• Managing tourism across boundaries through Communities

      Clarke, Alan; Rawlinson, Sarah; Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, peter (University of Derby, 2019-05-07)
      Over more than a decade, observations of community based tourism inspired in me a series of publications that are detailed in this meta-analysis. These twenty five publications deal with the relationship between supply and demand in tourism from a socially constructed heuristic and hermeneutic perspective. Heuristic, as the work conducted was based around observations, even participation, in problem solving action with a wide range of stakeholders. Hermeneutic, as the research observations and participation undertaken identified root causes and opportunities pertinent to community development . Therefore this represents a study of tourism management designed to resolve complex, somewhat chaotic and wicked problems centred around the agendas for suppliers of tourism that challenged the existing management practices and perceived solutions. Solutions have been constructed built around an interpretation of habitus and beliefs that are predicated on a four component model. The first is the accrual of case studies with which to benchmark achievement that might be seen as best practice and worthy of emulation. The second is cohesion with fervently held beliefs and habitus adopted in parallel business cases, quite possibly in a competitive and quality-driven service sector. The third is enduring benchmarks in good practices that can be re-visited and adapted to meet the changing complex needs of communities. The fourth component is sharing the knowledge obtained, and maximising uptake of scarce resources used, across the varying sectors and destinations. These shared new experiences in learning are becoming embedded in education but now also need embedding in accessible repositories that conceivably are available at very low cost to a much wider range of interested stakeholders. “Being, thinking and doing” are the words that come to mind when I reflect on my publishing journey in academia from 2005 to the present day (Kassel, Rimanoczy, and Mitchell, 2016). “Being”, as I am a researcher with a passion for all that concerns the community and my role informing and advising the various stakeholders charged or expected to deliver for the visitor. “Thinking” as I am actively identifying practices for future consideration that incorporate identified exemplars of sustainable development that we can all learn from. "Doing”, as a measure of our achievements as communities and how we can embed both tacit and explicit knowledge in learning in the community and in Higher Education. My work embeds that knowledge in those stakeholders deemed jointly responsible for managing the tourism experience. Tourism can be a force for good in any community and typically relies on starting with beliefs, values and identity. Stakeholders should accept learning about the changing face of responsibility for development as that community evolves. This approach is both emancipatory and inclusive in the twenty first century and it is reflective of critical endogenous decision-making in academia and praxis. My studies in New Zealand and in the United Kingdom clarify that tourism as a “force for good” is collective, cross-border, interdisciplinary and cooperative. I believe that shared stories of effort, innovation and success are vital to future thinking, as destinations pride themselves on distinctiveness and reflect an evolving public/private partnership nature. This focus mirrors beliefs in dyadic partnerships that acknowledges the twin responsibilities to conservation and protection in the development of communities. Through an amalgam of soft-systems methodologies and phenomenology I have discovered the need for multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. I am committed to a constructivist, stakeholder focus for responsibility and gladly acknowledge the role that health services research and community development research cross the border with tourism management to inform the continuing agenda for learning destinations.
    • Mangement control systems and management accounting varieties

      Angelakis, George (University of Derby, 2009)
    • Mapping Stress and healthy balance with the workable ranges model in mindfulness-based stress reduction: First-person embodied reflections

      Sheffield, David; Hogan, Susan; Rose, Sally (University of Derby, 2021-12-14)
      During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) courses, participants are taught to be more present with stressful experience in order to respond to it more effectively. The meditation-based experiential pedagogy is supported by didactic teaching about stress to increase awareness of patterns of reaction and to support the application of mindfulness to self-regulation. The content of teaching about stress, and how it is best taught within the pedagogy, is an important practical and theoretical consideration. This thesis addresses a gap in knowledge by focussing on this little-regarded area of practice. The aim of this research was to develop practical and theoretical knowledge about the inclusion in the MBSR curriculum of the Workable Ranges Model of stress and emotional regulation, developed by the author. This visual model lays out regulated states and both mobilised and immobilised threat-based reactions in relation to each other. The main research question was: how does the Workable Ranges Model complement MBSR? Three key themes were identified in the literature and began to address the research questions. They were: the role of didactic teaching about stress; the notion that how difficult experiences are negotiated is a paradoxical mechanism; and that the Workable Ranges Model provides a novel perspective on participants’ progression through mindfulness-based programmes. Qualitative research was conducted as an illuminative evaluation of the practice innovation. An enactivist, embodied-mind epistemology was used to consider both embodied and verbal forms of knowledge. The application of mindfulness-based, first-person phenomenological methodology, within the frame of the conceptual encounter method, functioned as both learning and data-collection processes. The first phase focussed on the inclusion of the model in three MBSR courses. Data were gathered from participants in classes using diagrams and a question schedule. A template analysis elucidated engagement and resonance, awareness of the features of regulated and dysregulated states and patterns of reactivity, ways of responding to dysregulated states and applications linked with MBSR. In the second phase, seven course graduates engaged in a diary exercise, post-meditation reflective inquiry and a group discussion. Thematic analysis identified an overarching theme that the Workable Ranges Model provides a dynamic map for the mindful exploration of stability and stress. Three interrelated processes were evident: charting regulated and dysregulated states, embodied application in mindfulness practice, and orienting to and resourcing regulation and self-care. The themes from phase two shaped a broader meaning to both data sets. Three functions of the model as a map were identified and discussed. It worked: (i) as a method for teaching about healthy balance and stress; (ii) as a heuristic for self-exploration and developing insight; and (iii) as a guide for mindfulness-based self-regulation and self-care. Together, these aspects acted as aids to teaching and learning about mindfulness-based self-regulation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • The margin of appreciation doctrine and the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights as a living instrument

      Ita, Rachael Eguono; University of Derby (2018)
      The significance of the margin of appreciation doctrine has been underscored recently with the adoption of Protocol No 15 which calls for the inclusion of the terms ‘margin of appreciation’ and ‘subsidiarity’ in the Preamble of the European Convention on Human Rights. This development reflects the disquiet amongst member States to the Convention that the doctrine is not being given enough weight by the European Court of Human Rights in the determination of cases before it. One of the interpretive tools that is perceived to be having a negative effect on the margin of appreciation is the living instrument doctrine which has been blamed for narrowing the margin of appreciation afforded to States. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area by considering the interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines in the case law of the Court. The contribution is achieved in two ways: (a) methodologically: through the methodology adopted which is a combination of the quantitative method of descriptive statistics and the qualitative method of doctrinal textual analysis; (b) substantively: through the systematic examination of the case law of the Court from January 1979 to December 2016 in which both the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines are present. The lens of the relationship between rights and duties is applied to the case analysis. The case analysis is used to draw conclusions on the nature of the relationship and whether living instrument arguments are superseding the margin of appreciation doctrine where there is conflict. The results of the case analysis also shows distinctions in the interpretive approaches of the Court at the admissibility and compliance stages. The overall results of the study show that there are a variety of ways in which interaction takes place between both doctrines and the nature of both doctrines will continue to require a close interaction between the Court and the State parties in their compliance with obligations under the Convention.
    • Me, myself, and I: Women’s perceptions of their body-image using clay making as a tool for exploration.

      Crocker, Trisha; University of Derby (2018-05-04)
      An expanse of research literature has confirmed that a significant percentage of women are concerned about their body size and appearance. Western cultures have emphasized that women must look good to be worthy. Media attention that alludes to the benefits of a thin, fit body exacerbates women's beliefs that they need to look a certain way to be acceptable and to fit in. How though, can the majority of women fit into a world of contrary ideals? Being strong and healthy does not absolutely mean a woman has to be model thin with conspicuous abdominal muscles and extreme body definition. In the field of art therapy, there has been no specific research to demonstrate the advantages of clay for the exploration of body-image, male or female. The research undertaken focuses on and evaluates the manner and methods in which clay can be employed as an enabling material for body-image issues with women within art therapy practice. With the help of small groups of female participants who were invited to attend sessions in my pottery to make their body-images from clay and join in discussion, I was able to explore within a safe and contained environment the ways in which clay can be utilised within an art therapy setting. None of the women who took part in the research had a diagnosis relating to body-image issues. By pursuing the methods of Participatory Action Research (PAR) for Study One I employed the fundamental features of Cycles of Reflection. The results of Study One assisted me in choosing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to further the research. In this way, I would be able to identify the most robust of themes within the dialogues of the three women who attended the individual sessions that comprised Study Two. The final results of the research point to a positive and contained means of working with clients and patients in order to provide a significant resource to help women explore and be more accepting of their bodies.
    • The Meiji Legacy: Gardens and Parks of Japan and Britain, 1850-1914

      Elliott, Paul; Neuhaus, Tom; Schoppler, Luke (University of Derby, 2020-07-10)
      Meiji era (1868-1912) politics cast a legacy which extended beyond the Far Eastern nation. This thesis explores the relationship between Japan and Britain during this period, in relation to the cultural exchange of ideas around garden and park design. In contrast to previous studies which have emphasised Japanese style as consumed in Britain, it compares both Japanese and British appropriations of their respective native garden styles underlining the considerable interdependent factors in their developments that have been previously under-emphasised. Furthermore, it includes analysis of public Japanese gardens which have been under-represented in previous work that has tended to focus excessively on aristocratic gardens. The thesis research has utilised published works, archive collections and the large amount of digital material now available in order to systematically identify and examine park and garden sites in both nations which had foreign garden elements infused within them. By analysing such sources, the gardens, people and motivating factors in their creation are revealed. This study argues that there was a significant process of cultural exchange between Japan and Europe during the closed era or sakoku. The Asiatic Society of Japan and Japan Society of London were crucial in the transmission of elements of Japanese-style gardening to Britain as analysis of their members, their activities and publications demonstrates. In addition, the Edo/Meiji era gardening knowledge of self-styled experts in Japan known as niwashi strongly informed influential works on the subject such as Josiah Conder’s Landscape Gardening in Japan (1893), which in turn shaped how these gardens were understood in Britain. Another key finding was that King Edward VII played an important part in encouraging the adoption of Japanese gardening ideas amongst the British aristocracy and forging a strong relationship with Japanese royalty. This was cemented by the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 with political motivation also crucial in shaping the design of gardens at the Japan-British Exhibition 1910. This thesis argues that in all British-Japanese style gardens, authenticity was ultimately unachievable despite a variety of steps taken by their creators such as employing Japanese gardeners. Furthermore, the study concludes that the extent of European elements in Japanese parks and gardens has been exaggerated in previous analyses. This thesis demonstrates how Meiji politics affected garden styles inside and outside of Japan stemming from sustained interaction with foreign nations, modernisation and a reaction against European imperialism. A rich study of the Meiji legacy to garden design, this thesis suggests that Japanese imperialism was successful in counteracting European advances and changing initial European perceptions of Japan as Oriental. This has significantly added ground-breaking new knowledge to the subject. This interdisciplinary research draws from a range of ideas and methods from fields including history, geography, horticulture, politics, cultural and Japanese studies providing a rich and interwoven examination of the factors involved in the formation of the relationship between Japan and Britain from its beginnings in the sixteenth century.
    • Memory screens: The body and technology in time and space

      Hudson, Robert; Campbell, Neil; Forde, Teresa (University of Derby, 2018-08-01)
      This critical review ascertains the development of the research into memory screens and the relationship between memory, history, the body and technology on film, television and related media experiences. The body of research develops from a consideration of the gendered body on screen. This theme is continued and refined throughout the research. I consider the conventional personification of technology as potentially threatening or recuperative in relation to concerns regarding bodily cohesion and individual identity in relation to history and memory formation. The main focus of the work becomes the negotiation of memory formation in relation to media at both a personal and social level and the relationship between viewers and film and television texts. I encompass and develop post-structural definitions of the body and the theoretical implications of engaging with contemporary media. The research also encompasses the experience of exhibition and fan activity in extending the process of memory screens and engagement with the media.
    • The metamorphosis of a place

      Lemos, Aníbal F. Simões Nogueira de (University of Derby, 2007)
    • Microfinance in Zimbabwe: social performance and coping strategies

      Joseph Toindepi; University of Derby (2015-11-13)
      This study is an investigation into poverty coping strategies of microfinance and its social performance in crisis environments using empirical evidence from Zimbabwe. Microfinance has close association with informal microcredit, mainly self-help schemes and Government led rural agricultural credit, which was based on the idea of lending for the poor up to the 1960s through to the early 1970s. Whilst informal microcredit was viewed to be a success on many forms for some decades, it was clear that tailor-made changes were needed to respond specifically to the poor’s financial needs and help them fight poverty. Thus, it was seen as necessary to experiment on an institution based/formal financial service sector for the poor in the late 1970s through to the 1990s, which could perhaps tackle poverty reduction more systematically and effectively. In this, microcredit transformed into microfinance having incorporated more financial services on offer in addition to credit and was regarded as the new step forward and backed by several development agencies including the United Nations. In fact, microfinance was hailed as the most innovative poverty alleviation tool, able to deal with poverty whilst at the same time generating sufficient extra income to cover operating costs. Over four decades on since its inception, the microfinance sector has grown tremendously but, as is commonly acknowledged, the shackles of global poverty are just as visible as ever and in some cases are even stronger. This study critically explores and analyses the state of the microfinance sector in Zimbabwe following a recent political, economic and social crisis characterised by hyperinflation reaching six figure digits, which led to a revamp of the microfinance sector in 2009. The findings this study reflect a systematic departure of the original hopes and ideals of microfinance as a poverty-reduction centred programming to that of a profit-led business approach and the emergence of a new breed of microfinance institutions (MFIs). In this new world of “microfinance”, very poor social performance causing distressful situations for borrowers where in certain instances have been known to take their own lives (as In India) due to debt pressures has been witnessed. Ironically, also visible are the microfinance millionaires and successful MFI banks floating on the stock. Not surprisingly, as a result, microfinance has attracted a lot of public scrutiny particularly among academics and policy makers with its credibility as a poverty alleviation tool being seriously questioned. Consequently, both the supporters of microfinance wanting to prove that microfinance reduces poverty as well as the critics of microfinance wishing to discredit those results have carried out several randomised-control trials (RCT) impact studies. In some cases previous studies that had claimed that microfinance reduces poverty were revisited by opposing academics in an effort to refute findings. However, both supporters and critics each found just as much evidence for both positive impact in reducing poverty in some places as well as the negative impact on poverty elsewhere. Neither side could be conclusive about whether microfinance actually does help to reduce poverty. As discussed in the literature review, this resulted in a surge in the number of available studies on the subject of microfinance impact, prompting even more systematic reviews of such studies in an attempt to reconcile the critical question of the role of microfinance in poverty reduction. As before, the systematic reviews also confirmed just as much evidence in favour of microfinance positive impacts on poverty as those against in the negative impacts, thereby failing yet again to provide conclusive evidence on either side of the argument. Such arguments suggest that microfinance delivered in a certain way and under certain conditions can help reduce poverty, but may equally have little effect at all on poverty or can even worsen the poverty situation of individuals when delivered under certain conditions and in a certain way. To the best of my knowledge, no known previous studies have attempted to associate the model of microfinance delivery and conditions to ascertain whether different forms of microfinance operations can produce different impact on poverty even where conditions are similar in order to inform best practice for social performance and help poor individuals to cope with high income-risks. High income-risk is part of life for most people in Zimbabwe as in other developing countries. Zimbabwe was affected by frequent droughts, political turmoil, extreme economic challenges due to sanctions and questionable economic policies between 2000 and 2008, and finally the global financial crisis of 2007/8, creating extraordinarily harsh operating environment for microfinance institutions, characterised by depleted loan portfolio investment, skyrocketing inflation eroding the loan book value and growing default rates. The country’s GDP declined by about 40 percent during the period. Hyperinflation in 2007-2008 peaked at 500 billion percent leading to the collapse of the national currency in February 2009. The Zimbabwean dollar disappeared from circulation in instant literarily forcing MFIs and other financial institutions to freeze all balances in their books which was in local currency and raise new capital in the US dollar and South African Rand. The political and economic challenges negatively affected the Zimbabwean microfinance “industry,” causing the sector to suffer significantly. Both the number of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in the country and the quality and range of services were eroded. Capital, social performance, and viability concerns plagued the microfinance sector forcing the government to introduce sector specific regulation with immediate minimum capital requirement for MFIs resulting in small institutions leaving the market, increasing monopoly by large institutions. Within this uncertainty of the role and effectiveness of microfinance in poverty reduction, and the difficult political and economic circumstances that Zimbabweans have experienced recently, this study looked at the coping strategies of microfinance stakeholders including practitioners and regulators. It employed an exploratory inductive approach using mixed methods methodology. This included a survey questionnaire using both closed and open-ended questions randomly administered to 60 registered microfinance clients and potential clients collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. In addition, comprehensive case assessments were carried out on 3 MFIs. The assessments concluded that there exist two different approaches to microfinance: (1) the Capital Market Driven (CMD) approach characterised by private equity investments and (2) the Poverty Reduction Driven (PRD) approach characterised by emphasis on poverty alleviation and social performance. This thesis argues that the two approaches may have very different impact on poverty. Therefore, a clear distinction between the CMD and PRD are necessary in debates about microfinance impact, whether positive or negative.
    • The Minoritisation of Higher Education Students

      Mieschbuehler, Ruth; University of Derby (2015)
      Research into ‘ethnic’ attainment differences in British higher education tends to depict students from minority ethnic backgrounds as disadvantaged, marginalised, discriminated against and excluded. This shapes the current theoretical perspective adopted by university policies and informs practice. However, the consequences of this perspective for students, their educational attainment and university education as a whole are largely unexamined. This study explored the teaching and learning experiences of students, alongside their views concerning how these experiences may have impacted on their attainment. To arrive at a more unbiased and better informed understanding of ethnic attainment differences, the student narratives in this study were analysed from a realist philosophical position. The experiences students related included student interactions, participatory and intellectual engagement, (un)equal treatment and academic study and support. The richness and variety of the individual narratives defied simple analysis and required further discussion of perceptions, interpretations, meaning, understanding and categorisation. Some students talked of social interaction in terms of race, colour, ethnicity, nationality, culture, class and age, while others thought such social grouping unproblematic. Engagement was seen either as participatory engagement in the learning process or as intellectual engagement with the subject. There were perceptions of unequal treatment due to race or ethnicity which contrasted with suggestions of straightforward unprofessional practices. Attitudes to academic study ranged from descriptions of struggling with the academic workload to feeling the lack of intellectual challenge. The analysis and discussion revealed a process of minoritisation that resulted from the current approaches to ethnic attainment. The continued use of group-based social differentiation inadvertently fosters the idea that ethnic and social attributes matter and creates a divisive subtext which loses any sense of our common humanity. Group-based social differentiation can undermine the resilience and human agency of students because it suggests that educational attainment is predominantly determined by ethnic and social attributes, downplaying the students’ capacity to act in pursuit of educational goals. As a result, university policies and practice perpetuate rather than ameliorate the status of minority ethnic higher education students.
    • Modelling institutional values transmission through a comparative case study of three schools

      Hewitt, Des; Trubshaw, Donald Mark Jr (University of Derby, 2014-12-01)
      This thesis presents a model of institutional values transmission through cross-case analysis of values education undertaken in three UK secondary schools. Since the early 1980s a significant amount of research has been carried out on cultural transmission and the transmission of values, though it has focused on intergenerational transmission within families and the interaction between the school and the family in terms of converging and diverging values and worldviews. Very little work has been done on the process of transmission of values in schools or other organisations that is evidence-based. An increasing number of governments and organisations, as well as schools, are beginning to invest seriously in values education programmes, but whether the idea of values education is theoretically coherent is still disputed. Through an evaluation of the philosophical, psychological and sociological literature on values and employing phenomenological and semiotic analyses, a theory of values as transmissible entities is developed, which is then extended to a general concept of values transmission using the twin terms invocation and evocation, to denote modes of bringing value concepts to the awareness of an audience and of generating group cohesion through a shared experience linked to particular values, respectively, these terms themselves emerging from the theory of values. Through data collection, analysis and modelling of values education in three schools – a state comprehensive, a faith school and an independent – a plausible mechanism for institutional values transmission is developed. This mechanism integrates two partial models: a permeation-authority inculcation model of transmission flow with a resistance-transformation model of moral autonomy. At its heart it envisages a systemically robust cycle of institutional values discourse, institutional cultural expectations and the generation of a sense of community shored up by individual commitment. A two tier qualitative approach is used in this research, having both an inductive, theory generating phase of field research, data capture and analysis, and a deductive, hypothesis-led confirmatory phase. The inductive phase uses a case study format and cross-case analysis, providing data for analysis and for testing a set of hypotheses in the deductive phase. The development of a mechanism for institutional values transmission is carried out using an institutional model of the schools as a data collection and analytical instrument, based on three structural aspects: an authority hierarchy; an interiority/exteriority duality in the institutional lived-experience; and a system hierarchy. Multiple data collection and analytic methods are employed in each case study, in order to build up a ‘three-dimensional’ picture of the transmission of values in each school. Both comparative and iterative cross-case analyses are carried out. The findings emerging from the case studies suggest the following tentative conclusions: schools have varying degrees of awareness of the values that they impart, although all consider values education to be an important part of what they do and to impact on student performance and behaviour; while there is some explicit values-oriented pedagogy, most teaching of values is implicit; schools with greater ethnic diversity have more challenges to build a cohesive community, as this is at odds with the ‘spontaneous sociality’ of the pupils; there is a broad convergence on the same values found most widely distributed throughout schools across the widest range possible with respect to forms of governance, educational philosophy and demography. The findings carry a number of pedagogical implications: general support is found for explicit values education programmes and the linking between behavioural standards and academic achievement; the importance of the development of a ‘moral community’ around the ethos of the school and the creation of opportunities for multiple belonging is highlighted; and resistance to institutional authority structures is explored for its significant potential for transformation to an acceptance of institutional values.
    • Morbidity and mortality in coeliac disease.

      Holmes, Geoffrey; University of Derby (2018-09)
      Celiac disease is a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to gluten, a protein complex in the cereals wheat, barley and rye, in genetically susceptible people. Once considered an uncommon disorder restricted to children of European descent, it is now known to be one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in the Western world, with a serological prevalence of 1% that can be diagnosed at any age. Since it is so common much co-morbidity comprising malignant and non-malignant conditions will occur in association. Malignant complications particularly lymphoma were first described over 50 years ago but the natural history and how commonly these occurred were unknown until relatively recently. Similarly, many non-malignant conditions were known to occur but initially the risks were unclear. It was not until the frequency of coeliac disease could be determined accurately in the community and population-based studies of morbidity and mortality in coeliac disease patients carried out in defined cohorts that these questions could be answered. My research into these aspects of coeliac disease began in 1971 and a body of 35 of my publications spanning the years 1974 to 2018 on the morbidity and mortality of the disorder are presented in this thesis. I have introduced my research findings at many international and national meetings and these data have been influential in shaping the research agenda of other workers. One of my papers (Publication 9) published in Gut in 1989, was the most cited of all papers which appeared in the journal for that year. To date it has been cited 1122 times. Information exists for 24 papers presented here and for these the total number of citations stands at 3,887. This excludes references to book chapters. Anecdotal evidence indicates frequent mentions in lectures and clinical practice.
    • Multiprocessor System-on-Chips based Wireless Sensor Network Energy Optimization

      Panneerselvam, John; Xue, Yong; Ali, Haider (University of DerbyDepartment of Electronics, Computing and Mathematics, 2020-10-08)
      Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an integrated part of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) used to monitor the physical or environmental conditions without human intervention. In WSN one of the major challenges is energy consumption reduction both at the sensor nodes and network levels. High energy consumption not only causes an increased carbon footprint but also limits the lifetime (LT) of the network. Network-on-Chip (NoC) based Multiprocessor System-on-Chips (MPSoCs) are becoming the de-facto computing platform for computationally extensive real-time applications in IoT due to their high performance and exceptional quality-of-service. In this thesis a task scheduling problem is investigated using MPSoCs architecture for tasks with precedence and deadline constraints in order to minimize the processing energy consumption while guaranteeing the timing constraints. Moreover, energy-aware nodes clustering is also performed to reduce the transmission energy consumption of the sensor nodes. Three distinct problems for energy optimization are investigated given as follows: First, a contention-aware energy-efficient static scheduling using NoC based heterogeneous MPSoC is performed for real-time tasks with an individual deadline and precedence constraints. An offline meta-heuristic based contention-aware energy-efficient task scheduling is developed that performs task ordering, mapping, and voltage assignment in an integrated manner. Compared to state-of-the-art scheduling our proposed algorithm significantly improves the energy-efficiency. Second, an energy-aware scheduling is investigated for a set of tasks with precedence constraints deploying Voltage Frequency Island (VFI) based heterogeneous NoC-MPSoCs. A novel population based algorithm called ARSH-FATI is developed that can dynamically switch between explorative and exploitative search modes at run-time. ARSH-FATI performance is superior to the existing task schedulers developed for homogeneous VFI-NoC-MPSoCs. Third, the transmission energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSN is reduced by developing ARSH-FATI based Cluster Head Selection (ARSH-FATI-CHS) algorithm integrated with a heuristic called Novel Ranked Based Clustering (NRC). In cluster formation parameters such as residual energy, distance parameters, and workload on CHs are considered to improve LT of the network. The results prove that ARSH-FATI-CHS outperforms other state-of-the-art clustering algorithms in terms of LT.
    • Muslim women and the hijab in Britain: contexts and choices.

      Mackay, Kathryn (University of Derby, 2013-11-11)
      This thesis concerns the contexts and choices associated with the wearing of the hijab in Britain, beginning with the impact of events such as 9/11. For many in the West, the hijab has become perceived as a symbol of Islam and as a result hijab wearing women who were living in Britain were identified as being connected with those who had carried out the 9/11 attacks in the United States. There was evidence from this research that there was an increase in first time hijab wearing, particularly in those between the ages of 25-39, however, 9/11 had not been directly responsible for this increase, but the higher profile of Islam due to the attacks had encouraged the women to find out about the religion for themselves and the rulings that related to them. Sales of the hijab have increased along with a more defined Islamic fashion consciousness and a desire by the women to wear what they regard as Islamic dress. This feminist standpoint research, although carried out by a white, non-Muslim from a middle-class background gave the women the opportunity to talk about their lives and explain the wearing or non-wearing of the hijab. A number of related themes were identified: Religion/religious community; Education; Family and friends; Clothing industry/fashion; and 9/11, although the thread that ran through all of these themes was the notion of choice. The women described wearing or not wearing hijab as their choice, although some had more influence from others. When choice theory was examined in relation to the wearing or non-wearing of the hijab it could be seen that although rational choice theory, lifestyle choices, family, habitus and individualization could tell us something about why the women made the choices they did, it was the interplay between individualization and tradition that gave the most accurate explanation as to why these women were making their choices. These theories did not tell the whole story however, and the conclusion discusses a reinterpretation of the Islamic teachings occurring in Britain with the women interpreting the Qur’an and the religious texts for themselves before arriving at their own conclusions as to what they should be wearing. This reinterpretation is driving the changes in behaviour for many Muslim women in Britain.