• Becoming a master of education: a case study of part-time students undertaking continuing professional development

      Cottle, Vanessa (University of Derby, 2019-05-25)
      This study is an exploration of students who study part-time to achieve a Master of Education award in the context of continuing professional development. Particularly interesting to this study is identity development and the effects on confidence/self-esteem as MA Education Students’ cope with the interacting dimensions of personal, professional and study contexts. The research found a triangle of tensions between professional, personal and developing postgraduate identities to be at the heart of transitions into becoming a postgraduate student. Students’ investments of finance, time, cognitive effort and reprioritisation of lifestyle is made without guarantee of return. They experience low professional self-concept; they are daunted by self-doubts about meeting the demands of master’s study; troubled by imposter feelings and preoccupied by their professional identities. However, confidence and self-esteem improve as study progresses and by harnessing personal qualities, and some support networks, students overcome barriers to achieve positive outcomes, which for some can be transformative. An interpretivist methodology has been adopted using a case study approach with data collected from MA Education students at one post-1992 university. Twenty-five students were included in: two focus group interviews (each of five participants); five individual interviews and ten students participated in a series of four sets of email questions posed at regular points in one year of their degree. Braun and Clarke’s (2013) approach to thematic analysis was adopted and themes emerged inductively. There are several recommendations arising for both practice and policy. For practice all aspects of curriculum design and delivery must be mindful of the professional and personal qualities, not just student academic competencies, which contribute to masterliness. However, programme and module specific induction must include strategies to encourage students’ envisioning of their possible selves as student in order to grow their confidence and self-esteem as students. Lecturers must be mindful about the motivations behind part-time, higher level study for continuing professional development and the factors which constrain deep learning. Recommendations for wider policy relate to urging government and educational leaders to validate the value of educationalists, of all types. This should be achieved by fully resourcing accredited master’s study in both practical and financial ways.  
    • Behavioural and metabolic responses of the freshwater mussels Anodonta anatina and Unio pictorum to environmental stimuli with a focus on food and light availability

      Ramsey, Andrew; Huck, Maren; Mehra, Aradhana; Zapitis, Charitos (University of Derby, 2020-07-05)
      Benthic invertebrates play a crucial role in sediment mixing, nutrient cycling, and oxygen fluxes in benthic ecosystems. Despite the broad global distribution and high abundance of unionid mussels in both lentic and lotic ecosystems, the role of their locomotion behaviour and metabolic activity on the aforementioned processes remain understudied. In this thesis, Anodonta anatina and Unio pictorum were exposed to a range of Chlorella vulgaris concentrations between 0.5 and 20.0 mg Ash Free Dry Mass (AFDM) l-1 at 11.0, 15.0 and 19.0 ± 1.0 °C in laboratory experiments. Unionid behaviours were recorded by time-lapse photography. Mussel locomotion probability and duration, opening behaviour, posterior tip movement and the position in relation to the light source were extracted image and video analysis. The diel rhythm was assessed as well as the responses to the light intensity at ~230, 450 and 1200 lux on a horizontal light gradient. The oxygen consumption (OC) during digestion was quantified at 0.05, 6.0 and 12.0 mg of AFDM of Chlorella vulgaris l-1 at 19.0 ± 1.0 °C. The locomotion probability was significantly higher for A. anatina, compared to U. pictorum, increased with increasing temperature (lower for 11.0 ± 1.0 °C), and decreased with increasing algal concentrations. Locomotion duration decreased with the increasing algal concentration in both species, with U. pictorum showing a shorter locomotion duration than A. anatina. Valve opening peaked at algal concentrations of 3.0 mg l-1. A contrasting locomotion pattern was recorded between the two species with A. anatina crawling on the sediment and U. pictorum breaking through the sediment with is umbo covered. Both species showed a significantly higher probability of locomotion in the absence of light and a decreasing locomotion path distance with the increasing light intensity. The specimens which moved towards the light source covered a longer distance than those which moved away. Additionally, A. anatina showed a net movement towards the light source while all activities were recorded in the absence of light. Digestion significantly contributed to unionid metabolism in both species. In addition, the mean OC rate per dry soft-tissue mass (DM) increased with the algal concentration, with A. anatina showing a significantly higher rate. In A. anatina OC DM-1 decreased with the increasing DM. The findings are discussed in the context of eutrophication, unionid bioremediation potential, and the development of species-specific remediation models. A conceptual model developed demonstrates the ecological interactions between unionids and their environment in lentic systems.
    • Being Sikh

      Gill, Santokh Singh (University of Derby, 2005)
    • Blueprint for school improvement.

      Nahum, Yaakov; University of Derby (2019-05-17)
      Abstract This study examines the "TBWY" reform program, its design and efficacy. The program was carried out in an Israeli high school with the aim of improving equality of opportunity, narrowing educational achievement gaps (Friedlander & Leon-Elmakias, 2006), improving the climate for study and increasing the number of those eligible for the matriculation (Bagrut) examinations which, since 2006, had been decreasing. The reform program covered two types of class groups: "homogeneous learning groups” and “guided groups”. The homogeneous learning groups were based on the students' proven learning skills, thereby reducing the differences in the students' achievements. In this way, it was possible to focus on teaching methods suitable for the learning group in a uniform and focused way. The second group is a "guided group" made up of between 15 and 17 students. The "guided group" placed students with different peers to their ‘”learning group” according to matters of common interest among the students, their hobbies, common areas of study, youth movements, extramural activities, groups and students' requests to be together. Each group has a teacher/guide who has undergone extensive training as a group coordinator. The "guided group" involves a twice-weekly round-table meeting. In addition to these meetings, the group coordinator met with each student to build an annual program of work and a process for monitoring the student's achievements in all of the areas mentioned. This study included quantitative and qualitative constructivist methods focused on comparative research with students and teachers during two periods – before the reform program in 2006 and after it, in October 2009. Several criteria were examined: teachers’ perceptions of instruction strategies in homogeneous learning groups and resulting changes – gaps (Nahum, 2009) in educational achievements among the students, changes in the percentages of eligibility for matriculation certificates, school climate, a change in the students' feelings and the extent of teachers' feelings of responsibility for the failure and success of the students. Findings indicated a relationship between teachers' acceptance of responsibility for the students' success or failure and positive changes in teachers’ perceptions of student’s abilities, the feelings of students, a reduction in achievement gaps, and improved climate of the school. Furthermore, there was an increase in the number of students eligible for matriculation with an increase, in their grades from before the implementation of the program, until the present academic year, 2015. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the factors that enable greater scholastic achievement, together with an improved climate in an educational institution within the Israeli context. The research contributes to the understanding of the relationship between philosophical and psychological theories and their application in practice within the education system. The results of the research illustrate that a correct implementation of theories can create a change by reducing gaps in students' attainment by improving the school climate, by increasing the extent of the teachers' responsibility vis-à-vis students' success and increasing the number of students who are eligible for a matriculation certificate.
    • Bridge strike reduction: the design and evaluation of visual warnings

      Horberry, Timothy John (University of Derby, 1999)
    • Britain's and Germany's interests in EU enlargement and reform.

      Schweiger, Christian. (University of Derby, 2003)
    • Building a relational capability in business service relationships: the exploration of learning needs in stages of relationship development

      Longbottom, David; Zeniou, Maria (University of Derby, 2013-04-15)
      Context and Objectives: There is an increasing recognition that there is great potential in utilizing learning in client relationships as this can enable service providers to develop relational capabilities and more successfully manage relationships. Building on this premise, the present study argues that learning in relationships relates to the ability to learn from the local context to leverage relationship success. To do this, requires an understanding of what drives success in each stage of relationship development and how this can be achieved to ensure success. The aim of the research is to explore the potential for learning in business service relationships, through the exploration of learning needs relevant in stages of relationship development. Learning needs are defined as what service providers need to learn about how to leverage successful relationships at each stage of development. Research Methodology: The study employs two qualitative case studies of business service providers that provide contextually differing embedding conditions for relationships and learning. Data has been gathered through interviews with individual service providers, observation of practice and organisational documentation. The research undertaken explores service providers’ approach towards relationship development, with the aim of identifying critical factors influencing success in each relationship stage and corresponding opportunities for learning through the experiences and challenges faced by service providers in practice. Findings: Results highlights that learning from the local context is critical for managing relationship success. Critical success factors for each stage are identified from the experiences and challenges faced by service providers across the two cases. These are translated into learning needs for each stage that aim to guide service providers’ attempts to learn from the local context in order to inform and adapt their approach. The appreciation of learning needs in relation to the unique context of each organisation directs attention to corresponding guidelines for practice. The research concludes with the proposition of a theoretical model for learning in relationships as well as a practical learning needs framework that can be incorporated in service providers’ practices for managing client relationships. Importantly results suggest that becoming relationally capable requires a transition to embracing a learning orientation in terms of both philosophy and process. Research Relevance and Implications: The study extends the potential for the creation of a relational capability in business relationships through the exploration of learning needs. Findings suggest that relationship management can be viewed as a cyclical process of learning and adaptation where success at each stage rests on the ability to read and learn from the local context and engage in appropriate actions in practice. The study contributes towards practice, by providing a practical framework through which service providers can develop relational learning. Exploration and appreciation of learning needs in stages of relationship development can aid service providers in the establishment of appropriate approaches towards intervention or stimulation of relationship success.
    • Business Leaders: Career Capital and Role Transitions

      Wond, Tracey; Hooley, Tristram; Brown, Catherine (University of Derby, 2019-01-29)
      Whilst it is recognised that the organisational career is still prevalent within today’s career landscape, there is a lack of research exploring the career capital needed to ease intra-organisational transitions. This thesis reviews this gap and explores the career capital required by business leaders to facilitate their own voluntary, sideward or upward macro work role transitions. The research questions include: 1. What aspects of career capital facilitate such role transitions? 2. How and to what extent are these role moves supported by career capital? 3. What barriers inhibit such role transitions? 4. What are the implications for business leaders and organisations of these role transition experiences? Drawing upon an interpretivist research approach, with a social constructionist stance and using event-based narrative interviews, this study explores the experiences of 36 business leaders who have undertaken a role transition within a UK business within the previous three years. This case organisation operates within the construction sector and is part of an international establishment. This research study enhances our appreciation of career capital; it offers unique contributions to knowledge from theoretical, empirical and practice perspectives. By developing a new career capital theoretical framework, our understanding of the career capital aspects that ease organisational role transitions is deepened. Such findings reaffirm the relevance of context and emphasise the importance of the Bourdieusian notion of the field and symbolic capital. Moreover, the insights offered by this research study recognise the relevance of Bourdieu’s capital convertibility within the context of career capital. Furthermore, this research study identifies new characteristics, including where career capital can: act as a barrier, overcome barriers, be eroded, be influenced by the role holder’s levels of personal agency and organisational attachment, and connect together to increase impact. Conclusively, this research study confirms the relevance of career capital within transition management. Additionally, given the importance of transitions within career theories, career capital is an important concept for the career management field as a whole.
    • C-Lean, an Integrated Approach to Achieve Circularity in Manufacturing Operations of SMEs

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Anosike, Anthony I.; Nadeem, Simon Peter (University of DerbyCentre for Supply Chain Improvement, College of Business, Law and Social Sciences, 2019-06-21)
      Purpose – The concept of Circular Economy has gained momentum both because its emergence is timely and that it proposes the solution that makes businesses more responsible, considerate and ethical. While the concept is straightforward to understand, its practical implementation is challenging, especially for manufacturing SMEs. Its popularity and adoption, mainly at the macro level is at rise, however, that is not the case at the micro and meso level (SMEs). Without the participation of SMEs in adopting Circular Economy, its full spectrum cannot be realised, since SMEs contribution to national GDP is nearly 50% globally. Therefore this research focuses on developing an integrated framework to achieve circularity in manufacturing operations of SMEs by combining the principles of Circular Economy and Lean, as they both focus on waste elimination and value creation/ preservation. The proposed framework (C-LEAN) utilises Lean tools and methods mingled with Circular Economy principles to achieve circularity as well as efficiency and effectiveness in manufacturing operations, especially at SMEs level. Design/ Methodology/ Approach – The framework’s design/ development is inspired by existing frameworks proposed by scholars. While the framework might seem a reflection of DMAIC, it, however, differ in its core nature/ purpose as the former focuses on problem-solving existing in operations, while for the proposed framework an operation might be functioning fine but would require a change to deal with bigger picture issues, such as resource scarcity and environmental damage. The conceptual framework is verified through Delphi study, where experts (both the academic and the practitioners) have been engaged to analyse the construct and practicality of the conceptual development. The framework has been modified/ updated in light of Delphi study’s results. Furthermore, the framework has been validated through a case study method with partial implementation, where its initial phases have been applied in two medium size manufacturing companies, to test its practical relevance. Findings – It was realised that there is both a massive lack of awareness/ understanding about Circular Economy as well as skills/ knowledge to identify the potential and adopt Circular Economy in the manufacturing operations among SMEs. However, at the same time, the existence of a Circular Economy practice was observed in a company where the purpose was solely for economic benefit, without any knowledge or intent of participating in Circular Economy goals. The analysis of companies pointed to potential improvements, that will lead towards achieving circularity in those respective companies. At the same time, the framework serves as a tool for the companies to continuously monitor and explore potential to improve their operations and achieve efficiency with effectiveness in a circular manner. Research implication/ Limitation – This research’s novelty lies in the fact that the convergence of Circular Economy and Lean has not been explored by scholars to its full extent and that no such framework has been developed earlier by combining the strengths of two concepts to benefit the management of manufacturing operations, especially at SMEs level. A major limitation is the partial implementation of the framework with the projected scenario of the potential outputs. The full implementation of the framework was not realistic, as it requires time to see the observable outcomes as well as changes in processes and capital to acquire resources. Practical implications – The proposed framework is of greater practical relevance as it is grounded in two concepts of Circular Economy and Lean, and benefits from the approach/ design of earlier developed frameworks. Moreover, an amalgamation of Circular Economy with Lean further affirms its relevance as Lean has been widely appraised and adopted among the manufacturing sector.
    • Can’t spell, can’t teach? An exploration of stakeholder attitudes towards students, with dyslexia, training to be primary classroom teachers.

      Charles, Sarah; University of Derby (2017-01-19)
      The aim of this research was to investigate stakeholder attitudes towards people, with dyslexia, training to be primary classroom practitioners. The study examined stakeholder awareness and understanding of the term dyslexia; their perceived strengths and challenges, of those training to be teachers, with dyslexia. The study explored the impact of attitudes on disclosure of dyslexia and the potential of their employability as primary teachers in light of inclusive legislation and whether attitudes, held by a range of stakeholders, were on a neutral to positive or neutral to negative spectrum. The research entailed the implementation of an online questionnaire completed by 214 current stakeholders (including Initial teacher Education lecturers, school staff, Initial Teacher Education students and parents) and 11 semi-structured interviews. Findings suggest that there is uncertainty and confusion about the term dyslexia, its associated characteristics and its causes. Many stakeholders perceive dyslexia negatively with key characteristics being linked, predominantly, to deficits in reading, writing and spelling. This research has found that stakeholders identify a number of strengths that those with dyslexia bring to the teaching profession. These key strengths include empathy, inclusive practice and ease of identification of children with dyslexia. The main challenges/concerns identified by stakeholders, of those entering the profession, with dyslexia, were - the demands of the profession; the inability to teach particular age groups/subjects and the level of support needed to ensure success and retention following qualification. This latter concern constitutes a key finding of this research, as the level of support afforded by universities is perceived as being unrealistic in the workplace. The ethical responsibility that universities have, in preparing students for the demands and reality of the workplace, has emerged. The notion of what constitutes ‘reasonable adjustments’ is questioned by many stakeholders. This research concludes that a number of ‘reasonable adjustments’ are perceived as being unreasonable within the teaching profession due to the professional roles, responsibilities and requirements of being a teaching professional. Furthermore, uncertainty about legislation exists with regard to reasonable adjustments, whose responsibility it is to enforce reasonable adjustments and how schools can actually support those with dyslexia, in light of professional standards. Overall, this research has found that 16.1% more stakeholders display attitudes on the neutral to positive spectrum than neutral to negative with regard to those with dyslexia training to be primary classroom teachers. However, this masks major differences between stakeholders and between responses to particular statements/questions. A significant majority of stakeholders demonstrated a negative attitude towards the notion of people with dyslexia entering the teaching profession, believing that parents should be concerned if their child is being taught by someone with dyslexia. Both of these findings could have serious implications on the future disclosure of those with dyslexia. This research has found that a fear of stigmatisation and potential discrimination, which deter those with dyslexia from disclosing on course and job applications are justified and real. This research concludes that employability chances are lessened upon disclosure of dyslexia.
    • Career progression and the first line manager

      Dexter, Barbara (University of Derby, 2003)
    • A case study to evaluate the introduction of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) within a School of Pharmacy

      Townend, Michael; Ellis, Lorraine; O'Hare, Roisin (University of DerbySchool of Health ScienceFaculty of Education, Health and ScienceUniversity of Derby, 2014)
      Healthcare education is continually evolving to reflect therapeutic advances in patient management. Society demands assurances regarding the ongoing competence of HCPs including pharmacists. The use of OSCEs to evaluate competence of medical staff as well as nurses is well documented in the literature however evidence of its use with undergraduate pharmacy students is still sparse.
    • Caught Between Theory and Practice? Expert and Practitioner Views of the Contributions made by Universities and Schools to Initial Teacher Preparation in England.

      Alison Hardman; University of Derby (2016-04-22)
      Abstract Caught between theory and practice? Expert and practitioner views of the contributions made by universities and schools to initial teacher preparation in England. In November 2010, the coalition government published its seminal The White Paper, The Importance of Teaching. Its recommendations sought to reform Initial Teacher Training (ITT) so that more training was school-based; to create a new national network of ‘Teaching Schools’ that gave outstanding schools in England a leadership role in the initial training and professional development of teachers. This thesis critically analyses the subsequent changes in relationships and tensions between universities and schools as the reforms were implemented. The consequent increase in the number of routes into teaching, coupled with more autonomy devolved to schools in relation to Initial Teacher Preparation (ITP), has served to jeopardise university-based preparation. The changing notions of pedagogy and practice in school-led initial teacher preparation alter the significance of theory in ITP and ultimately question the future for university-led initial teacher education. What constitutes effective teacher preparation is explored through a series of semi-structured interviews drawn from a small, reputational sample across the field of education. This provides the data that reveals a contemporary dichotomy between ‘training’ and ‘education’ that challenges the relevance of a theoretically informed teacher education in favour of ‘on the job training.’ From the discussion of the contested data provided by reputational sample, an outcome of the current changes could result in a peripheral role for universities in ITP. In particular, undergraduate provision, such as the B.Ed, was threatened because it did not provide a sufficient depth of subject knowledge; a shift to post-graduate school-based preparation and a reliance on assessment-only routes renders the role of the universities defunct. The findings from the analysis of the reputational sample were further examined in the workplace through questionnaire given to academics and partnership school mentors working in delivering ITP in an East Midlands University. The tensions between ‘training’ and education and the role of universities in initial teacher preparation were mirrored by teachers and academics. In conclusion, the changes made by the coalition government have made the future of ‘teacher education’ uniquely fragile.
    • Celebrity science culture: Young people's inspiration or entertainment?

      Radford, Neil; Forman, Dawn; Dent, Maria Fay (University of Derby, 2019-11-07)
      This thesis explores the influence of celebrity scientists on the uptake of science by young people, post-GCSE; the phenomenon is based upon media assertions that young people were continuing with science as a result of the increased media presence of scientists: the ‘Brian Cox effect’. Research design is set within a constructivist-interpretivist paradigm and case study framework, employing a narrative, story-telling approach to data collection and presentation. Narratives require ‘actors’, and as such the ‘lead actors’ in this research are: the conceptual framework; a narrative approach to data presentation; and the sociological perspectives of science capital and habitus. Together they guide development of the ‘bricolaged’ methodology, underpin the innovative script-writing approach to data presentation, which are used to illuminate the phenomenon of celebrity science culture. Data collection includes two participant groups: eighteen science students (‘A’ Level, undergraduate, and postgraduate), and five celebrity scientists (Sir David Attenborough, Baroness Susan Greenfield, Professor Steve Jones, Professor Mark Miodownik MBE, and Roma Agrawal MBE). Interviews explore science memories and influences, as well as perceptions of the role of celebrity science and scientists. The rationale and significance of this research lies within two strands: knowledge-based and methodological. It offers new knowledge to the field of celebrity science influence, with the potential to inform science education policy makers, and the methodological bricolage of conceptual framework development and creative narrative practices offer new dimensions to narrative research. An intrinsic, long-standing ‘passion’ for science was found to be the most influential factor. Advanced subject knowledge of teachers and lecturers, alongside opportunities to work within authentic and meaningful contexts, were highlighted as important in raising aspirations, and building science capital. Celebrity scientists were perceived as having the potential to influence young people, with authentic, inspiring contexts, presented in an entertaining format potentially optimising this influence. Science per se, rather than the ‘scientist’ him/herself, was more influential, contrasting with the traditional view of celebrity influence. The perceptions of science students are reflected in the findings from celebrity scientists. Engagement with children and young people was considered part of their role, not only to raise aspirations, but also to increasingly embed science culturally; their own passion for science the impetus for involvement. Partnership with other stakeholders was recognised as key, especially teachers and parents. ‘Personification’ was also recognised as important, acknowledging the responsibility that brings for their work to be truthful and credible. The thesis concludes with recommendations for future policy and practice, offering a theoretical framework and bespoke checklist, derived from the data, to support dialogue between stakeholders. This includes exploring use of the narratives as a tool to engage pupils with their own science journeys, with the intention of enhancing their science capital. The concept of “message to a name” is introduced, in contrast to the “name to a message” phenomenon of celebrity influence.
    • The challenges for race and community in post-civil rights America: Comparative perspectives in contemporary literature, education, and practice.

      Hancock, Stuart; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2017)
      This thesis explores contemporary responses to visions of more inclusive and egalitarian forms of society, which have emerged in the post-civil rights era from South American intellectuals, new Latino/a voices, and African American scholars. These theories imagine a diverse society mutually respectful of cultural heritage, with new concepts of community and new configurations of social, economic and political power, wherein everyone has a voice and an equal opportunity. The ultimate dream is of a society which transcends the perceived divisions of race, gender, and class, and heralds the elimination of oppression. With these visions in mind, the research investigates both conceptual and practical work which seeks to unite different races and ethnicities who are discriminated against, and which promotes multiethnic, multiracial collective action to address shared forms of oppression or injustice. The exploration is multidisciplinary, using source material from three influential domains - popular fiction, education, and social and political justice activism. The interrogation uncovers contrasting perspectives on identity and community, differing perceptions of race and ethnicity, and competing agendas and strategies for social justice activism. Additionally, the emergence of a sizeable middle class within minority groups has created an unprecedented and complicating factor for social justice activism, overlaid upon the enduring racial and ethnic issues. The unique combination of contrasting material in different settings also adds another dimension and exposes disparities between theory and practice, disconnection between generations, and dislocation between classes, opening up opportunities for further research in such areas. Whilst the findings reveal diverse, integrated activism is being promoted by radical theorists, scholars, writers, and educators, and practised in a number of organisations, with some successful outcomes at local, and sometimes state and federal levels, this body of work is fragmented and does not have a unified or national profile. In contrast with these radical initiatives, the longstanding, national civil rights organisations, though welcoming diverse membership and actions, have a more liberal, accommodating, and non-confrontational approach, and have witnessed a general decline in progress in recent decades, with none of the landmark cases seen earlier. The substantial demographic changes over this period have yet to translate into radical, collective action across the perceived racial and ethnic divide on a large scale. The thesis therefore concludes with a contemplation of the challenges which lay ahead for social justice activism in America.
    • Challenges in teaching gifted students with special learning difficulties: Using a strategy model of 'Asking, Analysing and Answering Questions' (AAA) to improve the learning environment.

      Salem, Nurit; University of Derby (2018-06-19)
      This study focuses on developing teaching strategies for teachers who teach in classes for students identified as Gifted and Talented with Special Learning Disabilities situated in Israeli secondary schools. The focus is on the challenges teachers meet while teaching Humanities Subjects (HS) to these students and the strategies they need in addressing their dual exceptionalities. The main purpose of this study is to examine how specific strategies may contribute towards both to quality of teaching and to a better learning environment. Research has shown that gifted students who are diagnosed with learning disabilities in writing skills (2ELs) have difficulties especially in HS and achieve less academically than may suggest their high abilities. The combination of giftedness with learning disabilities and underachievement creates special challenges for their teachers to counter, and for which they need specific Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes. In my study, I developed a model of teaching strategies which combines three strategies from the field of teaching gifted students and from the field of special education which are helpful in the humanities disciplines. I created a manual for teachers' CPD that includes this model and I conducted a seminar using this manual for the participant teachers in my research. This was followed by an implementation of the manual by these teachers in their classrooms that includes 2ELs. My qualitative research was based on the case studies of two teachers teaching HS in two high school classrooms, totalling sixty 2ELs. The information was collected through observations, interviews, and open questionnaires. I then analysed the information using an inductive approach as pattern recognition and inclusion into categories. The research findings of this study describe the difficulties that teachers may face with 2ELs and my claim to knowledge is the AAA Model of Strategies and the manual for teachers and their contribution to teachers of 2Els and their students. The recent research fills this particular gap in the literature, in the Israeli context, and the findings of this study bear policy implications and indicate the need for the tailoring of relevant teachers’ CPD' programmes to include strategies to better address the needs of 2ELs for optimal success in fulfilling their potential and overcoming their difficulties. Future research may achieve a deeper understanding of how to prepare teachers to use adjusted strategies that meet 2Els teachers in various disciplines in order to improve learning environment.
    • Cloud BI: A Multi-party Authentication Framework for Securing Business Intelligence on the Cloud

      Al-Aqrabi, Hussain; University of Derby (2016)
      Business intelligence (BI) has emerged as a key technology to be hosted on Cloud computing. BI offers a method to analyse data thereby enabling informed decision making to improve business performance and profitability. However, within the shared domains of Cloud computing, BI is exposed to increased security and privacy threats because an unauthorised user may be able to gain access to highly sensitive, consolidated business information. The business process contains collaborating services and users from multiple Cloud systems in different security realms which need to be engaged dynamically at runtime. If the heterogamous Cloud systems located in different security realms do not have direct authentication relationships then it is technically difficult to enable a secure collaboration. In order to address these security challenges, a new authentication framework is required to establish certain trust relationships among these BI service instances and users by distributing a common session secret to all participants of a session. The author addresses this challenge by designing and implementing a multiparty authentication framework for dynamic secure interactions when members of different security realms want to access services. The framework takes advantage of the trust relationship between session members in different security realms to enable a user to obtain security credentials to access Cloud resources in a remote realm. This mechanism can help Cloud session users authenticate their session membership to improve the authentication processes within multi-party sessions. The correctness of the proposed framework has been verified by using BAN Logics. The performance and the overhead have been evaluated via simulation in a dynamic environment. A prototype authentication system has been designed, implemented and tested based on the proposed framework. The research concludes that the proposed framework and its supporting protocols are an effective functional basis for practical implementation testing, as it achieves good scalability and imposes only minimal performance overhead which is comparable with other state-of-art methods.