• Facilitating the development of critical thinking skills and self-directed learning: An exploration of leadership and curriculum practice in a Palestinian kindergarten.

      Khalaily, Maysoon.; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2017-12-03)
      Abstract Developing critical thinking in early childhood is vital especially in Western culture since it improves an individual’s skills in creative thinking and enhances a person’s sense of responsibility. This is the fundamental contention of this thesis. These skills assist in developing and implementing a state of mind of not accepting negative situations and instead directs the individual towards trying to resolve and improve it. These issues have not yet been fully explored in Arab-Palestinian society in Israel. The development and application of notions of personal responsibility, critical thinking, and kindergarten-age children’s involvement in learning has yet to emerge as a reality in this community. This is needed because existing theory and practice involving these aspects of learning within the Palestinian system is problematic. Moreover, the development of a new approach to teaching and parenting of kindergarten-age children that fosters critical thinking and personal responsibility may not be a reality that is immediately achievable, but it is a possibility. This study aims to investigate how educational leaders can help kindergarten children aged 3-5 years to develop critical thinking and personal responsibility skills. The research focuses on Arab (Palestinian) children in Israel as these skills are not traditionally taught in the home or in educational settings in this culture. The literature shows that there is a marked disparity between the educational achievements of Arab and Jewish children in Israel, making the implications of this study salient not only to practitioners, but also to policymakers and educational institutions. In order to examine these goals, a case study involving qualitative research approaches of a kindergarten classroom has been conducted. The context of this study is an important and complex set of factors determining and shaping the content and form of the thesis and of the research that is embodied in the text. This study has been conducted in a kindergarten belonging to an Arab Municipality located in Northern Israel that was established in 2010 and is situated in a rural area in the north of the country. Lesson plans following the National Curriculum for Kindergarten Education were infused with teaching activities designed to facilitate the acquisition of critical thinking skills. The findings of the project showed that the presence of a strong educational leader had a positive impact on facilitating kindergarten children’s development of personal responsibility and critical thinking skills. This was especially the case if the leader played an active role in facilitating a learning environment at home and in school in which children were acknowledged and given greater autonomy and access to opportunities in which they could engage openly with parents and peers. This study calls attention to the need to further explore educational leadership in the context of early childhood education, as its implications for childhood development, particularly regarding critical thinking and personal responsibility, have not been sufficiently examined. This study claims to open possibilities for doing this in at least the Palestinian Kindergarten communities in Israel and perhaps beyond.
    • A Formulation and Critical Evaluation of an Inter-Personal Communication Skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Pre-Registration Occupational Therapy Education

      Rowe, Pauline; University of Derby (2015-05-28)
      Abstract Occupational Therapy is a client centred, holistic allied health profession in which the quality of a supportive, empowering therapist-client relationship is seen as having a key and central role in effective therapy. A minimum of a 1000 hours of practice placement education (PPE) must be successfully completed in pre-registration programmes, which are charged with ensuring graduates are fit for practice and purpose. This Work Based Project focussed on how pre-registration education can best equip students for a first PPE in terms of sufficient inter-personal communication skills. Primary data collection was conducted between November 2008 and March 2010. The project firstly employed thematic content analysis of data elicited from two rounds of focus group surveys of practice placement educators (PPEds) to identify a baseline of inter-personal communication skills required prior to embarking on a first PPE. This data was used to formulate an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) checklist of inter-personal communication skills, which was then utilised as a formative assessment and in role play scenarios in taught sessions with one first year pre-registration occupational therapy cohort. This cohort was surveyed via a questionnaire and in addition five students were interviewed. Subsequently a group of third year students, who role played clients for the OSCE, participated in a facilitated discussion on their perceptions of the OSCE. The data on students’ perceptions and an analysis and comparison of staff and student ratings of performance in the formative OSCE, were utilised in a critical evaluation of the use of this OSCE as a teaching and assessment tool. The findings indicate a level of agreement on the content of the OSCE checklist, providing content validity to this particular assessment. PPEds, and first and third year students are positive about the use of an OSCE when it is used as a formative experience. Students recommend that if used as a summative assessment the OSCE is combined with a reflective piece. Objective structured clinical examinations have long been established in other health care professions such as medicine and nursing. This project has provided evidence indicating that an OSCE of inter-personal communication skills is a valid assessment tool for occupational therapy pre-registration students, and that it can also facilitate student reflection, self-awareness and learning. It has also identified profession specific inter-personal communication skills required for embarking on a first PPE.
    • A framework for interpretivist information systems :

      Wilson, Casey McQuinn. (University of Derby, 2000)
    • From incarceration to decarceration :

      Hill, Adrian (University of Derby, 2004)
    • From key account management to strategic partnerships: critical success factors for co-creation of value

      Lawson, Alison; Longbottom, David; Veasey, Christian Michael (University of Derby, 2019-09-27)
      Background and rationale for this study: This study investigates Key Account Management (KAM) from a Marketing and Business to Business perspective. A review of literature finds that in recent years marketing scholars have proposed that KAM is developing from its traditional roots in sales management to a greater focus on relational aspects; for example, including elements of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Service Dominant Logic (SDL). However, whilst the principles of CRM and SDL are well grounded within the marketing literature there is little empirical evidence to show practical application within KAM, which this study will seek to address. Aim: To establish the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for KAM and the personal characteristics of Key Account Managers (KAMs) in order to develop a new model to inform and guide practitioners and academics. Methodology: The study aligns with a pragmatic research philosophy, where mixed methods are applied. The primary research includes a survey (n=71) and semi-structured interviews (n=15). Respondents were primarily KAMs from a variety of business sectors. The decision to follow pragmatism supported the use of mixed methods as well as modes of analysis and a continuous cycle of abductive reasoning while being guided by the research aim and objectives and the desire to produce socially meaningful knowledge. Pragmatism offers a strong emphasis on research questions, communication, and shared meaning making and seeks to achieve a balance between subjectivity and objectivity in research findings. Findings: This research captured a shifting contemporary KAM approach where KAM is seen as a facilitator of on-going processes of voluntary exchange through collaborative, value creating relationships, leading to the development of strategic partnerships. The study finds that amongst KAMs whilst there is strong recognition of CSFs in KAM, CRM, and SDL, there are inconsistent and weak applications in practice. The study explores the reasons for this and proposes that more work is needed to better interpret and translate the language and rhetoric and theoretical principles. Contribution: A new model for KAM is proposed showing the CSFs for implementation and a shift of emphasis from KAM to Key Account Relationships (KAR). The model covers the CSFs in CRM, and SDL, and provides guidance for issues in business processes, leadership roles, role clarity, remuneration and performance measurement, knowledge management, and skills, competencies and experience.
    • The Guru-Disciple Relationship in Diaspora

      Shridhar, Paras (University of Derby, 2008)
      Gurus claim that they are able to act as mediators to put disciples on the path of spiritual development in diaspora. This study aims to investigate this claim, researching the hypothesis ‘that changing cultural environments in the United Kingdom, compared to those of the Indian sub-continent, requires a different model of the guru-chela (guru-disciple), relationship?’ In effect it seeks to test the differences, based on the stability and sustainability of the relationship in diaspora? This claim was endorsed by psychotherapist, J S Neki (1973), in a meeting in America and was published in The Journal of Ortho-psychiatry Volume 3. It discusses the possibility of the ‘guru-chela (disciple) relations’ acting as a model for ‘therapeutic care for the Hindu patient in diaspora.’ This research aims to examine critically the effectiveness of the guru-disciple relationship in light of changes the gurus have made in the delivery and quality of instructions they provide and the changes in the disciples’ aspirations in the new environment. The study investigates the meeting ground for science-based western psychotherapy and intuition-based spirituality. Both subjects deal with pastoral care components for their respective respondents, but are diametrically opposed in their approaches. The research sample in the study, are taken from Leicester, where the researcher is based, as the area provides a diverse group in the Heart of Hindu England, through which to examine the guru-disciple phenomena in diaspora.
    • Handling cultural factors in human-computer interaction

      Bourges-Waldegg, Paula (University of Derby, 1998)
    • High Performance Video Stream Analytics System for Object Detection and Classification

      Anjum, Ashiq; Yaseen, Muhammad Usman (University of DerbyCollege of Engineering and Technology, 2019-02-05)
      Due to the recent advances in cameras, cell phones and camcorders, particularly the resolution at which they can record an image/video, large amounts of data are generated daily. This video data is often so large that manually inspecting it for object detection and classification can be time consuming and error prone, thereby it requires automated analysis to extract useful information and meta-data. The automated analysis from video streams also comes with numerous challenges such as blur content and variation in illumination conditions and poses. We investigate an automated video analytics system in this thesis which takes into account the characteristics from both shallow and deep learning domains. We propose fusion of features from spatial frequency domain to perform highly accurate blur and illumination invariant object classification using deep learning networks. We also propose the tuning of hyper-parameters associated with the deep learning network through a mathematical model. The mathematical model used to support hyper-parameter tuning improved the performance of the proposed system during training. The outcomes of various hyper-parameters on system's performance are compared. The parameters that contribute towards the most optimal performance are selected for the video object classification. The proposed video analytics system has been demonstrated to process a large number of video streams and the underlying infrastructure is able to scale based on the number and size of the video stream(s) being processed. The extensive experimentation on publicly available image and video datasets reveal that the proposed system is significantly more accurate and scalable and can be used as a general purpose video analytics system.
    • High Voltage Optical Fibre Sensor for Use in Wire Relay Electrical Protection Systems

      Bashour, Rami; University Of Derby (2016)
      The last few decades have a wide spread use of optical fibre sensors in many applications. Optical fibre sensors have significant benefits over existing conventional sensors such as; high immunity to electromagnetic interference, the ability to transmit signal over long distance at high bandwidth, high resolution, usage in hazardous environments and no need for isolation when working at high voltages. The measurement of high voltages is essential for electrical power systems as it is used as a source of electrical information for Relay Protection Systems (RPS) and load management systems. Electrical Power Systems need to be protected from faults. Faults can range from short circuits, voltage dips, surges, transients etc. The Optical High Voltage sensor developed is based on the principle that the Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) electrostriction displacement changes when a voltage is applied to it. The displacement causes the fibre (FBG) which is bonded to the PZT material to have a resultant change in the wavelength. An optical fibre sensor prototype has been developed and evaluated that measures up to 250 V DC. Simulation using ANSYS software has been used to demonstrate the operational capability of the sensor up to 300kV AC. This sensor overcomes some of the challenges of conventional sensors issues like electromagnetic interference, signal transmission, resolution etc. R BASHOUR 2 A novel optical fibre high voltage based on the Kerr effect has been demonstrated. The The Kerr effect was determined using Optsim (R-Soft) software and Maxwell software was used to model an optical Kerr Cell. Maxwell software is an electromagnetic/electric field software used for simulating, analysing, designing 2D and 3D electromagnetic materials and devices. It uses highly accurate Finite Element techniques to solve time varying, static, frequency domain electric and electromagnetic fields. A Relay Protection System on electrical networks was discussed in detail. Keywords: Fibre Bragg Grating, Fibre Optics Sensors, Piezoelectricity, Kerr effect, Relay Protection Systems.
    • How distress is understood and communicated by women patients detained in high secure forensic healthcare, and how nurses interpret that distress: An exploration using a multi-perspective interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Jones, Jane; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2017-09-15)
      ABSTRACT Background The context for this study is the National High Secure Healthcare Service for Women (NHSHSW). This service opened in 2007 following the closure of all other high secure healthcare services for women. Consequently the NHSHSW is the UK’s only facility to provide assessment and treatment for women detained under the Mental Health Act and who are classified as posing a grave and immediate danger to others. Care delivered within the NHSHSW is grounded within the guiding principles of trauma informed environments. This philosophy of care understands that women patients in high secure forensic healthcare experience heightened and usually chronic levels of distress which can be communicated through violent and dangerous behaviour (McMillan & Aiyegbusi, 2009). This group of marginalised women are an important but small group of people with unique experiences. These women patients’ experiences have yet to be explored from the perspective of the women themselves. This is the first study to explore how women patients detained in the NHSHSW experience distress and the impact that distress has on their behaviour from the perspective of the women patients themselves and their care-givers. The care-givers referred to are named nurses whose perspective provides perceptual and interactional context to this study. Insight into the women patients’ experiences is important to ensure that the development of healthcare can respond effectively to need. The importance of service user involvement has been increasingly recognised in general mental health settings. However, user involvement in forensic research is less well developed. This has now been recognised and for the first time this study included the women patients as research facilitators. Method Women patients were invited to attend discussion groups to identify a research project that would form a baseline evaluation for an evidence based development of the NHSHSW. A working party including the researcher and voluntary women patients was established to facilitate the research process. The number of women patients contributing to the working party ranged between eight and thirteen depending on availability. Feminist principles provided a framework for this enquiry (Lykke, 2010). The experiences identified for exploration were: How women patients in high secure healthcare understand their distress. How women patients in high secure healthcare communicate their distress. How nurses interpret the women patients’ distress. Multi-perspective Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse semi-structured interviews (Loaring, Larkin, Shaw & Flowers 2015). Twenty three voluntary patient interviews, representing 57% of the overall patient population and thirteen voluntary named nurse interviews took place, representing 34% of the named nurse population. No participants dropped out or withdrew their contribution. Findings Themes regarding the women patient participants’ understanding and communication were identified as: Observable behaviours and responses; Blocks to getting help; Change over time; An entity to be endured; An emotional experience; A physical experience; Being alone. The themes identified from the nurse interviews were: Perception of the distress experience. What influences my response and what is expected of me? The patient and the nurse interviews evidenced differences in understanding related to the women patients’ experience of distress. The women patients placed emphasis on the physiological/sensory aspect of their distress, whereas nurses placed emphasis on the emotional aspect of the women patients’ distress. The implication is that at times of heightened distress the women patients did not feel they were understood. The findings also highlighted areas of unmet need including family involvement in care and a perceived lack of support to enhance family contact. In addition loneliness was emphasised as a significant stressor for the women patients as was being perceived as an on-going risk of harm. All the findings were validated by the participants and subject to peer review. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence base for healthcare practice specifically for women patients detained in the NHSHSW. This is also the first study to involve the women patients in the NHSHSW as co-facilitators of research. This experience was described as empowering by the women patients who took part and whose involvement ensured that the research subject was relevant and meaningful. The depth of the women patients’ involvement has set precedents for policy, procedure and practice development within the NHSHSW and evidenced the women patients’ ability to be co-producers of the services they use. The study was conducted for women by women and as such was guided by feminist principles seeking the right to provide services based on women patients’ needs and experiences. As a consequence this study has made a unique and significant contribution to available literature and the development and provision of services for women detained in high secure care. The study originally aimed to provide an evidence base for the development of the NHSHSW; however, continued interest from lesser secure services clearly demonstrates the applicability of the findings to services beyond the NHSHSW. Limitations There were limitations to this study which could have influenced the findings. The researcher was known to the patient and nurse participants. Established relationships between researchers and participants have the potential to bias an outcome; however it can also provide a baseline of trust. Service user involvement as both researcher and participant potentially allows participants to purposefully respond to questions with the aim to confirm their original pattern of thinking rather than exploring a concept to uncover new findings. The balance of findings in this research suggests that while some bias can be argued it did not invalidate the findings.
    • How men experience, understand, and describe masculinity: A phenomenological psychological analysis and photovoice exploration.

      Earnshaw, Deborah; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2018-04-17)
      This thesis is an examination of how men describe and experience masculinity. Psychological and sociological research has suggested that masculinity is malleable (Smiler, 2006), there are different versions or pluralities of masculinity (Connell 1995) and can be context-dependent (Gilbert & Gilbert, 2017). Often however hegemonic masculinity is considered the only type of masculinity, and is not flexible, especially when discussed on a social level (Cuthbert, 2015). Based on the researcher’s cultural, social and historical knowledge and understanding, masculinity is very different for people and so is understood, demonstrated and experienced in various ways. This research employed an unstructured interview design, incorporating photovoice, with five participants overall where each participant, except one, was interviewed twice. The first interview was researcher-led, with images provided by the researcher to be the focus for the participant. The second interview was participant-led, with the images provided by the participant to represent what they considered to be masculine or represented masculinity in their everyday life. The data collected was analysed using a combination of phenomenological methods; Descriptive Phenomenological Psychology (Giorgi, 2009) and Hermeneutic Phenomenology (van Manen, 2016). The thesis is presented in two halves. The first is researcher-led and draws on hermeneutic psychology and presents three themes were found from the first interviews: Hegemonic Masculinity with Traditional Masculinity, Characteristics and Non-Conformity; Societal Influence with Culture, Image and Media; and Feminism and Women. The second part of the thesis is participant-led, and draws out the descriptive phenomenological aspects by presenting each individual’s interaction with their chosen images and their ensuing descriptions of masculinity illustrated by them. Themes in this context are individually related rather than demonstrated through a cross-case analysis. Findings demonstrated masculinity as an individual identity, with a social expectation of how men should behave and portray themselves. The way it is perceived, understood, experienced and described is different for each person, as was demonstrated here with the participants’ second interviews. Future research should consider expanding research to include more on everyday factors, such as the use and influence of social media, the projection of masculinity throughout a man’s life, and how men and women both aid in the creation and maintenance of masculinity.