efficient. Several manufacturers have developed aerodynamic add on devices that are optimized to the shape of the truck, in order to achieve gains in lowering emission and improving range by deeper understanding of the flow physics around the vehicle. The thesis reports an in-depth understanding of the flow field within the gap region of a tractor trailer combination truck and how several aerodynamic add on devices reduce the overall drag of a truck. The gap region of a truck typically contributes to about 20-25% of the overall vehicle drag and hence presents an opportunity for considerable level of drag reduction. A basic two box bluff body (2D & 3D) model was used to investigate how the flow field changes by changing the gap width between the two bluff bodies. A section of the thesis investigates the sudden increase in drag coefficient of the downstream cube around 2D tandem bluff bodies. Distinct flow patterns were observed in the gap and around the 2D tandem at different gap ratios. The sudden change in drag coefficient for the 2D downstream bluff body is well captured numerically, which is due to the wake of the upstream cube impinging onto the front face of the downstream cube. A steady increase in drag coefficient is witnessed for the 3D cubes which are consistent with previous experimental findings. The steady increase in drag coefficient is due to the vortical structures formed around the 3D cubes which are different, which consist of a smooth transition. Hence, they result in steady increase in drag coefficient. A second study was conducted on a realistic truck like test case with the simplified truck model where the leading edges of the tractor were rounded off to manipulate the flow separation. As a result of leading edge rounding off the flow separation reduced significantly resulting in a major portion of the flow remain attached to the lateral walls of the tractor. This was seen to increase the flow entering the gap region between the tractor and trailer. Finally, several add on devices which were subdivided based on tractor and trailer mounted devices were numerically assessed with several other devices within the gap region. Significant level of drag reduction was achieved for the entire truck with these add on devices. The highest drag reduction was achieved with the base bleeding technique. Overall, the research has shown that it is important to control the flow condition within the gap region and maintain an even pressure on the front face of the trailer. The base bleeding method proved to be a vital technique to further reduce drag.
    • Nurse to educator? ;

      Duffy, Richelle (University of Derby, 2012)
    • One story, many journeys: an auto/biographic narrative case study of a community-university partnership

      Walker, Peter; University of Derby (2016-10-07)
      This is the story of a project to connect the resources of a university to the struggles of a group of Congolese asylum seekers in the city of Derby. It represents a case study of a whole process: this includes a specific project established to explore how a university might fulfil its stated goals of being closely anchored in the local and regional community; and how it might engage and marshal its resources to provide educational and maybe research opportunities, while giving priority to community-based projects that tackle social disadvantage. The thesis is made up of a number of overlapping elements: there is the story of the project itself, of why the University became involved, and the nature of the interaction with a particular community, as seen through the eyes of some of the Congolese and me the project coordinator/researcher. It includes my struggles to establish a steering committee with the Congolese and the creation of a range of educational/recreational resources to help members of a community manage the difficult, stressful and even traumatic processes of asylum. The project led to the establishment of a community association and various initiatives to dialogically engage with the community and gather diverse narratives. Finally it led to various outcomes leading to what might be a ‘Reconnecting the hearts and minds’ project, that created spaces for story telling for a number of women and men migrants. The project also included an evaluation, which developed at its core, into a collection of narratives chronicling the difficult processes of forced migration, where people experience the pain of family separation, the dislocation of landing in a foreign country. A country whose language was different, whose customs were strange and where the processes of claiming asylum could be alienating, and where racism is experienced. We can call this project and its evaluation a piece of action research with a series of narratives at its heart. The project and evaluation together raise questions about the role of creative activity and narrative in managing painful transitions. There is another story within the bigger one, however, a story of a project coordinator and his relationship with the community and the University of Derby... of initial enthusiasm followed by marginalisation and the closure of a supportive community development unit in the University; and of the placement of this role, for want of a better home, in the marketing department. This is also a narrative of registering for a doctorate, of being rejected, and of seeking to think through, with the help of others, what a good enough doctorate might entail. The end product has become a process of auto/biographical narrative reflexive research in which the narratives of the migrants intertwine with the researcher’s own; around the themes of dislocation, and of the struggles for voice and agency. The basic threads of the study are of a dislocating experience, and of how resources of hope can be found in creative activity – whether a sewing class, telling stories, fashion shows or engaging in auto/biographical narrative reflexivity. The basic argument has to do with tokenism and the disrespect that can surround university civic engagement as well as how asylum seekers are treated callously more generally; but also how resources of hope can make a difference. There is also the troubling issue of voice in research and whose story really counts; of a white, middle class male engaging with distressed women migrants, and of what might have been a silencing of the women concerned. But through values of commitment, and of learning to listen, the project became more dialogical, as evidenced in the women’s stories.
    • An online intelligent system for teaching engineering design technologies

      Oraifige, Amal Yousef Nour (University of Derby, 2010)
    • Our School Days: A Narrative Inquiry of the Lived Experiences of Former Pupils in Derbyshire Primary Schools from 1944 to 2009

      Tupling, Claire; Charles, Sarah; Shelton, Fiona (University of Derby, 2021-01-25)
      The aim of this study was to explore narratives of former pupils, who attended primary school between 1944 and 2009, to understand educational change and the everyday experience of educational policy. By exploring education through a lens of experience, the study adopted narrative inquiry as a method to awaken hidden stories of the ordinary, everyday experiences of the participants (narrators) to gain insight into their memories of primary school. Drawn together, these individual experiences form a ‘collected memory’ which provides insight into primary education across the different decades. The findings demonstrate how narrative inquiry offers insight into primary school experiences by examining stories as data sources, which bring to bear the experience of school from the perspective of former pupils. The stories, combined with an examination of literature and legislation, highlight how and why teachers are remembered, the curriculum, educational inequity, memories of playground games and books read at school. An implication for teacher educators is to include the understanding of experience and the impact that teaching methods and policy implementation can have in later life. Significantly, it is the stories themselves which bring to bear the experience of policy as recalled by the narrators and highlights the narrator-researcher relationship in awakening and interpreting the stories, demonstrating the value of story as a method for understanding education. Examination of the literature surfaces the rise of neoliberal ideology in education and the impact of this on children’s learning experiences. In addition, the government’s promulgation of the feminisation of the primary school, constructed through the government’s casting of women in the primary phase is observed. Education makes claims about inclusion, equality, access and social justice, it is hailed as the leveller for a more just and equal society, the stories elicited in this research demonstrate that the many facets of the education system are complicit in the notion of power (James, 2015). Therefore, those in positions of educational and political power in our society should not be generators of prevailing inequalities of policy but seek to identify and remove barriers to raise standards for all. The recommendations call for a repositioning of teachers as experts, and not merely ‘deliverers’ of policy and curriculum context. The performativity agenda of testing and inspections drives behaviours in schools, which are neither allied to the ethos of many teachers, nor to their pedagogical and subject expertise, therefore political and legislative change is required for teachers to be able to reassert themselves, to reclaim their authority and to lobby for greater democracy within the school system, particularly in relation to policy and curriculum development. Raising the profile of teachers and pupils as stakeholders is critical so that all stakes are equally valued and understood. An original contribution of this research demonstrates the value of story in gaining insights into how policy was experienced by the narrators and from which lessons can be learned. Thus, through application of narrative inquiry, it can be argued that story is a powerful method of understanding the experience of policy as remembered by former pupils. The concept of awakening, in bringing the story to bear, is key in this research, expanding Clandinin and Connelly’s (2000) notion of wakefulness. This was evident in the co-production of stories and the artefacts that were presented through the opening of narrative spaces in the interview process to awaken the story. This study therefore makes an original contribution, by using narrative inquiry as a methodological basis for awakening stories from the past, to understand the experience of educational policy set against the lived experience of the narrators over six decades of primary school education.
    • Outcomes of a marketing knowledge intervention using a metaphoric story-line approach: a mixed-methods study of 5 Israeli SMEs.

      Cohen, Josef; Derby U.K (2017-05-23)
      The purpose of this mixed-methods research is to determine the effectiveness of the Kingdom Marketing (KM) intervention for improving Israeli SME marketing knowledge among managers and employees of Israeli small and medium-sized business. The secondary objective of the study was to portray the process of change in participating organisations. The newly developed KM intervention programme was designed to enhance Israeli SMEs’ marketing knowledge and marketing strategy, imparting new marketing skills and allowing SMEs to operate with better marketing knowledge. The intervention uses a metaphoric story-line approach to teach participants in mediator-led sessions to understand and use important marketing concepts, such as the difference between sales and marketing. Although the intervention has been used in business settings, it has not yet been empirically validated using rigorous methods. This study was conducted using a mixed methods paradigm with an embedded experimental design. Five Israeli based SMEs were recruited to take part in the training programme. The research consisted of three phases. In Phase 1, I administered a preintervention evaluation to measure five variables: awareness of marketing processes, mistaken marketing attitudes, incorrect marketing process beliefs, organisational marketing skills, and marketing need awareness. Participants were also interviewed during Phase 1. In Phase 2, I administered the KM intervention and collected qualitative data in the form of daily open-ended feedback and a researcher diary. In Phase 3, I administered a postintervention evaluation to assess change in the five quantitative variables, and I conducted a second round of interviews. The findings indicated that the KM intervention programme (a) increased awareness of marketing processes, (b) reduced mistaken marketing attitudes, (c) reduced incorrect marketing process believes, and (d) increased marketing need awareness. However, the intervention had no significant effect on organisational marketing skills. Qualitative analysis confirmed that, although the KM intervention empowered participants with marketing knowledge and skills, it did not result in broad organisational changes. I conclude that the KM intervention programme is valid and worthy of wider use for promoting the survival of SME businesses through marketing knowledge and skill improvement. However, the intervention should be used in conjunction with internal efforts to translate increased knowledge into lasting organisational change.
    • Pain responses in athletes:

      Thornton, Claire; University of Derby (2018-09-04)
    • Paradoxical performance: Predictors and mechanisms associated with the yips and choking

      Clarke, Philip; Akehurst, Sally; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2017)
      In sport, the ability to perform under heightened levels of pressure is one of the largest differences between those who are successful and those who are not. There are a number of phenomena associated with breakdowns in an athlete’s performance in high pressure environments, collectively known as paradoxical performances (Baumeister & Showers, 1986). The two most prevalent and researched forms of paradoxical performance are the yips and choking. Although choking has been identified as playing a key role in understanding the yips, to date, no literature has explored these phenomena simultaneously. The current literature highlights potential mechanisms which may explain the yips and choking, such as the Attentional Control Theory (Eysenck & Derekshan, 2011) and the Conscious Processing Hypothesis (Masters, 1992). However, there is limited literature on the potential predictors that may increase the susceptibility of both these paradoxical performances and those which do, focus on golf. There are three aims of this thesis. The first aim was to develop a definition that best encompasses all aspects of the yips. This was achieved by conducting a systematic review of the yips literature which supported the development of a new two dimensional yips model including individuals with both focal dystonia and choking (type-III). The second aim was to investigate potential predictors associated with both the yips and choking that was achieved by completing two studies. The first explored the lived experiences of elite level archers who have experienced both choking and the yips and revealed a number of potential predictors associated with both the yips and choking. The second study tested these predictors using online questionnaires with elite level archers and golfers, and confirmed two discrete predictive models for yips and choking. The final aim of the thesis was to investigate the potential mechanisms associated with performance under pressure. A lab-based study where golfers and archers performed under both high and low pressure found that pressure elicited a range of psychological, physiological and kinematic changes in performance. The proposed two dimensional model from the systematic review received initial support for its application. A number of participants met the criteria for each of the different classifications: type-I, those who experience focal dystonia like symptoms; type-II, those who experience choking like symptoms and; type-III, those who experience both focal dystonia and choking like symptoms. This thesis also highlights the role of social predictors of the yips and choking with perfectionistic self-presentation being the most influential for those susceptible for the yips. These findings will enable practitioners to have a better understanding to effectively classify those who experience choking and the yips. This will allow practitioners to more effectively intervene with those who experience different classifications of the yips. The thesis also highlights the issues in the current literature that surround the measurement and conceptualisation of the yips type-I, type-II and type-III behaviour and provides future directions.