• The Development of the National Forest: the transformative agency of trees in the English Midlands

      Elliott, Paul; Knight, Mark Adam (University of Derby, 2021-06-22)
      This thesis argues that the creation of the north-midland National Forest in Britain is one of the most ambitious and successful large-scale woodland regeneration projects in the nation’s history and therefore critical historical analysis of its development is important for informing the planning and management of future regional reforestation schemes. It demonstrates how a concept for a large-scale forest modelled upon the New Forest and developed by the Countryside Commission became the inspiration for a new forest in lowland England, close to major conurbations, that would provide crucial new social and economic opportunities through woodland industries, leisure and tourism. The thesis provides the first full comprehensive and authoritative analysis of the development of the National Forest during its first few decades in regional and national context, demonstrating its importance for the future of forestry and the pivotal role of major community afforestation schemes in the adaption to- and mitigation of- climate change. Researched and written by a community environmental and heritage activist with close personal knowledge of the formation of the National Forest, it utilises archival, institutional and media sources and draws upon interviews with key players in the development of the Forest. The thesis provides essential original contributions to knowledge and informs understanding of current and future impacts of afforestation and national environmental policies. Through an examination of the vital role played in the development of multi-purpose forestry and ecology infrastructure, it demonstrates the dramatic impact of extensive afforestation strategies. The thesis shows how and why the National Forest has had a major regional economic, social and environmental impact, in an area that had experienced long-term fundamental economic and environmental problems, transforming those parts of North West Leicestershire, South Derbyshire and East Staffordshire into the first English National Forest. The region had previously relied heavily on the industries of coal mining and clay extraction for employment, but by the late 1980s these were in steep decline, leaving a legacy of mounting unemployment, slag heaps and despoiled landscapes, with a mere 1 per cent tree cover in the worst affected areas. The National Forest plan that emerged, based upon the Needwood-Charnwood bid, succeeded because it was founded upon partnership working from the outset, had high public support and provided the strongest economic, social and ecological benefits. The cultural power and value of trees was recognised and harnessed through connecting the remnant ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood, lending authenticity and credence. However, the thesis demonstrates how the development of this multi-purpose forest providing environmental regeneration through the creation of a new economic base was not an inevitable outcome of the original plans but only emerged after sometimes tense negotiations involving all stakeholders across the region, especially local and national government bodies, landowners, environmental associations, community organisations and the general public. In adapting to shifting political and economic circumstances, the National Forest facilitated economic and social regeneration and had a major environmental and ecological impact upon the north Midland countryside and nearby urban areas. The importance of tree planting and the role of trees in providing social and health benefits is also revealed and the thesis argues that urban forestry and the integration of towns and cities with tree places is of prime importance for future similar projects. The thesis maintains that by demonstrating the role of partnership working, social engagement and sustained public consultation in the creation of the Forest, a critical historical analysis of its development illustrates how it provides a valuable model for future multi-purpose afforestation projects. The role of the National Forest Company, for example, and its close partnerships with local and broader communities, can inform other woodland-based environmental regeneration schemes such as the Northern Forest and the Welsh National Forest. Critical examination of the National Forest’s history is indispensable for our understanding of woodland conservation and development and demonstrates how such future tree-based projects can provide sustainable environmental and economic regeneration and therefore help to mitigate and adapt to the realities of climate change.
    • How can children aged 8-12 years be involved in decision-making and consent processes in outpatient Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS)? An embedded case study.

      Forman, Dawn; Brannigan, Chris; Naylor, Bill; Cox, Ann Marie (University of Derby, 2021-06-17)
      Involving children in decision-making and consent processes in their own healthcare has long been a challenging area of clinical practice. The reasons for this are the challenges in assessing child development capabilities in decision-making, and the lack and ambiguity of guidance and frameworks that support this area of practice. This study addresses these challenges in relation to outpatient CAMHS and provides an in-depth examination of how children can consistently be involved in decision-making and consent processes. The study has triangulated children’s, parents’, and clinicians’ perspectives to provide a theoretical understanding of children’s involvement and how this can be used within clinical practice. The method used in this study has been an embedded case study design and the critical realist inquiry of retroduction. A variety of methods and analytical tools transcending the research paradigms have been used to elicit the relevant data. The study includes several literature reviews, a patient clinical record evaluation, a semi-structured questionnaire administered to clinicians, and four focus groups, two with children and two with parents. The findings are i) children can be involved in decision-making and consent processes; ii) children want to be involved in decision-making and consent processes; iii) The onus is on the adults supporting the child in the decision-making process to maximise the child’s involvement in the process and iv) the theories of prioritising, knowing and navigating are fundamental to understanding the decision-making process and provide an evidence base for this area of practice. This study provides practical solutions in translating the theory into practice. In conclusion, decision-making is a multifaceted process that needs time, resources, and skills to facilitate it properly. For the first time, children have been heard in how they want to be involved in decision-making and consent processes. A critical examination of how children can be involved in decision-making and consent processes has been undertaken. The development of the theories of prioritising, knowing, and navigating are critical to fully understanding and implementing this area of practice.
    • Financial Investigation: Establishing the Principles of a Generic and effective Philosophy

      Hicks, David; Hughes, C. (University of DerbyBusiness Law and social Science at University of Derbyn/a, 2021-03-26)
      Financial investigation is a term usually synonymous with asset recovery, an association which may be a significant inhibitor to its wider consideration and application outside the specialist sphere of the UK confiscation regime. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area through critically analysing the conceptual understanding of financial investigation and financial intelligence within UK law enforcement at strategic, mid management and practice levels. Attention also focuses upon why successive governments and commentators express continuing advocacy of the wider potential of the financial investigation skillset for general investigation which does not seem to translate into effective application. The work offers an empirical study of survey-based data collection involving three hundred and forty-five respondents (n=345) in four significant areas, financial investigation, financial investigation strategy, financial intelligence, and to what extent it is integrated with the National Intelligence Model for practical outcomes. Survey results appear to question current training arrangements for financial investigation within law enforcement and provide original insights into its use by specialists and generalists. This results in the identification of some potential inhibitors to more widespread application of financial investigation and intelligence techniques. The data and findings from its analysis highlight instances of good practice, while contemporaneously exposing potential issues which may contribute to a reduced application of financial investigation outside the specialist asset recovery arena.
    • Changing practice and values? An exploration of social pedagogy for a Council’s Children's Services Workers

      Tupling, Claire; Chavaudra, Nicole (University of Derby, 2020-02)
      Social pedagogy is a conceptual framework which takes both an educational and social perspective to addressing social problems, and is embedded within the children’s services and wider social workforce in many European countries. By contrast, England and its children’s services organisations are without a social pedagogy heritage. This study fills a gap in the evidence base for, and definition of, social pedagogy in England by exploring its potential challenges and benefits within children’s services settings. The research takes an exploratory approach to the influence of social pedagogy using a Council’s children’s services as a case study. The study utilises convergent methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation, including questionnaires, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. The results and conclusions make a significant contribution to the social pedagogy knowledge through a new model of the practice framework for social pedagogy – the ‘Star Model’, a proposed definition of social pedagogy, identification of social pedagogy’s unique contribution to children’s services and the organisational conditions necessary and a proposed approach to its development within the multiple professional fields of the children’s services workforce.
    • THE INFLUENCE OF FIRM SIZE ON THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

      Conway, Elaine (University of Derby, 2021-03-29)
      This thesis explores the impact of firm size on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP). It examines the relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse relationship) and tests whether there is a change in that relationship depending on the size of the firm. It evaluates whether stakeholder theory, which predicts that good CSR ratings result in better CFP, holds in the US and the UK over an 11-year period. The study also considers the slack resources theory, which posits that in order to achieve a good CSR rating, firms need to have good CFP in order to afford to carry out the CSR activities on which the ratings are based. The resource-based view (RBV) is also evaluated in this study to consider whether firm size has an impact on CSR and CFP. Two datasets are used, the largest 1,180 firms in the US and 325 firms in the UK listed in their respective stock exchanges over a period of eleven years (2007 to 2017). Whilst the US CSR-CFP relationship has been studied extensively previously, the UK has not. Equally, with the exception of Orlitzky’s (2001) US-based study, the specific role of firm size has not been studied, and his study only addressed firm size as a mediator in the relationship, not a moderator. This study addresses both aspects of firm size on the CSR-CFP relationship. A traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methodology was used to test the relationships initially. The primary reason to use OLS was so that the results could be used to compare with previous studies. Both the US and UK findings were statistically significant and negative, refuting much prior literature. However, given the issue of simultaneity, these results are undermined and so a more novel approach was subsequently adopted. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to derive three new composite latent constructs to depict CSR, CFP and firm size for each country, from an iterative evaluation of thirty different variables. This resulted in different variables and different weightings of variables for the constructs for each country. The CSR-CFP and firm size relationship were re-tested using these constructs. Both countries demonstrated positive relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse). Firm size did alter these relationships, however, the magnitude of the effect of firm size was small. This research has contributed to the CSR-CFP field in various ways. The main contribution is methodological, as this thesis has introduced an approach which has not been widely used in the CSR-CFP field by developing multivariate latent constructs to encapsulate the multi-faceted nature of the CSR, CFP and firm size using SEM. A second contribution to knowledge is in the specific role of firm size in the CSR-CFP relationship which has hitherto not been specifically addressed. It has concluded that firm size can affect the relationship in some cases, although not to a degree which might have previously been assumed – the overall magnitude of the effect of firm size is small. A final contribution is theoretical: by using constructing country-specific multivariate constructs to reflect individual country jurisdictions, it has been proven that stakeholder and slack resources theories hold in different countries. This suggests a wider applicability of these theories to other countries other than the US where the majority of studies have been previously focused. This thesis, as all research, has some limitations. It examines only two countries, hence the generalisability of the findings outside those two countries may be limited. It also examines all industries together, and hence the findings of individual industries could differ from this overall picture. Equally, this research is taken at a point in time, using one data source: different results could be obtained using data from different periods or indeed from different data sources. These industry, time and data source effects could affect the variables used to construct the latent constructs, which could also alter the findings.
    • Thermo-mechanical reliability studies of lead-free solder interconnects

      Mallik, Sabuj; Lu, Yiling; Depiver, Joshua Adeniyi (University of DerbyN/A, 2021-06-03)
      Solder interconnections, also known as solder joints, are the weakest link in electronics packaging. Reliability of these miniature joints is of utmost interest - especially in safety-critical applications in the automotive, medical, aerospace, power grid and oil and drilling sectors. Studies have shown that these joints' critical thermal and mechanical loading culminate in accelerated creep, fatigue, and a combination of these joints' induced failures. The ball grid array (BGA) components being an integral part of many electronic modules functioning in mission-critical systems. This study investigates the response of solder joints in BGA to crucial reliability influencing parameters derived from creep, visco-plastic and fatigue damage of the joints. These are the plastic strain, shear strain, plastic shear strain, creep energy density, strain energy density, deformation, equivalent (Von-Mises) stress etc. The parameters' obtained magnitudes are inputted into established life prediction models – Coffin-Manson, Engelmaier, Solomon (Low cycle fatigue) and Syed (Accumulated creep energy density) – to determine several BGA assemblies' fatigue lives. The joints are subjected to thermal, mechanical and random vibration loadings. The finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in a commercial software package to model and simulate the responses of the solder joints of the representative assemblies' finite element models. As the magnitude and rate of degradation of solder joints in the BGA significantly depend on the composition of the solder alloys used to assembly the BGA on the printed circuit board, this research studies the response of various mainstream lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders (SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405) and benchmarked those with lead-based eutectic solder (Sn63Pb37). In the creep response study, the effects of thermal ageing and temperature cycling on these solder alloys' behaviours are explored. The results show superior creep properties for SAC405 and SAC396 lead-free solder alloys. The lead-free SAC405 solder joint is the most effective solder under thermal cycling condition, and the SAC396 solder joint is the most effective solder under isothermal ageing operation. The finding shows that SAC405 and SAC396 solders accumulated the minimum magnitudes of stress, strain rate, deformation rate and strain energy density than any other solder considered in this study. The hysteresis loops show that lead-free SAC405 has the lowest dissipated energy per cycle. Thus the highest fatigue life, followed by eutectic lead-based Sn63Pb37 solder. The solder with the highest dissipated energy per cycle was lead-free SAC305, SAC387 and SAC396 solder alloys. In the thermal fatigue life prediction research, four different lead-free (SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405) and one eutectic lead-based (Sn63Pb37) solder alloys are defined against their thermal fatigue lives (TFLs) to predict their mean-time-to-failure for preventive maintenance advice. Five finite elements (FE) models of the assemblies of the BGAs with the different solder alloy compositions and properties are created with SolidWorks. The models are subjected to standard IEC 60749-25 temperature cycling in ANSYS 19.0 mechanical package environment. SAC405 joints have the highest predicted TFL of circa 13.2 years, while SAC387 joints have the least life of circa 1.4 years. The predicted lives are inversely proportional to the magnitude of the areas of stress-strain hysteresis loops of the solder joints. The prediction models are significantly consistent in predicted magnitudes across the solder joints irrespective of the damage parameters used. Several failure modes drive solder joints and damage mechanics from the research and understand an essential variation in the models' predicted values. This investigation presents a method of managing preventive maintenance time of BGA electronic components in mission-critical systems. It recommends developing a novel life prediction model based on a combination of the damage parameters for enhanced prediction. The FEA random vibration simulation test results showed that different solder alloys have a comparable performance during random vibration testing. The fatigue life result shows that SAC405 and SAC396 have the highest fatigue lives before being prone to failure. As a result of the FEA simulation outcomes with the application of Coffin-Manson's empirical formula, the author can predict the fatigue life of solder joint alloys to a higher degree of accuracy of average ~93% in an actual service environment such as the one experienced under-the-hood of an automobile and aerospace. Therefore, it is concluded that the combination of FEA simulation and empirical formulas employed in this study could be used in the computation and prediction of the fatigue life of solder joint alloys when subjected to random vibration. Based on the thermal and mechanical responses of lead-free SAC405 and SAC396 solder alloys, they are recommended as a suitable replacement of lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 solder alloy for improved device thermo-mechanical operations when subjected to random vibration (non-deterministic vibration). The FEA simulation studies' outcomes are validated using experimental and analytical-based reviews in published and peer-reviewed literature.
    • Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence and Abundance in the UK Young Adult Population

      Marsh, Elizabeth; Knight, Gillian; Whitton, Aimee (University of DerbySchool of Biomedical & Forensic Science, 2021)
      BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of HPV positive oropharyngeal cancers (OPSCCs) are on the rise, yet oral HPV prevalence rates in clinically healthy populations are poorly understood. To determine the risk of healthy adults developing OPSCCs, first we must establish oral HPV prevalence, viral load, persistence, and clearance rates in healthy populations to understand the link between oral HPV and OPSCCs. This is even more pertinent within the young adult population as the HPV vaccination programme has been shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence but not OPSCC incidence. Therefore, other factors that could affect oral HPV contraction and OPSCC development need investigation such as population demographics, lifestyle risk behaviours, HPV screening methods and vaccination status. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were centred on establishing reproducible and sensitive HPV screening methods for the detection of oral HPV in clinically healthy young adults, for determining prevalence and abundance, and establishing if oral HPV was influenced by vaccination status, demographics, and lifestyle risk behaviours. METHODS: The study established a novel and sensitive real-time PCR HPV consensus screening method for the detection of multiple HPV subtypes in the oral cavity of 408 clinically healthy UK-based young adults (92.01%; 18-25 years old in 2016-17). HPV positive or undetermined samples were then screened using qPCR for HPV subtypes, HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18. All results were analysed alongside vaccination status, demographics and lifestyle risk behaviour data collected via questionnaire. RESULTS: An oral HPV prevalence rate of 22.79% was found, with HPV-16 being the most prevalent and abundant subtype at 19.12%; 1.08x105 copies/million cells, followed by HPV-18 at 1.72%; 1.89x104 copies/million cells, HPV-6 at 0.49%; 4.50x102 copies/million cells and HPV-11 at 0.25%; 1.06x102 copies/million cells. Unknown HPV subtypes were detected in 2.21% of the cohort. Oral HPV was found to be significantly associated with open-mouth kissing (p <.001), oral sex (p = .049), masturbation in males (p = .020), sexual intercourse (p = .026), sexual activity diversity (p = .043), frequent smoking (p = .024), wine drinking (p = .045) and drinking ≥2 types of alcohol per sitting (p = .015), especially in males (p = .023). HPV-16 was significantly associated with masturbation (p = .004), whilst there was a reduction in viral load in vaccinated individuals, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Oral HPV is prevalent in the young adult UK population, especially HR-HPV subtype HPV-16, questioning the efficacy of the HPV vaccination on reducing oral prevalence. However, HPV vaccination may instead influence oral HPV viral load, but further research is required, demonstrating the importance of measuring both presence and abundance. Oral HPV prevalence did appear to be influenced by sexual practice, including open-mouth kissing and oral sex, but less so by smoking and alcohol consumption, reaffirming the link between oral HPV and OPSCCs.
    • The educational legacy of colonialism in south-western Nigeria

      Mieschbuehler, Ruth; Lamikanra, Folasade Helen (University of DerbyCollege of Arts, Humanities and Education, 2021-04-23)
      The educational legacy of colonialism in Nigeria is a contested and controversial subject. What do those who lived through the colonial period remember? And what do they think is both positive and negative about education in that period? To allow their voices to be heard, 20 interviews with educationalists, teachers, lecturers and students involved in colonial education were undertaken in Nigeria and the UK. Many of those interviewed are famous and influential figures both in Nigeria and internationally. Their attitude to the legacy of colonialism is not what Western writers and academics may think. As Nobel Prize winner, Wole Soyinka, said in an interview for this thesis, although we must condemn colonialism: “One can’t throw away the baby with the bath water. When we needed education, they brought education. It does not matter how, but education was brought.” There were many aspects of the colonial legacy that those who lived through the period thought benefitted education in Nigeria. The ‘colonial masters’ recognised that all human culture was important, and in the part of Nigeria that formed the focus of this research, all schooling for the first four years was in the local language, Yoruba. The colonialists passionately believed that both men and women should be educated. They enhanced local education by, for example, developing a local counting system as the basis for mathematics. They brought with them the English language, a legacy that has given Nigeria access to a wider range of knowledge and facilitated membership within international communities. Colonial education was an imposition that people wanted; however, there were many limitations to the education offered. When the colonialists established secondary schools, the purpose was not merely to educate people but to train them to be civil servants who would serve the colonial government. The voices from the post-colonial period, discussed and questioned here, say the unsayable: there was a positive legacy of colonialism.
    • Individual differences and medication-mediation in chronic illness conditions: a mixed methods approach to the development of a novel, conceptual framework

      Sheffied, David; Owen, Deborah J (University of DerbyCollege of Health and Social Care, 2021-04)
      Chronic illness is prevalent; adherence to pharmaceutical therapy facilitates an optimal outcome and is the single most influential affect in the individual’s illness trajectory. Hence, a prerequisite of efficacy is that medication is taken as prescribed. Adherence levels are, however, sub-optimal, with rates to pharmacological interventions as low as 17%; this represents a significant challenge to the effectiveness of therapy, undermining the benefits of clinical care. The reasons for nonadherence are various and complex, incorporating demographic factors, such as age and gender, cognitive variables including forgetfulness, as well as illness and treatment concerns, such as disagreeable symptoms and side effects. An underexplored factor, however, is the influence of personality factors on health behaviour, even though individual differences have been noted as central in health psychology. The ambit of this thesis is to explore the determinants of, and barriers to, pharmacological adherence in chronic illness, with a particular emphasis on personality affects; the overarching aims of the research are to develop a taxonomical framework of adherence factors and, further, a conceptual model demonstrating various influences of medication-taking. Two literature reviews were undertaken to establish what is currently known in extant literature; the first review, an expansive historical timeline, encompassed an appraisal of published literature in order to secure an overall understanding of topics that have been considered in relation to the phenomenon of medication adherence, and revealed the foci of adherence studies over the past few decades. This historical timeline evidenced that the biomedical stance is habitually used by researchers at the exclusion of patient’s perspectives, and highlighted a gaping lacuna in terms of individual differences; furthermore, the review formed a novel basis on which to contextualise the second systematic literature review and meta-analysis, which honed in on personality and its causal affects on medication adherence in chronic illness conditions. To substantiate quantitative data attained from the reviews and to expound the core dimensions underlying medication adherence, phenomenological investigation was performed. Emergent themes of experiential notions of adherence, informed by interviews with thirty-one participants, were thematically analysed; motifs included challenges with self-management in chronic illness, coping with an alteration in the self and notions of ‘normality’, together with psychosocial negotiation of the illness itself. Prior to interviews participants also completed psychometric assessments in order to ascertain adherence rates (the Medication Adherence Rating scale) and identify influential personality traits (the Five Factor Model). Data were synthesised to construct a comprehensive taxonomical framework of the diverse determinants of adherence, which deepens our understanding, facilitates an entry-point into adherence research and has significant utility as a research-informed theoretical structure. Additionally, the novel IndEx-MediC conceptual model of adherence was developed, predicated on findings that medication-taking is a mediational process influenced temporally, experientially, and contextually, determined by individual and external factors. The model presents a novel description of patients’ experiences of adherence to pharmaceutical therapy in chronic illness and serves as a foundation to develop a predictive measure to identify individuals potentially at risk of nonadherence, from which tailored interventional strategies may be devised.
    • Exploration of contributing factors to mental health in workers and students

      Van Gordon, William; Sheffield, David; Kotera, Yasuhiro (University of Derby, 2021-04-08)
      Having worked in the field of human resources, my publications focused on mental health and neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). Poor mental health has been reported among workers and university students in the United Kingdom (UK). The costs of poor work mental health are estimated to be £87 billion annually in the UK. In particular, hospitality workers, who comprise 7% of the country’s workforce, are known to suffer from poor mental health. Likewise, more than a quarter of UK university students suffer from a mental health problem. Through a series of cross-sectional studies using correlation, regression, moderation and path analyses, I found that mental health shame was positively related with mental health problems, and self-compassion and intrinsic motivation were negatively related to both mental health shame and mental health problems in a variety of population groups that had not been explored before, including UK workers, UK students and Japanese workers. In my NLP research, I investigated the application of NLP-derived skills for career guidance and critically reviewed psychological outcomes of applying those skills in organisational settings, through a pre-post study, thematic analysis, and systematic review. Two skills, the Disney Strategy and Sponsorship, were regarded particularly useful by the small sample of registered career consultants in Japan investigated in Publication 1. My systematic review (Publication 8) concluded that while NLP may be effective for diverse psychological outcomes, there is a need for rigorous future research. Taken together, my findings suggest the wide applicability of the effects of self-compassion and intrinsic motivation on mental health, and the similarity of Sponsorship to the soothing system in the three emotion regulatory systems. The critical appraisal of my published works identified four areas that are caveats for understanding the findings and could benefit from further work: (a) Lack of consideration for established predictors, (b) Mental health variables being treated as a unitary construct, (c) Balanced discussion of positive and negative aspects of mental health, and (d) Lack of critical appraisal 6 of NLP. Future research should consider these critical insights to improve our understanding of mental health and NLP.
    • Creating a student and patient focused research led environment in diagnostic radiography education

      Forman, Dawn; Hyde, Emma (University of DerbyHead of Diagnostic Imaging, College of Health, Psychology & Social Care, 2021-05-06)
      This critical appraisal explores my published works; how they have informed my development as researcher, diagnostic radiographer and teacher in Higher Education; and how they have changed practice at other institutions both nationally and internationally. Through my practice as a radiography educator and by undertaking research into diagnostic radiography practice, I have used a range of research methods to make a unique contribution to the knowledge base within the radiography profession. This new knowledge focuses on student radiographer’s experiences during their clinical placements and informed measures of patient centred care in diagnostic radiography. Through the research projects, I have influenced discussions about student placements at a national level and developed innovative new clinical placement opportunities. This has led to a secondment opportunity with Health Education England to lead a project on growing the Imaging Workforce in the Midlands. I have contributed to national and international debate about patient centred care in diagnostic radiography and developed theoretical models and audit tools to support patient centred approaches. In August 2020, I was awarded a prestigious National Teaching Fellowship by Advance HE, in recognition of the impact of my work and my research on radiography education within the UK. My research output now totals eight peer reviewed journal articles, one article in an industry magazine, one book chapter and one handbook to support Values Based Radiography education. These publications are helping to grow my research profile on ResearchGate, Scopus and Google Scholar. In addition, I have disseminated the findings of my research via 24 conference papers or posters. Contributions towards a new textbook about patient centred care, further journal articles and a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) are currently in progress based on the findings of my largest research project, which sought to define informed measures of patient centred care in diagnostic radiography.
    • An Ethnographic Account of an Organisational Response To Transformation in a Not for Profit Context

      Amos , Margaret Mary (University of Derby, 2021-04-28)
      This research is an ethnographic account of a longitudinal study in the not-for-profit sector. The collaborating organisation is an Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) provider based in the north west of England and referred to as Company X throughout this thesis to protect its anonymity. Company X is a licensed ADR provider and a Not for Profit (NFP) organisation. It is licensed by the regulator to provide complaint handling services, from initial consumer enquiry through to investigation, for the companies who subscribe to their ADR scheme. The organisation has been struggling in recent years with a loss in market share. This has been caused by the digitalisation of the initial enquiry stage of the complaints handling service by new entrants to the sector. The digitalisation has facilitated new entrants into the market who have not only made the complaint handling process more efficient but maximised the information which they collect during the initial enquiry phase to offer an extended service to the subscribing companies to their ADR service. The additional service which the new competitors offer is outside of the traditional ADR licensed provision and represents an additional revenue opportunity for the ADR provider. The new entrants achieve this by selling data insights into the consumer behaviour which is derived from the consumer information obtained during the enquiry process. This thesis is a study of Company X’s response to this new competitive threat and their subsequent transformation programme.
    • The Dark Side of Humanity Scale: A Reconstruction of the Dark Tetrad Constructs

      Harvey, Caroline; Baker, Ian; Howard, Chris; Katz, Louise F. (University of DerbyCollege of Health, Psychology and Social Care, 2021-05-07)
      A myriad of criticisms have been directed at the widely available scales which measure the Dark Tetrad (DT), constructs of Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism and everyday sadism. These have included construct incongruence, unstable factor structures, sex and age variance. Sex and age are salient variables in research studies and as such, their reported variance was considered to be a weakness of the measures, which contributed to their instability. To ascertain whether this was indeed the case, an investigation of the widely available DT measures was conducted in study one (n=605). Through the use of Classical Test Theories, Exploratory Graph Analysis and Item Response Theory, the criticisms of past research were supported, including variance across age and sex. Mediated by the evidenced issues and in order to address them, the Dark Side of Humanity Scale (DSHS), was developed, which was the main aim of this thesis. The focus of the measure was to assesses the DT personality constructs as they manifest in the general population, whilst also being sex and age invariant. Using a diverse range of statistical methods and guided by theory, expert ratings and past research, where available, the development of the DSHS began in the second study (n=667). During analyses, a divergence from the widely available DT measures emerged, whereby primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were unified. However, this corroborated past research which has discussed the two constructs as being parallel. It further afforded the DSHS with a shift away from the traditional DT conceptualisation. The resulting scale encompasses four factors. The first represents the successful psychopath, factor two addresses the grandiose form of entitlement, factor three taps into everyday sadism and includes sadistic fantasies, direct and vicarious psychological malevolence, whilst factor four pertains to narcissistic entitlement rage. Each factor is specific to the traits and behaviours of the construct they address. Study three reports on the convergent and discriminant validity of the DSHS (n=712), and test-retest validity (n = 413), for which temporal reliability as well as nomological validity was achieved. The unique contributions of this thesis are discussed in the final chapter. The DSHS provides an alternative approach to investigating the dark side of human nature in general population samples, whilst also being sex and age invariant.
    • Adversarial Thresholding Semi-Bandits

      Anjum, Ashiq; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Xue, Yong; Bower, Craig (University of Derby, 2020-12)
      The classical multi-armed bandit is one of the most common examples of sequential decision-making, either by trading-off between exploiting and exploring arms to maximise some payoff or purely exploring arms until the optimal arm is identified. In particular, a bandit player wanting to only pull arms with stochastic feedback exceeding a given threshold, has been studied extensively in a pure exploration context. However, numerous applications fail to be expressed, where a player wishes to balance the need to observe regions of an uncertain environment that are currently interesting (exploit) and checking if neglected regions have become interesting since last observed (explore). We introduce the adversarial thresholding semi-bandit problem: a non-stochastic bandit model, where a player wants to only pull (potentially several) arms with feedback meeting some threshold condition. Our main objective is to design algorithms that meet the requirements of the adversarial thresholding semi-bandit problem theoretically, empirically and algorithmically, for a given application. In other words, we want to develop a machine that learns to select options according to some threshold condition and adapts quickly if the feedback from selecting an option unexpectedly changes. This work has many real-world applications and is motivated by online detector control monitoring in high-energy physics experiments, on the Large Hadron Collider. We begin by describing the adversarial thresholding semi-bandit problem (ATSBP) in terms of a multi-armed bandit with multiple plays and extending the stochastic thresholding bandit problem to the adversarial setting. The adversarial thresholding exponentially-weighted exploration and exploitation with multiple plays algorithm (T-Exp3.M) and an algorithm combining label efficient prediction (LET-Exp3.M), are introduced that satisfy theoretical and computational Research specifications, but either perform poorly or fail completely under certain threshold conditions. To meet empirical performance requirements, we propose the dynamic label efficient adversarial thresholding exponentially-weighted exploration and exploitation with multiple plays algorithm (dLET-Exp3.M). Whilst computational requirements match those for T-Exp3.M, theoretical upper bounds on performance are proven to be worse. We also introduce an ATSBP algorithm (AliceBandit) that decomposes the action of pulling an arm into selection and observation decisions. Computational complexity and empirical performance under two different threshold conditions are significantly improved, compared with exponentially weighted adversarial thresholding semi-bandits. Theoretical upper bounds on performance are also significantly improved, for certain environments. In the latter part of this thesis, we address the challenge of efficiently monitoring multiple condition parameters in high-energy experimental physics. Due to the extreme conditions experienced in heavy-ion particle colliders, the power supply to any device exceeding safe operating parameters is automatically shut down or tripped, to preserve integrity and functionality of the device. Prior to recent upgrades, a device or channel trip would halt data-taking for the entire experiment. Post-trip recovery requires a costly procedure both in terms of expertise and data-taking time. After the completion of the current upgrading phase (scheduled for 2021), the detector will collect data continuously. In this new regime, a channel trip will result in only the affected components of the experiment being shut down. However, since the new upgraded experiment will enable data-taking to increase by a factor of 100, each trip will have a significant impact on the experiments ability to provide physicists with reliable data to analyse. We demonstrate that adversarial thresholding semi-bandits efficiently identify device channels either exceeding a fixed threshold or deviating by more than a prescribed range prior to a trip, extending the state-of-the-art in high-energy physics detector control.
    • The design and feasibility of a work-focused relational group-CBT treatment programme to enhance job retention in employed service-users with moderate-severe recurrent depression.

      Townend, Michael; Strickland-Hodge, Barry; Walker, Nicola (University of DerbyHealth and Social Care, 2020-10-15)
      Background: Employees with moderate-severe recurrent depression are at risk of losing their jobs. A search of the literature revealed that most psychotherapeutic interventions are not work-focused, and there are none that have been specifically designed to enhance job retention in employed service-users of UK Community Mental Health Teams. A subsequent update of the research evidence using the same literature search strategy plus another search with more stringent inclusion criteria found several studies of work-focused psychotherapeutic interventions. However, but there is still a gap in terms of work-focused psychotherapeutic interventions specifically designed for employees with more severe mental health problems. Methods: The Medical Research Council guidance for the development and evaluation of complex interventions was used throughout this study. Firstly, an effectiveness review of relevant psychotherapeutic interventions revealed several over-arching principles which appeared to underpin their effects such as using a care pathway incorporating multi-disciplinary teamwork, guideline concordance, informed clinical decision-making, tracking of progress, and the use of outreach to encourage clients to complete treatment. Secondly, a stakeholder consultation was undertaken during the planning period, and realist analysis of the focus group data identified six plausible mechanisms of change which allowed for modification of the new intervention design and refinement of the programme theory. Thirdly, piloting involved a small feasibility study using a quasi-experimental pre-post design with eight participants which generated both quantitative and qualitative data regarding clinical and work outcomes. Fourthly, a further stakeholder consultation was undertaken during the reviewing period to consider re-design of the new intervention in terms of improving acceptability and accessibility. Finally, a process of mixed methods data integration was used to make recommendations for further implementation and evaluation in a definitive trial. Results: Six provisional Context-Intervention-Mechanism-Outcome (CIMO) configurations were developed into a programme theory. Overall, implementation and evaluation of the new intervention were feasible although problems were encountered in recruiting sufficient numbers for randomisation, and with collecting follow up data. It was also expensive to provide compared to CBT programmes in primary and secondary mental healthcare services. Outcomes suggest the new intervention is a promising treatment for moderate-severe recurrent depression for some women and may help them in maintaining their employment. Acceptability could be improved by making the new intervention more interesting and stimulating, with a focus on coping over the long-term. Accessibility could be improved by making the new intervention more understandable, delivering it at the worksite, and making it peer-led. Conclusions: Job retention for employed service-users may be enhanced if the tertiary individual level Treatment Programme is re-designed as a primary organisational level Training (and staff support) Programme informed by group-CBT.
    • Contractors’ selection criteria for sustainable infrastructure delivery in Nigeria

      Ceranic, Boris; Dean, Angela; Arowosafe, Oluwumi I. (University of Derby, 2020)
      The research reported in this study developed and validated a framework for the pre-evaluation of contractors for sustainable infrastructure projects through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Nigeria. The proposed framework uses the Analytic Network Process (ANP) to select contractors for build-operate-transfer (BOT) contractors. Theoretically grounded on a system theory, a sustainable infrastructure delivery (SID) model is developed in this research. One of its important features is the ability to solve complex decision problems, typical of a decision-making process that involves selection of contractors for PPP projects. At the deductive phase of the proposed model is the integration of the ANP (multi-criteria decision-making technique) for data synthesis. An extensive literature review was conducted with regard to selection criteria for contractors. Furthermore, a web-based questionnaire survey was undertaken, aimed at capturing the perception of the Nigerian construction professionals regarding the importance of these criteria for pre-evaluation of contractors for public infrastructure procurement. A total of 143 questionnaires was received and their feedbacks were analysed with the IBM SPSS statistical package. The findings revealed a broad range of 55 relevant criteria that were linked to sustainable contractor selection. Through the application of factor analysis, the number of the criteria was reduced to 16, after multicollinearity issues in the data set had been resolved. The 16 factors were modelled to pairwise comparison matrices, transforming decision making process from linear to a systemic approach. A purposeful sampling methodology was then applied for the selection of decision-making panel (DM), who completed the pairwise comparison survey. The survey results were synthesised by ANP. The final solution derived order of significance of the two categories of contractors- multinational construction corporations (MCC) and local construction contractors (LCC) in respect to the delivery of a sustainable infrastructure. Sensitivity analysis of the research findings reveals that the 16 criteria have differential comparative advantages, which requires critical judgement during contractors’ pre-evaluation process. Although the overall priorities rank multinational construction corporations (MCC) higher than local construction companies (LCC), it is not absolute that MCC will deliver a better value for money on all tangible and intangible elements of sustainable infrastructure attributes. LCC outperform on some of the key criteria such as local employment creation and local material sourcing, which are essential pre-evaluation criteria. This research proposes a novel framework to harmonise sustainability indicators in contractor selection and offers a new theoretical insight into the approach to contractors’ selection criteria during pre-evaluation process, which contributes to the enhancement of PPP delivery in Nigeria. Overall, the proposed SID model has demonstrated the need for a shift in the modus operandi of the government’s ministries, department and agencies (MDAs) in Nigeria from unidirectional to systemic selection techniques. It clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the ANP to predict the contractor that will deliver more sustainable infrastructure.
    • An investigation into the role of acceptance and related factors in quality of life among renal dialysis patients.

      Mitchell, Kathryn; Elander, James; Stewart, Paul; Stalker, Carol (University of DerbyCollege of Health, Psychology and Social Care, University of Derby, 2020-11-13)
      For patients with end stage renal disease, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is essential to a patient’s survival. Haemodialysis is one RRT, and a growing body of evidence has suggested that how patients relate to this treatment is associated with both clinical and psychological outcomes. Adjusting to illness is a complex process (Dennison, Moss-Morris, & Chalder, 2009; Moss-Morris, 2013; Walker, Jackson, & Littlejohn, 2004) and one factor identified as important in other chronic conditions is acceptance. Evidence supports that acceptance can be important in helping patients manage conditions that cannot be improved through medication or therapies (McCracken, 1998; Veehof, Oskam, Schreurs, & Bohlmeijer, 2011). Findings from studies across a range of chronic conditions (Brassington et al., 2016; Poppe, Crombez, Hanoulle, Vogelaers, & Petrovic, 2013; Van Damme, De Waegeneer, & Debruyne, 2016) suggest that more positive acceptance of illness facilitates improvements in patients overall quality of life (QoL). However, there is limited research addressing the role of acceptance of illness and the impact on dialysis patients. This thesis has evaluated the role of acceptance and associated psychological variables in haemodialysis patients to develop an understanding of the influence of acceptance and to enable the development of targeted acceptance-based interventions. This thesis aims to; gain an understanding of what acceptance means for dialysis patients; compare the influence of acceptance and associated psychological factors on patient outcomes, and examine the longitudinal relationships between acceptance and quality of life for dialysis patients. A mixed-methods approach was utilised and four methodologies were adopted; a systematic review evaluated the impact of acceptance on outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease and how patients viewed acceptance in relation to these outcomes; cross-sectional studies compared the influence of acceptance, psychological and clinical variables on quality of life outcomes; a qualitative study explored patients experiences of accepting dialysis treatment, and a longitudinal study tested the impact of acceptance and psychological variables at 6 and 12 months post baseline. All participants were dialysis patients recruited from a single hospital site; a total of 102 participants were recruited. 98 were retained for analyses at baseline and 50 retained at 12 months. Ethical approval was obtained prior to the commencement of recruitment. The research generated several important findings. Firstly, it highlighted that acceptance in dialysis was complex, with qualitative findings indicating that acceptance of illness in dialysis patients related to themes of ‘accepting the necessity’, ‘accepting the functional aspects’, ‘acceptance from experience’ and ‘acceptance from support’. This resulted in the proposal of a conceptual model utilising acceptance mindset to address how patients reach acceptance and how they interpret their illness and treatment. Secondly, relationships between acceptance, psychological variables and QoL were identified; acceptance is a significant predictor of kidney disease QoL and physical QoL, with depression found to be a significant predictor for kidney disease QoL and mental QoL and was a significant mediator between acceptance and QoL. These findings demonstrate that acceptance is an important component of QoL in dialysis patients but also highlights the associations to other psychological variables. Theses associations in the cross-sectional study were confirmed longitudinally. Thirdly, tests of longitudinal associations demonstrated that although there were no significant changes in overall acceptance levels over time, group changes masked individual differences. The individual changes in acceptance were associated with changes in mental QoL and kidney disease QoL. Changes in acceptance rather than depression were predictive of mental QoL and kidney disease QoL at 6 months. At 12 months changes in acceptance and depression were important predictors of mental QoL and kidney disease QoL. The overall findings identified that acceptance of illness is an important aspect related to QoL for dialysis patients. Acceptance is a complex construct and relates to psychological factors, particularly depression. The qualitative analyses highlighted important areas related to acceptance and these were supported in the more complex analyses of QoL, these are areas that need considering in any future intervention developments. Although group acceptance did not change over time evidence at the individual level suggests that there may be benefit in targeting of interventions. Developing specific acceptance interventions targeted at dialysis patients may improve patients QoL and reduce the overall burden.
    • Humanizing hospitality industry human resources management to improve recruitment and retention of resilient hospitable talents in the sector

      Rawlinson, Sarah; Naisola Ruiter, Victoria (University of Derby, 2021-02-15)
      Attracting, retaining, developing, and motivating hospitable talent is a perennial problem in hospitality industry talent management. This thesis sought to address this problem by examining how human resource (HR) practices can improve talent management (TM) to attract persons with the right personal characteristics and support them to thrive in a hospitality career. There has been a shift in the academic literature from a focus on the organisational practices of talent management to understanding the implications of the employee’s experience as they develop within an organisation. There remains much to be understood about the role of human resources management (HRM) practitioners in the attraction and retention of talents with the right personal attributes to succeed in hospitality careers. This thesis aims to advance the theoretical understanding of HR theories and strategies to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. To meet the aim of this research, a mixed method approach and a sequential data collection approach was adopted. A personality self-profiling questionnaire survey was used to profile 309 students from business management degree programmes on their hospitable personal characteristics to understand whether students selecting hospitality management degrees had more hospitable characteristics. A Delphi study was conducted with 14 hospitality experts with different national and international hospitality leadership and management experience. The study aimed to research consensus on the strategic HR approaches required to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. The main findings of the research study were the need to review HR strategies in the hospitality industry. These strategies need to address recruitment and retention by promoting careers in the sector, investing in training and development, rewards and wellbeing strategies appropriate for a younger work force, closer working with training institutions to develop graduate competencies that are multi-disciplinary HRM practices and policies that humanize HRM throughout the employee journey. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the role of humane HRM strategies in recruitment and retention of a skilled and resilient hospitality workforce. One of the outcomes of this study is the development of a theoretically supported and empirically validated strategic HRM recruitment and retention toolkit. The toolkit is an end-to-end process that operationalizes and maps the HRM strategies throughout the employee experience journey to facilitate HR managers to improve the process of recruitment and retention in the sector. It identifies empirically found strategies and reveals possibilities to integrate an end-to-end strategic approach in talent management prioritizing employee wellbeing, training and development to nurture employee emotional resilience. This is the first research study to illuminate an end-to-end strategic approach towards an employee journey in the hospitality industry. To identify the scope of research to be explored in the future, implications for future research and practice are outlined.
    • A Novel Mathematical Layout Optimisation Method and Design Framework for Modularisation in Industrial Process Plants and SMRs

      Wood, Paul; Hall, Richard; Robertson, Daniel; Wrigley, Paul (University of DerbyInstitute for Innovation in Sustainable EngineeringUniversity of Derby, 2021-01-19)
      Nuclear power has been proposed as a low carbon solution to electricity generation when intermittent wind and solar renewable energy are not generating. Nuclear can provide co-generation through district heating, desalination, hydrogen production or aid in the process of producing synfuels. However, current new large nuclear power plants are expensive, time consuming to build and plagued by delays and cost increases. An emerging trend in the construction industry is to manufacture parts off the critical path, off site in factories, through modular design to reduce schedules and direct costs. A study from shipbuilding estimates work done in a factory may be 8 times more efficient than performing the same work on site. This productivity increase could be a solution to the problems in nuclear power plant construction. It is an emerging area and the International Atomic Energy Agency records over 50 Small Modular Reactor designs in commercial development worldwide. Most Small Modular Reactor designs focus on integrating the Nuclear Steam Supply System into one module. The aim of this Applied Research Programme was to develop an efficient and effective analysis tool for modularisation in industrial plant systems. The objectives were to understand the state of the art in modular construction and automating design through a literature review. The literature review in this thesis highlighted that automating earlier parts of the plant design process (equipment databases, selection tools and modular Process and Instrumentation Diagrams) have been developed in modular industrial process plant research but 3D layout has not been studied. It was also found that layout optimisation for industrial process plants has not considered modularisation. It was therefore proposed to develop a novel mathematical layout optimisation method for modularisation of industrial plants. Furthermore, the integration within the plant design process would be improved by developing a method to integrate the output of the optimisation with the plant design software. A case study was developed to analyse how this new method would compare against the current design process at Rolls-Royce. A systems engineering approach was taken to develop the capabilities of the optimisation by decomposing the three required constituents of modularisation: development of a model to optimise layout of modules utilising the module designs from previous research (Lapp, 1989), development of a model to optimise the layout equipment within modules and development of a combined and integrated model to optimise assignment and layout of equipment to modules. The objective function was to reduce pipe length as it can constitute up to 20% of process plant costs (Peters, Timmerhaus, & West, 2003) and to reduce the number of modules utilised. The results from the mathematical model were compared against previous layout designs (Lapp, 1989), highlighting a 46-88.7% reduction in pipework and considering pipework costs can be up to 20% of a process plant cost, this could be a significant saving. This does not consider the significant schedule and productivity savings by moving this work offsite. The second model (Bi) analysed the layout of the Chemical Volume and Control System and Boron Thermal Regeneration System into one and two modules, reducing pipe cost and installation by 67.6% and 85% respectively compared to the previously designed systems from (Lapp, 1989). The third model (Bii) considered the allocation of equipment to multiple modules, reducing pipe cost and installation by 80.5% compared to the previously designed systems from (Lapp, 1989), creating new data and knowledge. Mixed Integer Linear Programming formulations and soft constraints within the genetic algorithm function were utilised within MATLAB and Gurobi. Furthermore, by integrating the optimisation output with the plant design software to update the new locations of equipment and concept pipe routing, efficiency is vastly improved when the plant design engineer interprets the optimisation results. Not only can the mathematical layout optimisation analyse millions more possible layouts than an engineering designer, it can perform the function in a fraction of the time, saving time and costs. It at least gives the design engineer a suitable starting point which can be analysed and the optimisation model updated in an iterative process. This novel method was compared against the current design process at Rolls-Royce, it was found that an update to a module would take minutes with the novel optimisation and integration with the plant design software method, rather than days or weeks for the manual process. However, the disadvantage is that more upfront work is required to convert engineering knowledge into mathematical terms and relationships. The research is limited by the publicly available nuclear power plant data. Future work could include applying this novel method to wider industrial plant design to understand the broader impact. The mathematical optimisation model can be developed in the future to include constraints in other research such as assembly, operation and maintenance costs.