• From key account management to strategic partnerships: critical success factors for co-creation of value

      Lawson, Alison; Longbottom, David; Veasey, Christian Michael (University of Derby, 2019-09-27)
      Background and rationale for this study: This study investigates Key Account Management (KAM) from a Marketing and Business to Business perspective. A review of literature finds that in recent years marketing scholars have proposed that KAM is developing from its traditional roots in sales management to a greater focus on relational aspects; for example, including elements of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Service Dominant Logic (SDL). However, whilst the principles of CRM and SDL are well grounded within the marketing literature there is little empirical evidence to show practical application within KAM, which this study will seek to address. Aim: To establish the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for KAM and the personal characteristics of Key Account Managers (KAMs) in order to develop a new model to inform and guide practitioners and academics. Methodology: The study aligns with a pragmatic research philosophy, where mixed methods are applied. The primary research includes a survey (n=71) and semi-structured interviews (n=15). Respondents were primarily KAMs from a variety of business sectors. The decision to follow pragmatism supported the use of mixed methods as well as modes of analysis and a continuous cycle of abductive reasoning while being guided by the research aim and objectives and the desire to produce socially meaningful knowledge. Pragmatism offers a strong emphasis on research questions, communication, and shared meaning making and seeks to achieve a balance between subjectivity and objectivity in research findings. Findings: This research captured a shifting contemporary KAM approach where KAM is seen as a facilitator of on-going processes of voluntary exchange through collaborative, value creating relationships, leading to the development of strategic partnerships. The study finds that amongst KAMs whilst there is strong recognition of CSFs in KAM, CRM, and SDL, there are inconsistent and weak applications in practice. The study explores the reasons for this and proposes that more work is needed to better interpret and translate the language and rhetoric and theoretical principles. Contribution: A new model for KAM is proposed showing the CSFs for implementation and a shift of emphasis from KAM to Key Account Relationships (KAR). The model covers the CSFs in CRM, and SDL, and provides guidance for issues in business processes, leadership roles, role clarity, remuneration and performance measurement, knowledge management, and skills, competencies and experience.
    • Parallaxical identities: Architectural semantics of contemporary arts institutions and the curation of cultural identity

      Tracada, Eleni; D'Arcy-Reed, Louis (University of Derby, 2019-09-19)
      The research project interrogates the identity forming principles beneath contemporary arts museum architecture across physical and psychoanalytical dimensions. In identifying a metaphysical distance, or barrier, between the unconscious of the cultural architectural intervention and the identity within the cities’ fabric, the state of a parallaxical identity manifests itself. The parallaxical identity, developed from Slavoj Žižek’s parallax gap in psychoanalysis, elicits the presentation of ego-ideal, ideal-ego, and superego of architectural interventions seen as regenerative for culture, the city and its communities. Developing the parallax within architecture allows the thesis to include a rigorous interrogation of theory across disciplines of psychoanalysis, architecture, contemporary art and museology, whilst also remediating the position of architectural practice beyond its conventional boundaries and rhetoric. Adopting a mixed methodology across theoretical and practical disciplines, the thesis reveals unconscious interpretations and embodied analyses through a weaving of para-architectural methods including, photography, questionnaires, exploratory installations, written prose, and imagined cultural visualisations. Three major arts institutions act as case study analysands for psychoanalytical observation and diagnosis to take place, informing the resulting framework for observing parallaxical identities, whilst also producing recommendations for the future of the cultural institution of the museum/gallery. Alongside the thesis’ position as a critical commentary, a supplementary PhD exhibition proposal centered on Parallaxical Identities questions the role of architecture as a discipline that necessitates para-architectural and psychoanalytic methodologies, whilst also presenting new artistic works in response to the thesis to reveal to audiences’ the haptic and hidden structures within architecture and the ‘expected or unexpected’ parallaxical interventions of place.
    • Epistemology, theory and Jung: Towards an analytical sport psychology

      Sheffield, David; Cowen, Andrew; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-07-22)
      Sport psychology has historically adopted a positivist and post-positivist conceptualization of science at the expense of systematic engagement with epistemology itself (Whaley & Krane, 2011). In this thesis it will be argued that positivist orthodoxy does not hold a monopoly over the idea of science, and that future theoretical developments within sport psychology will require more systematic engagement with epistemology. In order to explore this proposition, the thesis examines the epistemology developed in C. G. Jung’s analytical psychology, an approach which has been generally overlooked within the sport psychology literature. In addition, more recent epistemological developments within psychology are considered with respect to current and future theorising within sport psychology. The thesis is a “desktop study” comprising of 8 chapters. The introduction (chapter 1) outlines how the current crisis within psychological science is epistemological, not methodological, in nature. Chapter 2 identifies key foundational challenges to sport psychology based on positivism; and introduces C. G. Jung’s analytical psychology which developed out of the rejection of a positivist conceptualization of science. Chapter 3 introduces aspects of a new epistemological framework (i.e., unconsciousness~consciousness; the psyche as a process) based on the work of Jung and identifies points of convergence between these contributions and more recent theorising. Chapter 4 considers the implications of analytical psychology with respect to momentum in sports. An original theoretical account of psychological momentum is outlined, based on libido theory (Jung, 1960), and the implications are considered with respect to current literature within sport psychology. Chapter 5 considers more recent developments in psychology (i.e., cybernetic systems paradigm, idiographic science) which have important parallels with analytical psychology, and which have important implications for the future of sport psychology as a science. Chapter 6 outlines an original theoretical perspective with respect to our understanding of performance variation in sport (Cowen, Nesti, & Cheetham, 2014), based on epistemological and theoretical developments outlined in the preceding chapters. Chapter 7 considers the implications of the epistemology outlined in the thesis with respect to current and future theorising in sport psychology. The central theme of this chapter is temporality, which, it is argued is necessarily an axiomatic component of future theoretical work, in order to overcome the foundational problems associated with a positivist conceptualisation of science. In the final concluding chapter (Chapter 8) it is proposed that the provisional epistemological criteria outlined in the thesis (i.e., subject~object, conceptual integration, being~becoming, teleology, temporality) offers a basis on which an analytical sport psychology could be developed. With respect to sport psychology, these criteria suggest that future developments should focus more on understanding performance variation itself rather than prioritising the study of psychological constructs, or objectivist representations, associated with performance. It is concluded that the “personal equation” – the creativity, judgement, intuition and/or insight of the researcher - represents an important component of the process of knowledge construction; which in turn necessitates collaboration as a necessary counterpoint to individual subjectivity. Taken together, this thesis suggests that analytical psychology, despite historically sitting outside of psychological science, can make an important contribution to the future of sport psychology as a scientific discipline.
    • Dynamic collaboration and secure access of services in multi-cloud environments

      Liu, Lu; Zhu, Shao Ying; Kazim, Muhammad (University of DerbyCollege of Engineering and Technology, 2019-08-19)
      The cloud computing services have gained popularity in both public and enterprise domains and they process a large amount of user data with varying privacy levels. The increasing demand for cloud services including storage and computation requires new functional elements and provisioning schemes to meet user requirements. Multi-clouds can optimise the user requirements by allowing them to choose best services from a large number of services offered by various cloud providers as they are massively scalable, can be dynamically configured, and delivered on demand with large-scale infrastructure resources. A major concern related to multi-cloud adoption is the lack of models for them and their associated security issues which become more unpredictable in a multi-cloud environment. Moreover, in order to trust the services in a foreign cloud users depend on their assurances given by the cloud provider but cloud providers give very limited evidence or accountability to users which offers them the ability to hide some behaviour of the service. In this thesis, we propose a model for multi-cloud collaboration that can securely establish dynamic collaboration between heterogeneous clouds using the cloud on-demand model in a secure way. Initially, threat modelling for cloud services has been done that leads to the identification of various threats to service interfaces along with the possible attackers and the mechanisms to exploit those threats. Based on these threats the cloud provider can apply suitable mechanisms to protect services and user data from these threats. In the next phase, we present a lightweight and novel authentication mechanism which provides a single sign-on (SSO) to users for authentication at runtime between multi-clouds before granting them service access and it is formally verified. Next, we provide a service scheduling mechanism to select the best services from multiple cloud providers that closely match user quality of service requirements (QoS). The scheduling mechanism achieves high accuracy by providing distance correlation weighting mechanism among a large number of services QoS parameters. In the next stage, novel service level agreement (SLA) management mechanisms are proposed to ensure secure service execution in the foreign cloud. The usage of SLA mechanisms ensures that user QoS parameters including the functional (CPU, RAM, memory etc.) and non-functional requirements (bandwidth, latency, availability, reliability etc.) of users for a particular service are negotiated before secure collaboration between multi-clouds is setup. The multi-cloud handling user requests will be responsible to enforce mechanisms that fulfil the QoS requirements agreed in the SLA. While the monitoring phase in SLA involves monitoring the service execution in the foreign cloud to check its compliance with the SLA and report it back to the user. Finally, we present the use cases of applying the proposed model in scenarios such as Internet of Things (IoT) and E-Healthcare in multi-clouds. Moreover, the designed protocols are empirically implemented on two different clouds including OpenStack and Amazon AWS. Experiments indicate that the proposed model is scalable, authentication protocols result only in a limited overhead compared to standard authentication protocols, service scheduling achieves high efficiency and any SLA violations by a cloud provider can be recorded and reported back to the user.
    • C-Lean, an Integrated Approach to Achieve Circularity in Manufacturing Operations of SMEs

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Anosike, Anthony I.; Nadeem, Simon Peter (University of DerbyCentre for Supply Chain Improvement, College of Business, Law and Social Sciences, 2019-06-21)
      Purpose – The concept of Circular Economy has gained momentum both because its emergence is timely and that it proposes the solution that makes businesses more responsible, considerate and ethical. While the concept is straightforward to understand, its practical implementation is challenging, especially for manufacturing SMEs. Its popularity and adoption, mainly at the macro level is at rise, however, that is not the case at the micro and meso level (SMEs). Without the participation of SMEs in adopting Circular Economy, its full spectrum cannot be realised, since SMEs contribution to national GDP is nearly 50% globally. Therefore this research focuses on developing an integrated framework to achieve circularity in manufacturing operations of SMEs by combining the principles of Circular Economy and Lean, as they both focus on waste elimination and value creation/ preservation. The proposed framework (C-LEAN) utilises Lean tools and methods mingled with Circular Economy principles to achieve circularity as well as efficiency and effectiveness in manufacturing operations, especially at SMEs level. Design/ Methodology/ Approach – The framework’s design/ development is inspired by existing frameworks proposed by scholars. While the framework might seem a reflection of DMAIC, it, however, differ in its core nature/ purpose as the former focuses on problem-solving existing in operations, while for the proposed framework an operation might be functioning fine but would require a change to deal with bigger picture issues, such as resource scarcity and environmental damage. The conceptual framework is verified through Delphi study, where experts (both the academic and the practitioners) have been engaged to analyse the construct and practicality of the conceptual development. The framework has been modified/ updated in light of Delphi study’s results. Furthermore, the framework has been validated through a case study method with partial implementation, where its initial phases have been applied in two medium size manufacturing companies, to test its practical relevance. Findings – It was realised that there is both a massive lack of awareness/ understanding about Circular Economy as well as skills/ knowledge to identify the potential and adopt Circular Economy in the manufacturing operations among SMEs. However, at the same time, the existence of a Circular Economy practice was observed in a company where the purpose was solely for economic benefit, without any knowledge or intent of participating in Circular Economy goals. The analysis of companies pointed to potential improvements, that will lead towards achieving circularity in those respective companies. At the same time, the framework serves as a tool for the companies to continuously monitor and explore potential to improve their operations and achieve efficiency with effectiveness in a circular manner. Research implication/ Limitation – This research’s novelty lies in the fact that the convergence of Circular Economy and Lean has not been explored by scholars to its full extent and that no such framework has been developed earlier by combining the strengths of two concepts to benefit the management of manufacturing operations, especially at SMEs level. A major limitation is the partial implementation of the framework with the projected scenario of the potential outputs. The full implementation of the framework was not realistic, as it requires time to see the observable outcomes as well as changes in processes and capital to acquire resources. Practical implications – The proposed framework is of greater practical relevance as it is grounded in two concepts of Circular Economy and Lean, and benefits from the approach/ design of earlier developed frameworks. Moreover, an amalgamation of Circular Economy with Lean further affirms its relevance as Lean has been widely appraised and adopted among the manufacturing sector.
    • Identification of tourism developmental success factors: Benchmarking the Malawi tourism industry

      Heap, Tim; Kandaya, Hastings (University of Derby, 2019-07-05)
      This thesis explores the potential development of, and model for, tourism on Lake Malawi. It builds upon the historic associations attached to colonisation and how this led to the acceptance, for 30 years, of Western based models in formulating strategic plans for tourism development in Malawi. The study confirms that Lake Malawi has development potential to compete with existing successful destinations; both in the African region and the global tourism market. The thesis concentrates upon the power relationships between the current stakeholders involved in the development process and the potential mechanisms available to involve local people more in the heritage tourism dynamic. The study explores the concepts of historic tourism development within Malawi and assess the success or failure of those strategies within the context of sustainability. The primary research involved the local population within two areas on Lake Malawi, and the government employees responsible for the planning process. The literature pointed to there being a gap between theory and practice within Malawi. The study confirms the potential in the region by analysis of similar locations and their stages within the development process. The primary research confirmed the need to identify a successful model that could be adapted for the Lake Malawi. These are then adapted to country branding suggested for Malawi, as a basis for development models influenced by the branding imperative, which then concludes the circular argument built from the destination analysis.
    • Managing tourism across boundaries through Communities

      Clarke, Alan; Rawlinson, Sarah; Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, peter (University of Derby, 2019-05-07)
      Over more than a decade, observations of community based tourism inspired in me a series of publications that are detailed in this meta-analysis. These twenty five publications deal with the relationship between supply and demand in tourism from a socially constructed heuristic and hermeneutic perspective. Heuristic, as the work conducted was based around observations, even participation, in problem solving action with a wide range of stakeholders. Hermeneutic, as the research observations and participation undertaken identified root causes and opportunities pertinent to community development . Therefore this represents a study of tourism management designed to resolve complex, somewhat chaotic and wicked problems centred around the agendas for suppliers of tourism that challenged the existing management practices and perceived solutions. Solutions have been constructed built around an interpretation of habitus and beliefs that are predicated on a four component model. The first is the accrual of case studies with which to benchmark achievement that might be seen as best practice and worthy of emulation. The second is cohesion with fervently held beliefs and habitus adopted in parallel business cases, quite possibly in a competitive and quality-driven service sector. The third is enduring benchmarks in good practices that can be re-visited and adapted to meet the changing complex needs of communities. The fourth component is sharing the knowledge obtained, and maximising uptake of scarce resources used, across the varying sectors and destinations. These shared new experiences in learning are becoming embedded in education but now also need embedding in accessible repositories that conceivably are available at very low cost to a much wider range of interested stakeholders. “Being, thinking and doing” are the words that come to mind when I reflect on my publishing journey in academia from 2005 to the present day (Kassel, Rimanoczy, and Mitchell, 2016). “Being”, as I am a researcher with a passion for all that concerns the community and my role informing and advising the various stakeholders charged or expected to deliver for the visitor. “Thinking” as I am actively identifying practices for future consideration that incorporate identified exemplars of sustainable development that we can all learn from. "Doing”, as a measure of our achievements as communities and how we can embed both tacit and explicit knowledge in learning in the community and in Higher Education. My work embeds that knowledge in those stakeholders deemed jointly responsible for managing the tourism experience. Tourism can be a force for good in any community and typically relies on starting with beliefs, values and identity. Stakeholders should accept learning about the changing face of responsibility for development as that community evolves. This approach is both emancipatory and inclusive in the twenty first century and it is reflective of critical endogenous decision-making in academia and praxis. My studies in New Zealand and in the United Kingdom clarify that tourism as a “force for good” is collective, cross-border, interdisciplinary and cooperative. I believe that shared stories of effort, innovation and success are vital to future thinking, as destinations pride themselves on distinctiveness and reflect an evolving public/private partnership nature. This focus mirrors beliefs in dyadic partnerships that acknowledges the twin responsibilities to conservation and protection in the development of communities. Through an amalgam of soft-systems methodologies and phenomenology I have discovered the need for multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. I am committed to a constructivist, stakeholder focus for responsibility and gladly acknowledge the role that health services research and community development research cross the border with tourism management to inform the continuing agenda for learning destinations.
    • Proposing a framework for organisational sustainable development: integrating quality management, supply chain management and sustainability

      Liyanage, Kapila; Bastas, Ali (University of DerbyCollege of Engineering and Technology, 2019-07-04)
      Increasing worldwide demand for products and services is applying a significant pressure on firms and supply chains operationally and financially, along with negative implications on our planet and the public. New approaches are highly required to be adopted by all members of the society, including the businesses for sustainable development. On the other hand, enabling such integration from an organisational management perspective is not straightforward, due to complexities and conflicts associated with balanced integration of economic, environmental and social agendas. Aimed towards addressing this important research requirement, a tailored conceptual framework is presented, constructed upon the synergistic principles of quality management (QM) and supply chain management (SCM) to facilitate integration of triple bottom line sustainability into business management. As the first step of the research, a systematic literature review was conducted, evidencing research gaps, and opportunities. A conceptual framework was established, and an implementation procedure to facilitate operationalisation of the framework was developed including a business diagnostic tool contribution, aiding current state maturity assessment as one of the key implementation steps. These developments were verified, validated and improved through the Delphi method, and applied at an organisation in Cyprus as the final validation step, using the action research method. Positive relationships were established and verified conceptually between the ISO 9001 principles of QM, supply chain integration principle of SCM, and organisational triple bottom line sustainability integration. The relative importance of these principles adopted in the framework were determined based on expert Delphi panel feedback. The action research demonstrated the application of the framework, outlined its contextual implementation factors, and concluded positive effects on the sustainable development of the participating organisation. Several contributions to knowledge were made, including the refinement of existing QM and SCM concepts for organisational sustainability improvement, and formulation of a practical framework including a novel diagnostic tool to facilitate integration of triple bottom line sustainability through QM and SCM. Particularly, a new management perspective was introduced with implications to many organisational managers that adopt ISO 9001 and supply chain integration principles, setting the way for extending these principles beyond their original QM and SCM agendas towards organisational sustainable development.
    • BECOMING A MASTER OF EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF PART-TIME STUDENTS UNDERTAKING CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

      Cottle, Vanessa (University of Derby, 2019-05-25)
      This study is an exploration of students who study part-time to achieve a Master of Education award in the context of continuing professional development. Particularly interesting to this study is identity development and the effects on confidence/self-esteem as MA Education Students’ cope with the interacting dimensions of personal, professional and study contexts. The research found a triangle of tensions between professional, personal and developing postgraduate identities to be at the heart of transitions into becoming a postgraduate student. Students’ investments of finance, time, cognitive effort and reprioritisation of lifestyle is made without guarantee of return. They experience low professional self-concept; they are daunted by self-doubts about meeting the demands of master’s study; troubled by imposter feelings and preoccupied by their professional identities. However, confidence and self-esteem improve as study progresses and by harnessing personal qualities, and some support networks, students overcome barriers to achieve positive outcomes, which for some can be transformative. An interpretivist methodology has been adopted using a case study approach with data collected from MA Education students at one post-1992 university. Twenty-five students were included in: two focus group interviews (each of five participants); five individual interviews and ten students participated in a series of four sets of email questions posed at regular points in one year of their degree. Braun and Clarke’s (2013) approach to thematic analysis was adopted and themes emerged inductively. There are several recommendations arising for both practice and policy. For practice all aspects of curriculum design and delivery must be mindful of the professional and personal qualities, not just student academic competencies, which contribute to masterliness. However, programme and module specific induction must include strategies to encourage students’ envisioning of their possible selves as student in order to grow their confidence and self-esteem as students. Lecturers must be mindful about the motivations behind part-time, higher level study for continuing professional development and the factors which constrain deep learning. Recommendations for wider policy relate to urging government and educational leaders to validate the value of educationalists, of all types. This should be achieved by fully resourcing accredited master’s study in both practical and financial ways.  
    • Smart City: A Traffic Signal Control System for Reducing the Effects of Traffic Congestion in Urban Environments

      Hardy, James (University of Derby, 2019-06-10)
      This thesis addresses the detrimental effects of road traffic congestion in the Smart City environment. Urban congestion is a recognisable problem that affects much of the world’s population through delays and pollution although the delays are not an entirely modern phenomena. The progressive increase in urbanisation and the numbers of powered road vehicles have led to an increasing need to control traffic in order to maintain flows and avoid gridlock situations. Signalised methods typically control flows through reduction, frequently increasing delays, holding traffic within the urban area and increasing local pollution. The current levels of vehicular congestion may relate to an increase in traffic volumes of 300% over 50 years while traffic control methods based on delaying moving traffic have changed very little. Mobility and Socio-economics indicate that the number of active road vehicles will increase or at least remain at the same levels in the foreseeable future and as a result congestion will continue to be a problem. The Smart City concept is intended to improve the urban environment through the application of advanced technology. Within the context of road transportation, the urban area consists of a wide variety of low to moderate speed transportation systems ranging from pedestrians to heavy goods vehicles. Urban roadways have a large number of junctions where the transport systems and flows interact presenting additional and more complex challenges as compared to high speed dual carriageways and motorways. Congestion is a function of population density while car ownership is an indicator of affluence; road congestion can therefore be seen as an indicator of local economic and social prosperity. Congestion cannot be resolved while there is a social benefit to urbanisation, high density living and a materialistic population. Recognising that congestion cannot be resolved, this research proposes a method to reduce the undesirable consequences and side effects of traffic congestion such as transit delays, inefficient fuel use and chemical pollution without adversely affecting the social and economic benefits. Existing traffic signal systems manage traffic flows based on traffic arrivals, prediction and traffic census models. Flow modification is accomplished by introducing delays through signal transition in order to prioritise a conflicting direction. It is incorrectly assumed that traffic will always be able to move and therefore signal changes will always have an effect. Signal transitions result in lost time at the junction. Existing Urban Traffic Control systems have limited capability as they are unable to adapt immediately to unexpected conditions, have a finite response, cannot modify stationary flow and may introduce needless losses through inefficient transition. This research proposes and develops Available Forward Road Capacity (AFRC), an algorithm with the ability to detect the onset of congestion, actively promote clearance, prevent unnecessary losses due to ineffective transitions and can influence other AFRC equipped junctions to ensure the most efficient use of unoccupied road capacity. AFRC is an additional function that can be applied to existing traffic controllers, becoming active only during congestion conditions; as a result it cannot increase congestion above current levels. By reducing the duration of congestion periods, AFRC reduces delays, improves the efficiency of fuel use and reduces pollution. AFRC is a scalable, multi-junction generalised solution which is able to manage traffic from multiple directions without prior tuning; it can detect and actively resolve problems with stationary traffic. AFRC is evaluated using a commercial traffic simulation system and is shown to resolve inbound and outbound congestion in less time than Vehicle Actuated and Fully Timed systems when simulating both morning and evening rush-hours.
    • What makes Geography a worthwhile school subject? An exploration of the current controversy in geography teaching

      Hayes, Dennis; Haden-Walker, James (University of DerbyPGR Student, 2019-05-16)
      Geography as a school subject is in controversy. This controversy is given expression in an on-going debate between the opposing views of two leading academics Alex Standish and David Lambert. The Standish/Lambert debate reflects the discussion by the philosopher Paul Hirst in the 1960s of the nature of geography as a ‘field’ of knowledge rather and an independent ‘form’ of knowledge. The ‘field’ that is geography is said by Standish (2007) to be politicised while Lambert (2009) argues that this is just geography in modern form. In this dissertation Standish, Lambert and other leading geographers were interviewed to explore the nature of their disagreement and how it relates to what Michael Young (2007) has described as the need to give all pupils ‘powerful knowledge’. In addition to interviews with experts and teachers, this study carried out a questionnaire of geography teachers in Staffordshire. This study found that this dispute in the academic world reflected real divisions in what teachers understood as the value and nature of geography. Some teachers saw knowledge, or skills, as more relevant while others emphasised values and attitudes. They had a varied range of views relating to geographical knowledge and the impact of wider environmental issues alongside concerns over time allocation for the subject and its hierarchical position in relation to other ‘core’ subjects such as Mathematics, Science, and English. The study concluded that geography will remain in controversy until the Standish/Lambert debate is more fully discussed and debated among teachers. This thesis is a contribution to that debate.
    • Memory screens: The body and technology in time and space

      Hudson, Robert; Campbell, Neil; Forde, Teresa (University of Derby, 2018-08-01)
      This critical review ascertains the development of the research into memory screens and the relationship between memory, history, the body and technology on film, television and related media experiences. The body of research develops from a consideration of the gendered body on screen. This theme is continued and refined throughout the research. I consider the conventional personification of technology as potentially threatening or recuperative in relation to concerns regarding bodily cohesion and individual identity in relation to history and memory formation. The main focus of the work becomes the negotiation of memory formation in relation to media at both a personal and social level and the relationship between viewers and film and television texts. I encompass and develop post-structural definitions of the body and the theoretical implications of engaging with contemporary media. The research also encompasses the experience of exhibition and fan activity in extending the process of memory screens and engagement with the media.
    • A CONCEPTUALISATION OF MANAGEMENT BASED ON THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES

      Ramsbottom, Olivia (University of Derby, 2019-05-22)
      This research conceptualises management in response to the lack of an absolute definition in the management literature. Three concepts: Management as Learning ; the Co-dependency of management; and management as Doing and Thinking are developed from the literature and a two-stage study carried out in the context of hospitality management supports these concepts. The study results in a unique framework for the 21st century hospitality manager and recommendations for management development linked to management practice. The research is critical social constructivist and uses a phenomenological strategy. A two stage process of semi-structured interviews was employed to elucidate the experiences of 32 employees and managers in 4* and 5* hotels predominantly in London, UK with regards to the key themes of effective management. The work elicits a body of rich, living data that is interpreted to create a unique framework for the 21st century hospitality manager, which includes: - co-dependency and management as learning as linked concepts; key skills and activities for effective management; and an understanding of the required combination - confirmation that a balance of specific and universal skills are needed for hospitality management - a Manager Role mind map and table of key criteria for the transition from specialist to manager. The contributions of this research are threefold: - Theoretical: the work identifies three key fundamentals of management, filling a gap in the general management literature. - Contribution to Knowledge: the research is contextualised to hospitality management and is an application of an unusual paradigmatic approach: both contributions to the hospitality management literature. The research also fills a gap in the literature in the absence of definitions of management. - Practical: the work results in a model to be tested through application to hospitality management.
    • Surveillance of Modern Motherhood: An exploration of the experiences of mothers that have attended a Universal Parenting Course.

      Poultney, Val; Luke, Anne; Simmons, Helen (University of Derby, 2019-03-29)
      This thesis explores the experiences of mothers of children aged 0-3 years that have attended universal parenting courses. The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that motivate mothers to attend a universal parenting course and to explore the wider experiences of early modern motherhood in the UK. In order to develop this understanding, the research explored participant perceptions of any benefit or otherwise in attending a parenting course and also considered the different forms of parenting advice accessed by mothers and how this provides an insight into the wider constructs and experiences of modern motherhood. Ultimately, the goal of this research was to consider the social and cultural pressures within modern motherhood in relation to different levels of surveillance (Henderson et al., 2010) and to produce new knowledge for practice within the early years sector in relation to the support currently offered to new mothers. A feminist post-structuralist worldview was taken to explore the dominant discourses within modern motherhood. This approach provided a ‘productive contradiction’ (Baxter, 2003, p. 2) whereby multiple experiences could be considered, particularly in relation to feelings of oppression, empowerment and being ‘good enough’ (Winnicott, 1964) within modern motherhood. A qualitative methodology was developed with the first phase being a survey with a range of questions designed to generate insight into the experiences of mothers (30 participants), followed by qualitative interviews with a sample of mothers using semi-structured photo elicitation interviews (7 participants). Findings revealed that universal parenting courses can provide opportunities for new mothers to build daily structure, social networks and reduce feelings of isolation. Some negative experiences of parenting courses were reported when health professionals and early years practitioners were considered ‘pushy’ or ‘non neutral’ – particularly regarding sensitive areas such as breastfeeding or the reaching of developmental milestones. Participants demonstrated that there is a perceived place in society for parenting courses when they are practical, supportive and neutral rather than formulaic, homogenous or grounded in psychoanalytical or neurodevelopmental underpinnings, which can promote feelings of judgement or added pressure. Findings also link to the wider ‘parenting culture’ (Furedi, 2008; Lee et al., 2014) with societal pressures, motherhood ideologies, comparisons between mothers and other aspects of interpersonal surveillance including social media and celebrity culture all adding to the challenge of retaining an identity and of finding confidence and agency within the role. Overall, self-surveillance is identified as the most powerful aspect of modern motherhood with challenges relating to a reluctance to discuss ‘taboo’ aspects of motherhood including difficulty with attachment following birth and the internalisation of social and cultural pressures. It was important to note that, although there are clear levels of surveillance that are embedded into society which resulted in evidence of self-doubt and dependency, there was also evidence of agency and autonomy in the responses to these levels which were developed through strong social networks and support systems. Following on from this research; proactive, empathetic, practical and localised support from health professionals and early years practitioners is needed along with empowering opportunities for new mothers to develop confidence in an informal environment and foster truthful, non-judgmental interpersonal support networks. It is through these support systems that new mothers will continue to be able to resist or reshape the dominant discourses and ultimately, enjoy the experience to its full potential.
    • THE PHOTOGRAPH REFLECTED: APPROPRIATIONS OF THE VERNACULAR IN CONTEMPORARY ART

      Alves, Cesário; College of Arts, Humanities and Education of the University of Derby (2018)
    • High Performance Video Stream Analytics System for Object Detection and Classification

      Anjum, Ashiq; Yaseen, Muhammad Usman (University of DerbyCollege of Engineering and Technology, 2019-02-05)
      Due to the recent advances in cameras, cell phones and camcorders, particularly the resolution at which they can record an image/video, large amounts of data are generated daily. This video data is often so large that manually inspecting it for object detection and classification can be time consuming and error prone, thereby it requires automated analysis to extract useful information and meta-data. The automated analysis from video streams also comes with numerous challenges such as blur content and variation in illumination conditions and poses. We investigate an automated video analytics system in this thesis which takes into account the characteristics from both shallow and deep learning domains. We propose fusion of features from spatial frequency domain to perform highly accurate blur and illumination invariant object classification using deep learning networks. We also propose the tuning of hyper-parameters associated with the deep learning network through a mathematical model. The mathematical model used to support hyper-parameter tuning improved the performance of the proposed system during training. The outcomes of various hyper-parameters on system's performance are compared. The parameters that contribute towards the most optimal performance are selected for the video object classification. The proposed video analytics system has been demonstrated to process a large number of video streams and the underlying infrastructure is able to scale based on the number and size of the video stream(s) being processed. The extensive experimentation on publicly available image and video datasets reveal that the proposed system is significantly more accurate and scalable and can be used as a general purpose video analytics system.
    • The Digital Dilemma: An investigation into social media marketing within organisations

      Longbottom, David; Lawson, Alison; Hanlon, Annmarie (University of Derby, 2019-03-18)
      This thesis investigates different application of social media marketing within organisations and identifies critical success factors resulting in a strategic social media application framework for organisations. The context of this research is the organisational application of social media and whilst social media networks have been present since 1997, the utilisation of social media by individuals has been examined by many scholars. However its application to organisations remains an area requiring further research. Thus, to understand differences in social media marketing within organisations, this thesis has problematised the notion of generational cohorts and the presence or absence of formal marketing qualifications.Following a pragmatist epistemology and ontology, this study has sought warranted assertions within a mixed-methods framework. An explanatory mixed-methods sequential design approach was adopted and for Research Phase One, an online survey within a set of closed online digital marketing groups was administered, to investigate the purposes of social media usage and affordances gained. This provided data from 448 respondents representing a variety of organisations, using social media at work. The second research phase was qualitative semi-structured interviews with participants drawn from Research Phase One, which involved 26 semi-structured mixed-mode interviews, based on the participant’s availability and location. The purpose of the semi-structured interviews was to explore critical issues raised in the online survey.The thesis is informed by the construct of affordances – which involve opportunities for action and positive affordances provide benefits. These were harnessed to delineate the benefits of social media, within an organisational context. This work provides original contributions to knowledge: The empirical research provides evidence of differences in social media marketing application between generational cohorts and those with and without formal marketing qualifications. There were statistically significant differences in the application of customer service, measuring results and managing social media interaction.The research found that there was no classification for different types of social media managers. Furthermore, digital skills gaps were identified as digital natives were more likely to have formal marketing qualifications than digital immigrants. Thus following the pragmatic principle, working typologies were presented for those using social media in organisations to better frame training and social media management. The critical success factors within organisations were justifiably warranted which asserted social media affordances for organisations: brand management, customer segmentation, customer service, interaction (engagement), entertainment, remuneration (offers), and sales cycle (testimonies and reviews). Two critical factors were confirmed: clear strategy and vision for social media management, and measure results from social media. These social media affordances were applied at varying levels of maturity and this led to the development of social media affordances maturity scale, that is grounded in a pragmatist epistemology bringing utility and understanding for organisations. This thesis identifies differences in social media marketing within organisations and in accordance with its aim, ascertains the critical success factors and develops frameworks for social media application in organisations.
    • A Trust Evaluation Framework in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

      Adnane, Asma; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; Anjum, Ashiq; Ahmad, Farhan (University of DerbyCollege of Engineering and Technology, 2019-03-11)
      Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET) is a novel cutting-edge technology which provides connectivity to millions of vehicles around the world. It is the future of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and plays a significant role in the success of emerging smart cities and Internet of Things (IoT). VANET provides a unique platform for vehicles to intelligently exchange critical information, such as collision avoidance or steep-curve warnings. It is, therefore, paramount that this information remains reliable and authentic, i.e., originated from a legitimate and trusted vehicle. Due to sensitive nature of the messages in VANET, a secure, attack-free and trusted network is imperative for the propagation of reliable, accurate and authentic information. In case of VANET, ensuring such network is extremely difficult due to its large-scale and open nature, making it susceptible to diverse range of attacks including man-in-the-middle (MITM), replay, jamming and eavesdropping. Trust establishment among vehicles can increase network security by identifying dishonest vehicles and revoking messages with malicious content. For this purpose, several trust models (TMs) have been proposed but, currently, there is no effective way to compare how they would behave in practice under adversary conditions. Further, the proposed TMs are mostly context-dependent. Due to randomly distributed and highly mobile vehicles, context changes very frequently in VANET. Ideally the TMs should perform in every context of VANET. Therefore, it is important to have a common framework for the validation and evaluation of TMs. In this thesis, we proposed a novel Trust Evaluation And Management (TEAM) framework, which serves as a unique paradigm for the design, management and evaluation of TMs in various contexts and in presence of malicious vehicles. Our framework incorporates an asset-based threat model and ISO-based risk assessment for the identification of attacks against critical risks. TEAM has been built using VEINS, an open source simulation environment which incorporates SUMO traffic simulator and OMNET++ discrete event simulator. The framework created has been tested with the implementation of three types of TM (data-oriented, entity-oriented and hybrid) under four different contexts of VANET based on the mobility of both honest and malicious vehicles. Results indicate that TEAM is effective to simulate a wide range of TMs, where the efficiency is evaluated against different Quality of Service (QoS) and security-related criteria. Such framework may be instrumental for planning smart cities and for car manufacturers.
    • The effects of weaponry and mating experience on the level and outcome of agonistic interactions in male field crickets, gryllus bimaculatus (orthoptera: gryllidae)

      Gee, David; University of Derby (2019-02-15)
      Abstract A wide variety of factors are predicted to influence the intensity and outcome of agonistic interactions in animals, including the resource holding potential of the opponents and the nature and value of the resource over which the individuals are competing. Field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) have been used extensively as model organisms with which to study animal contests, but relatively few studies have examined the effect of mandible size or structure, or the level of contact with females on the intensity and outcome of agonistic interactions. To do so was the aim of the present thesis, using Gryllus bimaculatus as the study species. The first finding of this study was that there is a significant degree of sexual dimorphism for anterior components of the anatomy in G. bimaculatus. The mandibles, head and pronotum of male crickets were all relatively larger than those of females. This indicates that these traits may be acted upon by intrasexual selection. In many animal species that show sexual dimorphism, a trade-off in development sees enhanced weapon growth at the expense of testes size, but no such relationship was seen in this species. A comparison of the mandible structure of males that either won or lost at flaring and or wrestling showed that a relatively wider mandible span was a significant predictor of success during mandible displays. It was also found that specific components of tooth structure, namely the length of the incisor and length to distal tip, were significantly associated with victory at the jaw flaring stage. This is the first time that mandible shape has been shown to affect fight outcome in the Gryllidae, and also the first confirmed identification of a visual cue component of fighting behaviour. Despite the effectiveness of their weapons in fighting, body mass is a primary predictor of victory in combat between G. bimaculatus males, with the greater the degree of asymmetry in weight the more likely the heavier fighter will win. However, a study of fighting behaviour between asymmetrically matched opponents found that even males who were out-weighed by 40% were still likely to escalate the fight to grappling. Furthermore, males who were able to fend off their larger opponent in their first clash were significantly more likely to win their overall encounter. This hyper-aggressive response may therefore represent an adaptive mechanism to extreme odds and is worthy of further study. Female contact is known to be a significant promoter of male aggression and fighting enthusiasm, and mate guarding aggression is well documented in G. bimaculatus. A recreation of two contradictory studies, including one which concluded that mating makes males lose fights, highlighted that female contact after spermatophore transfer can overcome the loser effect and cause a male to re-engage with a previously dominant opponent. Fighting behaviour in this species is therefore highly flexible and factors affecting the outcome of contests are complex. There is much scope for further studies on this topic.