A growing collection of doctoral theses produced by University of Derby researchers. The collection comprises titles digitised from print holdings and items first submitted electronically from 2013.

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  • THE RELEVANCE OF IDENTITY MANAGEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTED SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    Boakye, Charles Kwabena (University of Derby, 2021-10-29)
    The territorial formations of African modern nation-states, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Zambia, discussed in this study are unique in their development since the levers for rationalizing the obligations of duty and concern between the nation’s administrative structures and the indigenous nation-community were imposed by ‘colonial settlers’ with neither ethnic nor native allegiance to the indigenous inhabitants. The motivation for the ‘colonial settlers’ ranges from the formation of a nation-state superimposed on existing ethnic nations for an imported community of black people unable to find accommodation as legitimate identities elsewhere, to the financial prospecting for wealth. Regardless of the motivation for colonial settlements, in all three instances of territorial conversion into modern nation states, the colonial identity structures clashed with the ethnic nation’s identity structures. The imported identity traditions used to establish legitimate and functional identities of the nation-state subverted and replaced the pre-colonial ethnic nation’s customs and mechanisms used for identifying the people of the ethnic nation. This subversion disrupted the relationship between the inhabitants of the nation-community, their inherited allegiance to the nation-state and the associations between the indigenous inhabitants and the settlers. Consequently, this thesis seeks to examine the fractures in the evolution of national-identity within nation-states that have used unfamiliar European and colonial identity management structures and mechanisms. While the Liberia and Sierra Leone systems of identity administration that have resulted in nation-state collapse contrast with the endurance and integrity of Zambia’s national-identity ecosystem, all three countries based their systems on the unfamiliar European national identity structures and mechanisms. Using qualitative analysis, and inductive logic, the thesis rejects Davis and Huttenback’s theory that views the national identities of post-colonial communities as a result of the transformation of the component identities of the indigenous inhabitants and ‘colonial settlers’. Further, it challenges Basil Davidson, and Walter Rodney’s wholesale renunciation of modernity in the identity-management ecosystems of these nation-states. The findings of the study revealed that as much as primordial ethnic identity anchors remain strong, purposely designed national identity instruments and tools that promote recognition, equity and parity such as Zambian Humanism, will sustain multiple ethnic identities within a structured nation-state. Building on the research, the study recommends a blended approach to identity management in sub-Saharan nation-states conceived to promote sustained national identity ecosystems for development and patria potestas in contrast to imported and completely alien national identity solutions in the nation formation process.
  • The Role of L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels in Ovarian Cancer

    Shiva, Subramanam; Luderman, William (University of DerbyUniversity of Derby, 2021-03)
    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy. Of the four ovarian cancer subtypes - serous, mucinous, endometroid and clear cell - serous ovarian cancer is the most common, comprising around 70% of cases. The median stage of diagnosis of ovarian cancer is stage III and patients present with widespread metastasis, usually facilitated by peritoneal fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites). Live single cancer cells and aggregates from the ascites represent a population with the potential to become metastatic and are thought to be the main contributors to disease recurrence, displaying increased chemoresistance after traditional first line therapy, which consists of extensive tumour debulking followed by combination platinum and taxane chemotherapy. For this reason, research into potential therapeutic targets in this important cell population is critical for development of more efficacious treatments for ovarian cancer. The opportunity to re-purpose existing pharmaceuticals for use as chemotherapeutics is an idea that has gained traction recently in the medical research field. This method circumvents the requirement for lengthy target identification and validation and extensive toxicity testing. One class of drugs that are a possible candidate for use against ovarian cancer are the dihydropyridines, which are antagonists of voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV). In ovarian cancer, CaV have already been shown to play a role in malignant behaviours such as migration and proliferation, although most expression and functional data in the literature are from ovarian cancer cell lines. There has been very little research on the role of CaV in primary ovarian cancer cells. This work addresses the question of whether CaV are expressed in primary ovarian cancer cells and whether channels in ovarian cancer cells are functional, particularly in cells derived from malignant ascitic fluid. Here, the results from immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumour sections and RT-qPCR using normal ovaries, tumours and cells derived from malignant ascitic fluid suggest that in the majority of cases, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 become expressed in ovarian cancer cells only after cells have been shed from the primary tumour. CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA is expressed in ascites derived cells, although the highest expression of these mRNAs was seen in a sample from a patient with mucinous ovarian cancer. In serous ovarian cancer cells from ascites, CaV1.2 protein was shown with flow cytometry to be highly expressed and immunofluorescent staining confirmed that this expression is localised to the nucleus. Functionally, dihydropyridine antagonism with nifedipine was found to prevent cell migration only in a 2-dimensional wound-healing model, whereas invasion of cell lines and ascites derived primary cells into basement membrane extract was unchanged. Cell lines display differing apoptotic responses to nifedipine, which triggers apoptosis in SKOV-3 but no response in OVCAR-8 at the same concentration. To assess channel functionality, fluorescent measurement of cytosolic Ca2+ flux using Fluo4-AM was performed on cell lines in the presence of the CaV agonist Bay K8644 and patch clamp electrophysiology was performed on cell lines and malignant ascites derived cells. Both of these techniques confirmed that no detectable L-type CaV current is present in the ovarian cancer cell lines. CaV current was observed in cells derived from malignant ascites, from the mucinous sample. Transient receptor potential (TRP) currents were also detected in OVCAR-8 cells, as well as single cells and spheroids from the ascites derived mucinous sample and were most likely carried by the Ca2+-selective TRPV5 or TRV6. These results suggest that functional L-type CaV are present in cancer cells from malignant ascites of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. Although CaV1.2 was nuclear expressed in serous samples, similar research from other cancers has shown that these channels may still function in migration, even when expression is restricted to the nucleus, although nuclear channels would not be amenable to therapeutic targeting. These results fit into a wider context of contemporary research which is placing a greater role for CaV and ion channels in cancer, although more research needs to be performed in ovarian cancer ascites derived cells to determine the possible function of these nuclear ion channels.
  • Transcending Racial Divisions: Anti-racism and Identity Politics

    Hayes, Dennis; Mieschbuehler, Ruth; Louis Dit Sully, Christine Aristide (University of DerbyCollege of Arts, Humanities and Education, 2021-09-15)
    The issue of race is one of the most important concerns of Western society today. This concern takes many forms and has entered all aspects of our lives. The social, economic and political worlds are all affected by discussions, contestations and conflicts involving racial thinking and the notion of race. In the political realm, the question of racial identities is one of the forms in which this contemporary concern for race takes place. The use of our racial identities in political discussions is understood today as ‘identity politics’. This research examines the notions of race, racism, identity, politics and identity politics in the past and in the present and explores the contemporary relationships between politics, identity politics, the concern for racial identities and the notion of race. With such a comprehensive approach, it provides insights as to why the question of racial identity has taken such an important space in public discourse and in politics. It shows that the notion of race, a product of history, has anti-human, anti-rational and anti-political foundations which have been kept in the modern notion of culture. The use of racial identities in politics, a particular form of identity politics, is not a new phenomenon. Identity politics using politicised racial identities has existed throughout the historical development of race. The research compares the classical and contemporary meaning of politics and argues that identity politics, understood as identity-based politics or as the use of social identities within the political realm, is not politics in the classical meaning of politics. What has changed since the first use of politicised racial identities is the various understandings of humanity as individuals and the consequent degradation of political thinking. The philosophical concern for the Self, personhood, subject or identity has been a very particular interest in the Western world since the seventeenth century. However, the focus on psychology and personal identity has given rise to the psychological self. Under certain social and political circumstances such as the widespread atomisation of society, the development of the therapeutic culture, the common support for anti-Enlightenment ideas and the psychological approaches to understanding the world has led to contemporary identity politics being organised within a culture of competitive victimhood. This research shows that the focus on racial identities in public discourse is creating problems for an effective opposition to racism but is also producing an expansion of anti-political and anti-human thinking.
  • A Systematic Review Approach Using the Behaviour Change Wheel, COM-B Behaviour Model and Theoretical Domains Framework to Evaluate Physical Activity Engagement in a University Setting

    Bussell, Chris; Faghy, Mark; Staples, Vicki; Lipka, Sigrid; Ndupu, Lawrence (University of DerbyEngineering and Technology, University of Derby, 2021-09-09)
    Introduction: Physical activity has been recognised to offer health benefits and reduce the risks of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, cancer, depression, and atherosclerosis. However, even with the known health benefits of physical activity, over a quarter of adults globally are physically inactive, which is a serious public health concern and thus calls for concerted efforts to increase physical activity levels in diverse settings. A university is a unique setting in which to promote health enhancing behaviours, such as physical activity, because it offers opportunity to be active (e.g., in-built sports facilities), provides flexible working conditions to enable staff and students a reasonable level of autonomy in managing their individual time and endowed with highly educated and well-informed staff base, which has been previously shown to influence individuals’ engagement in physical activity. Therefore, the overall aim of the PhD research project was to understand the barriers and enablers to physical activity among university staff and students, design an intervention informed by this understanding and implement intervention to address these barriers, in order to create behaviours that lead to better engagement in physical activity. Methods: A mixed-methods experimental design was utilised throughout the research, incorporating both qualitative (group interviews) and quantitative (surveys) data collection. The four experimental studies that make up this programme of work were designed using established behaviour change models, i.e., the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model and/or the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). The qualitative data were analysed in Nvivo12 using deductive content analysis, while the qualitative data were analysed using SPSS Statistical software 26.0, with significance level set at 0.05. Results: Six prominent domains were identified as enablers and barriers to physical activity among university staff and students, i.e., knowledge; social influences; social/professional role and identity; environmental context and resources; beliefs about capabilities; and intentions (study 1). About 78.0% of the administrative staff and 67.0% of the PhD students were physically inactive, i.e., achieving less than 600 MET-minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity. A multiple regression analysis showed that of the 14 domains of the TDF, the ‘physical skills’ domain (t 106 = 2.198, p=0.030) was the only significant predictor of physical inactivity among the administrative staff, while the ‘knowledge’ (t 99 = 2.018, p= 0.046) and ‘intentions’ (t 99 = 4.240, p=0.001) were the only predictors of physical inactivity amongst the PhD students (study 2). The administrative staff that were assigned to engage in supervised exercise sessions (experimental group) reported higher physical skills scores and overall physical activity levels compared to the control (study 3). The PhD students that were allocated to the education and intentions group, who received educational materials and asked to form implementation intentions of times, days and places they intend to carry out physical activity, reported higher overall physical activity levels compared to other treatment groups, i.e., intentions only, education only and control groups (study 4). Conclusion: This thesis contributes to the knowledge on adult’s physical activity by detailing the development, implementation, and assessment of a bespoke brief 4-week behaviour change intervention that effectively increased university administrative staff and PhD students’ total physical activity levels, as well as time spent in physical activity weekly. The university was established as a unique setting to promote health-enhancing behaviour such as promotion of physical activity. Therefore, theory-based interventions underpinned by the BCW, COM-B model and TDF may provide an effective strategy to improve university staff and students’ engagement in physical activity, as well as their overall wellbeing.
  • (Mis)Use of Personal Technology by Employees in Financial Services Organisations

    Hicks, David; Henry, Phil; Hodgson, Philip; Collis, Raichel (University of DerbyBusiness, Law and Social Sciences, 2021-09-01)
    This work presents a single methodology design across three different groups to chart the challenges and potential of digital investigation and to offer an original contribution to researchers seeking purposive samples specific to topical research questions. Open-source online intelligence theorised from an attacker's perspective is underpinned by a novel cyber-orientated framework of routine activity theory (RAT) (Cohen and Felson, 1979) to highlight digital footprint as a vector for targeted social engineering. Seventy-six (N=76) demographically diverse financial services employees from occupations throughout the sector provide empirical data via a mixed methods online survey. Cyber-specific RAT evaluates the ‘average user’ (with no specialist training) as a potential contributor to human assisted cybercrime threatening corporate networks through use of personal technologies and internet-based activities. Robust discussion debates routine digital activity using smartphones, tablets, and consumer Internet of Things (IoT) devices as an unmitigated factor for workplace risk. Personal internet use, devices accessing corporate networks, self-promotion on social media, physical and virtual IoT, executive personnel practicing ‘unsafe’ behaviours and assumed device security as licence for unrestricted online activity are key findings of this study which offers original contributions to critical assessment of insider threat. Despite employee (mis)use of personal technology as a potential vector financial organisations are seemingly unprepared for small-scale and dynamic risk. Results recommend bespoke training at all levels to associate personal use and online behaviour with known cyber risks and capacity for loss or harm. Cyber-RAT as a framework to identify suitable targets and potential for guardianship will contribute value added and assist in a more holistic response to cybercrime where the human element complements technological solutions as a positive enhancement to enterprise security.
  • Vulnerability and adaptive capacity of rural coastal fishing communities in Ghana to climatic and socio-economic stressors

    Davies-Vollum, Kathrine; Raha, Debadayita; Koomson, Daniel (University of Derby, 2021-08-13)
    The global fishing industry is a source of livelihood for about 820 million people. About 90% of this number are small-scale fisherfolk and traders, living in rural fishing-dependent communities in tropical, developing, and least developed countries. Although the industry generates about $362 billion annually, fishing-dependent communities are generally characterised by chronic poverty and deprivation. Decrease in fish productivity and availability in tropical regions, as well as, increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events due to climate change processes have exacerbated the plight of fishing-dependent communities. In 1970, an agenda for research and development of small-scale fishing was set out. However, rural fishing communities are still considered the poorest of the poor today. They are also considered the most vulnerable as future climate change predictions indicate more extreme events and further reductions in maximum fish catch and revenue potentials. Therefore, there are continued calls for research efforts to understand the impacts of multiple climatic and socioeconomic stressors on small-scale fishing livelihoods, in order to identify viable, context-specific management and policy interventions that can reduce their vulnerability. Using two rural coastal fishing communities in Ghana as a case study, the purpose of this study was to explicate how rural coastal fishing-dependent communities in a tropical context are impacted by the interaction of climatic and socio-economic factors and identify viable policy and management options to enhance their adaptive capacity. Three key research questions guided the study: (i) what are the various factors that impact small-scale fishing livelihoods/households, and how do they interact to shape vulnerability? (ii) how are the fishing communities adapting to current livelihood stressors? and, (iii) What context-specific policy and management interventions are needed to enhance their adaptive capacity and safeguard their wellbeing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) vulnerability framework and the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) were integrated as the theoretical underpinnings of the study. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. A total of 120 fishing households were selected and surveyed through a stratified-snowball sampling technique. Several gender and age-group disaggregated focus groups with participatory activities, semi-structured interviews, and key informant discussions were also conducted to collect primary data. These were combined with climatic data to assess each household’s vulnerability, and through triangulated analyses, explicate how it is mediated by socio-cultural, institutional, and policy structures.
  • Crashworthiness Characterisation of the Car Front Bumper System Based on FEA Analysis

    Lu, Yiling; Harmanto, Dani; Zhang, Xiyuan (University of Derby, 2020-11-19)
    This thesis investigated different designs and material selections of vehicle front bumper system to improve the vehicle crashworthiness during the low impact speed (impact velocity=15km/h, 9.32mph) via FEA simulations. The primary purpose is to identify the most important parameters directly related to the improvement of crashworthiness using numerical parametric study. It is found the cross-section profile, curvature shape, material of the bumper beam, together with the connection to the crash box have been all identified that directly influence the crashworthiness performance of the front bumper system. The bumper system, including the sub-components such as bumper beam, crash box, and the connection methods were carried all the parameters, including a number of folds, curvature shapes and spot welds were in-built while creating them into the CAD models using Solidworks. The final assembled complete bumper system is then imported into the ANSYS for further geometry checks and adjustment. Solver Autodyn is used to perform the FEA simulation, and numbers of results files were generated. Results files such as force reaction, plastic work, and equivalent stress, normal stress was all exported it into the Excel for parametric analysis and discussions. Cross-section Profile-Out of proposed Single fold (fold 1) and Triple fold(fold 3) bumper beam profiles, Double fold (fold 2) bumper beam profile presented the best results of force reaction on both smoothness and force value, while the plastic work remained almost identical to profile fold 1 and 3 gained. Fold 2 profile is considered as a good performer since this profile regulated the deformation behaviour of the beam resulted in a smooth increasing force reaction curve. Where the force reaction curve on both fold 1 and fold 3 were fluctuated dramatically due to catastrophic structural failure. Material-In between structural steel and aluminium alloy used in the bumper beam, while the structural steel made bumper beam achieved good force reaction and plastic work. Switched to aluminium can achieve similar force reaction trend and rate with Cross-section neglectable amount of plastic work reduced. Particularly the weight of the bumper beam is dropped down to 5.357 kg while maintaining similar crashworthiness performance to the structural steel. Crash box Crash box connection- The bonded connection is considered as an ideal scenario and was xvii Sensitivity: Internal favoured in much other literature due to it simplifies the connection setting in the FEA environment since it automatically considers it as perfect contact. Three alternative connection methods were therefore proposed to simulate the more realistic scenario. It defined as welding connection that is constituted by a number of spot welds at left, right, top and bottom of the crash box. Since the bonded method contains no spot welds, a method of weld L+R was indicated by totally 4 spot welds appeared at both left and right side of the crash box. On top of this, 4 additional spot welds were added to the top and bottom of the crash box. Totally 4 spot welds were added only to both the top and bottom of the crash box to extend the comparison. While both bonded and weld L+R methods suffered from buckling effect to the crash box, particularly concentrated at the left and right side with high equivalent and normal stresses. It is discovered weld full method provided promising results by reducing the buckling effect to both left and right faces of the crash box, and also managed to lower the equivalent stress down to 336.48MPa and normal stress on the connection surface down to 66MPa. Weld T+B also observed similar performance when compared with both bonded and weld L+R methods. While registered with very small amount of equivalent and normal stresses, the buckling effect is significantly reduced. This thesis contributed the knowledge to the improvement of vehicle front bumper system. Particularly to the failure mode of both bumper beam and crash box, and offered the related optimisation.
  • Bridging the Dementia Divide: the contribution of a Massive Open Online Course on Dementia to dementia care and pedagogy

    Robertshaw, David (University of Derby, 2021-05)
    Dementia is one of the most important global health issues of our time due to its impact on both individuals and society. This thesis spans a 6-year programme of research and scholarship focused on developing an open platform for people to develop an understanding of the symptoms, progression, and caring needs of living with dementia with the intention that it would change their attitudes and perceptions of dementia. The vehicle for this project was a massive open online course (MOOC), known as “Bridging the Dementia Divide” (BTDD). The research and findings from BTDD were analysed, evaluated, and disseminated through ten published works consisting of the BTDD MOOC itself which has been studied more than 10,000 times, a TED talk which has been viewed more than 1,800 times, seven articles published in peer-reviewed journals and one chapter. This body of work developed organically over time and involved an iterative methodological process. These works were driven by a pragmatic and reflexive approach to the work and research. This body of work has always had in mind the potential benefit to the end-user, service users, the public, professionals, patients, and people living with dementia. Because of this, specific aims were not set in the beginning but were developed iteratively over a period of five years. The initial aims and purposes of these works were to inform people about dementia and to make a difference to the lives of people living with dementia and their carers. The project then grew and developed into the development of the MOOC itself and resulted in the subsequent research surrounding it. The aims of the publications were developed in response to the developing research programme’s aims. The resulting aims of this thesis were: to conceptualise and implement a MOOC on dementia, to generate new knowledge pertaining to attitudes and perceptions and the lived experience of dementia within online fora; to evaluate the MOOC as a change intervention within the context of dementia and to discern the impact of dissemination of research findings for implementation in practice and pedagogy. This body of work was researched from a pragmatist paradigm. This critical appraisal used Rolfe’s (2001) reflective model of “what, so what, now what” to consider the published works themselves, their impact, and requirements for future research. Research originating from BTDD has contributed to dementia care by providing educational experiences, describing the experiences of integrated care from the perspectives of carers and family members with dementia, as well as identifying the roles and responsibilities people and organisations play. BTDD made a difference in participants’ attitudes towards and perceptions of dementia. The findings from BTDD have influenced University policy, practice, and programmes and as importantly the research and publications included in this thesis have influenced national and international research projects.
  • Investigating the relationship between implicit and explicit measures of optimism, and examining changes in them using positive psychology interventions.

    Sheffield, David; Maratos, Frances; Kirkman, Ann (University of Derby, 2021-06-21)
    Optimism has a multitude of benefits to individuals in the domains of physical health (Räikkönen & Chirag, 2019); it has also been associated with better performance, socially and academically (Solberg Nes, Evans, & Segerstrom, 2009), decreased stress and less likelihood to burnout (Chang, 2000), better mood, coping and stronger immunity in response to stress (Segerstorm, 1998), and increased problem solving (Chang, 1996). Currently, optimism has been defined in two main ways. Firstly, it has been defined as 'the global generalising tendency to believe that one will generally experience good versus bad outcomes in life' (Scheier & Carver, 1985; p.219). This suggests that optimists look on the bright side of life, whereas pessimists believe that if something can go wrong for them, it will. Secondly, optimism is conceptualised as a positive explanatory style; it concerns how they explain the event to themselves, either positive or negative. This optimistic or pessimistic thinking is reinforced daily through how we explain things to ourselves, relating to why good or bad things happen to us (Seligman, 2005). In the main, explicit measures have been used to measure optimism; however, explicit measures may be susceptible to several biases, such as social desirability. Implicit measures have been suggested to be able to overcome these biases (Greenwald, 1998). In this thesis, an implicit measure was created and assessed to overcome these biases. These implicit measures were compared to explicit measures to investigate how well they correlated. This thesis has three main aims; (a) to create an optimism implicit association test (IAT) to investigate the relationship between implicit and explicit measures of optimism. (b) to investigate the relationship between implicit and explicit measures of optimism, including associated changes when using positive psychology interventions. (c) to investigate if optimism is changeable over time. To address these aims, within the thesis, three studies and a systematic review were employed. Study 1 aimed to create a valid and reliable optimism implicit association task (IAT) and to also investigate the relationship between implicit and explicit measures of optimism. The study examined the relationship between implicit Visual Probe Task (VPT), IAT and explicit Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R). The findings in study 1 showed promising results for the reliability and validity of the IAT. However, no relationship was found between implicit and explicit optimism measures. Study 2 examined the factor structure of optimism, within both the optimism IAT and explicit questionnaire measures. The findings suggested that implicit and explicit optimism were separate factors and therefore, could be considered separate dimensions. A systematic review and meta-analysis explored optimism and positive psychology interventions in the workplace (using the PRISMA checklist). The systematic review revealed three studies that investigated randomised controlled trials (RCT) and whether positive psychology interventions (PPIs) increase optimism in the workplace. The meta-analysis found good homogeneity and a small to medium effect on optimism. This suggests that optimism in the workplace is malleable through PPIs. Study 3 used a pilot RCT to examine whether PPIs can change the implicit and explicit optimism. A working population were randomly assigned to kindness to self, kindness to others or control group. The findings suggest a preliminary effectiveness at increasing optimism. The overall conclusion from the three studies and systematic review suggested that optimism and pessimism are separate two-dimensional constructs. Additionally, the findings suggest that implicit and explicit measures are also separate constructs. Finally, the acts of kindness to self and others positive psychology interventions show potential to increase implicit and explicit optimism, and optimism is changeable over time.
  • The Development of the National Forest: the transformative agency of trees in the English Midlands

    Elliott, Paul; Knight, Mark Adam (University of Derby, 2021-06-22)
    This thesis argues that the creation of the north-midland National Forest in Britain is one of the most ambitious and successful large-scale woodland regeneration projects in the nation’s history and therefore critical historical analysis of its development is important for informing the planning and management of future regional reforestation schemes. It demonstrates how a concept for a large-scale forest modelled upon the New Forest and developed by the Countryside Commission became the inspiration for a new forest in lowland England, close to major conurbations, that would provide crucial new social and economic opportunities through woodland industries, leisure and tourism. The thesis provides the first full comprehensive and authoritative analysis of the development of the National Forest during its first few decades in regional and national context, demonstrating its importance for the future of forestry and the pivotal role of major community afforestation schemes in the adaption to- and mitigation of- climate change. Researched and written by a community environmental and heritage activist with close personal knowledge of the formation of the National Forest, it utilises archival, institutional and media sources and draws upon interviews with key players in the development of the Forest. The thesis provides essential original contributions to knowledge and informs understanding of current and future impacts of afforestation and national environmental policies. Through an examination of the vital role played in the development of multi-purpose forestry and ecology infrastructure, it demonstrates the dramatic impact of extensive afforestation strategies. The thesis shows how and why the National Forest has had a major regional economic, social and environmental impact, in an area that had experienced long-term fundamental economic and environmental problems, transforming those parts of North West Leicestershire, South Derbyshire and East Staffordshire into the first English National Forest. The region had previously relied heavily on the industries of coal mining and clay extraction for employment, but by the late 1980s these were in steep decline, leaving a legacy of mounting unemployment, slag heaps and despoiled landscapes, with a mere 1 per cent tree cover in the worst affected areas. The National Forest plan that emerged, based upon the Needwood-Charnwood bid, succeeded because it was founded upon partnership working from the outset, had high public support and provided the strongest economic, social and ecological benefits. The cultural power and value of trees was recognised and harnessed through connecting the remnant ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood, lending authenticity and credence. However, the thesis demonstrates how the development of this multi-purpose forest providing environmental regeneration through the creation of a new economic base was not an inevitable outcome of the original plans but only emerged after sometimes tense negotiations involving all stakeholders across the region, especially local and national government bodies, landowners, environmental associations, community organisations and the general public. In adapting to shifting political and economic circumstances, the National Forest facilitated economic and social regeneration and had a major environmental and ecological impact upon the north Midland countryside and nearby urban areas. The importance of tree planting and the role of trees in providing social and health benefits is also revealed and the thesis argues that urban forestry and the integration of towns and cities with tree places is of prime importance for future similar projects. The thesis maintains that by demonstrating the role of partnership working, social engagement and sustained public consultation in the creation of the Forest, a critical historical analysis of its development illustrates how it provides a valuable model for future multi-purpose afforestation projects. The role of the National Forest Company, for example, and its close partnerships with local and broader communities, can inform other woodland-based environmental regeneration schemes such as the Northern Forest and the Welsh National Forest. Critical examination of the National Forest’s history is indispensable for our understanding of woodland conservation and development and demonstrates how such future tree-based projects can provide sustainable environmental and economic regeneration and therefore help to mitigate and adapt to the realities of climate change.
  • How can children aged 8-12 years be involved in decision-making and consent processes in outpatient Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS)? An embedded case study.

    Forman, Dawn; Brannigan, Chris; Naylor, Bill; Cox, Ann Marie (University of Derby, 2021-06-17)
    Involving children in decision-making and consent processes in their own healthcare has long been a challenging area of clinical practice. The reasons for this are the challenges in assessing child development capabilities in decision-making, and the lack and ambiguity of guidance and frameworks that support this area of practice. This study addresses these challenges in relation to outpatient CAMHS and provides an in-depth examination of how children can consistently be involved in decision-making and consent processes. The study has triangulated children’s, parents’, and clinicians’ perspectives to provide a theoretical understanding of children’s involvement and how this can be used within clinical practice. The method used in this study has been an embedded case study design and the critical realist inquiry of retroduction. A variety of methods and analytical tools transcending the research paradigms have been used to elicit the relevant data. The study includes several literature reviews, a patient clinical record evaluation, a semi-structured questionnaire administered to clinicians, and four focus groups, two with children and two with parents. The findings are i) children can be involved in decision-making and consent processes; ii) children want to be involved in decision-making and consent processes; iii) The onus is on the adults supporting the child in the decision-making process to maximise the child’s involvement in the process and iv) the theories of prioritising, knowing and navigating are fundamental to understanding the decision-making process and provide an evidence base for this area of practice. This study provides practical solutions in translating the theory into practice. In conclusion, decision-making is a multifaceted process that needs time, resources, and skills to facilitate it properly. For the first time, children have been heard in how they want to be involved in decision-making and consent processes. A critical examination of how children can be involved in decision-making and consent processes has been undertaken. The development of the theories of prioritising, knowing, and navigating are critical to fully understanding and implementing this area of practice.
  • Financial Investigation: Establishing the Principles of a Generic and effective Philosophy

    Hicks, David; Hughes, C. (University of DerbyBusiness Law and social Science at University of Derbyn/a, 2021-03-26)
    Financial investigation is a term usually synonymous with asset recovery, an association which may be a significant inhibitor to its wider consideration and application outside the specialist sphere of the UK confiscation regime. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area through critically analysing the conceptual understanding of financial investigation and financial intelligence within UK law enforcement at strategic, mid management and practice levels. Attention also focuses upon why successive governments and commentators express continuing advocacy of the wider potential of the financial investigation skillset for general investigation which does not seem to translate into effective application. The work offers an empirical study of survey-based data collection involving three hundred and forty-five respondents (n=345) in four significant areas, financial investigation, financial investigation strategy, financial intelligence, and to what extent it is integrated with the National Intelligence Model for practical outcomes. Survey results appear to question current training arrangements for financial investigation within law enforcement and provide original insights into its use by specialists and generalists. This results in the identification of some potential inhibitors to more widespread application of financial investigation and intelligence techniques. The data and findings from its analysis highlight instances of good practice, while contemporaneously exposing potential issues which may contribute to a reduced application of financial investigation outside the specialist asset recovery arena.
  • Changing practice and values? An exploration of social pedagogy for a Council’s Children's Services Workers

    Tupling, Claire; Chavaudra, Nicole (University of Derby, 2020-02)
    Social pedagogy is a conceptual framework which takes both an educational and social perspective to addressing social problems, and is embedded within the children’s services and wider social workforce in many European countries. By contrast, England and its children’s services organisations are without a social pedagogy heritage. This study fills a gap in the evidence base for, and definition of, social pedagogy in England by exploring its potential challenges and benefits within children’s services settings. The research takes an exploratory approach to the influence of social pedagogy using a Council’s children’s services as a case study. The study utilises convergent methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation, including questionnaires, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. The results and conclusions make a significant contribution to the social pedagogy knowledge through a new model of the practice framework for social pedagogy – the ‘Star Model’, a proposed definition of social pedagogy, identification of social pedagogy’s unique contribution to children’s services and the organisational conditions necessary and a proposed approach to its development within the multiple professional fields of the children’s services workforce.
  • THE INFLUENCE OF FIRM SIZE ON THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

    Conway, Elaine (University of Derby, 2021-03-29)
    This thesis explores the impact of firm size on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP). It examines the relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse relationship) and tests whether there is a change in that relationship depending on the size of the firm. It evaluates whether stakeholder theory, which predicts that good CSR ratings result in better CFP, holds in the US and the UK over an 11-year period. The study also considers the slack resources theory, which posits that in order to achieve a good CSR rating, firms need to have good CFP in order to afford to carry out the CSR activities on which the ratings are based. The resource-based view (RBV) is also evaluated in this study to consider whether firm size has an impact on CSR and CFP. Two datasets are used, the largest 1,180 firms in the US and 325 firms in the UK listed in their respective stock exchanges over a period of eleven years (2007 to 2017). Whilst the US CSR-CFP relationship has been studied extensively previously, the UK has not. Equally, with the exception of Orlitzky’s (2001) US-based study, the specific role of firm size has not been studied, and his study only addressed firm size as a mediator in the relationship, not a moderator. This study addresses both aspects of firm size on the CSR-CFP relationship. A traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methodology was used to test the relationships initially. The primary reason to use OLS was so that the results could be used to compare with previous studies. Both the US and UK findings were statistically significant and negative, refuting much prior literature. However, given the issue of simultaneity, these results are undermined and so a more novel approach was subsequently adopted. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to derive three new composite latent constructs to depict CSR, CFP and firm size for each country, from an iterative evaluation of thirty different variables. This resulted in different variables and different weightings of variables for the constructs for each country. The CSR-CFP and firm size relationship were re-tested using these constructs. Both countries demonstrated positive relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse). Firm size did alter these relationships, however, the magnitude of the effect of firm size was small. This research has contributed to the CSR-CFP field in various ways. The main contribution is methodological, as this thesis has introduced an approach which has not been widely used in the CSR-CFP field by developing multivariate latent constructs to encapsulate the multi-faceted nature of the CSR, CFP and firm size using SEM. A second contribution to knowledge is in the specific role of firm size in the CSR-CFP relationship which has hitherto not been specifically addressed. It has concluded that firm size can affect the relationship in some cases, although not to a degree which might have previously been assumed – the overall magnitude of the effect of firm size is small. A final contribution is theoretical: by using constructing country-specific multivariate constructs to reflect individual country jurisdictions, it has been proven that stakeholder and slack resources theories hold in different countries. This suggests a wider applicability of these theories to other countries other than the US where the majority of studies have been previously focused. This thesis, as all research, has some limitations. It examines only two countries, hence the generalisability of the findings outside those two countries may be limited. It also examines all industries together, and hence the findings of individual industries could differ from this overall picture. Equally, this research is taken at a point in time, using one data source: different results could be obtained using data from different periods or indeed from different data sources. These industry, time and data source effects could affect the variables used to construct the latent constructs, which could also alter the findings.
  • Thermo-mechanical reliability studies of lead-free solder interconnects

    Mallik, Sabuj; Lu, Yiling; Depiver, Joshua Adeniyi (University of DerbyN/A, 2021-06-03)
    Solder interconnections, also known as solder joints, are the weakest link in electronics packaging. Reliability of these miniature joints is of utmost interest - especially in safety-critical applications in the automotive, medical, aerospace, power grid and oil and drilling sectors. Studies have shown that these joints' critical thermal and mechanical loading culminate in accelerated creep, fatigue, and a combination of these joints' induced failures. The ball grid array (BGA) components being an integral part of many electronic modules functioning in mission-critical systems. This study investigates the response of solder joints in BGA to crucial reliability influencing parameters derived from creep, visco-plastic and fatigue damage of the joints. These are the plastic strain, shear strain, plastic shear strain, creep energy density, strain energy density, deformation, equivalent (Von-Mises) stress etc. The parameters' obtained magnitudes are inputted into established life prediction models – Coffin-Manson, Engelmaier, Solomon (Low cycle fatigue) and Syed (Accumulated creep energy density) – to determine several BGA assemblies' fatigue lives. The joints are subjected to thermal, mechanical and random vibration loadings. The finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in a commercial software package to model and simulate the responses of the solder joints of the representative assemblies' finite element models. As the magnitude and rate of degradation of solder joints in the BGA significantly depend on the composition of the solder alloys used to assembly the BGA on the printed circuit board, this research studies the response of various mainstream lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders (SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405) and benchmarked those with lead-based eutectic solder (Sn63Pb37). In the creep response study, the effects of thermal ageing and temperature cycling on these solder alloys' behaviours are explored. The results show superior creep properties for SAC405 and SAC396 lead-free solder alloys. The lead-free SAC405 solder joint is the most effective solder under thermal cycling condition, and the SAC396 solder joint is the most effective solder under isothermal ageing operation. The finding shows that SAC405 and SAC396 solders accumulated the minimum magnitudes of stress, strain rate, deformation rate and strain energy density than any other solder considered in this study. The hysteresis loops show that lead-free SAC405 has the lowest dissipated energy per cycle. Thus the highest fatigue life, followed by eutectic lead-based Sn63Pb37 solder. The solder with the highest dissipated energy per cycle was lead-free SAC305, SAC387 and SAC396 solder alloys. In the thermal fatigue life prediction research, four different lead-free (SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405) and one eutectic lead-based (Sn63Pb37) solder alloys are defined against their thermal fatigue lives (TFLs) to predict their mean-time-to-failure for preventive maintenance advice. Five finite elements (FE) models of the assemblies of the BGAs with the different solder alloy compositions and properties are created with SolidWorks. The models are subjected to standard IEC 60749-25 temperature cycling in ANSYS 19.0 mechanical package environment. SAC405 joints have the highest predicted TFL of circa 13.2 years, while SAC387 joints have the least life of circa 1.4 years. The predicted lives are inversely proportional to the magnitude of the areas of stress-strain hysteresis loops of the solder joints. The prediction models are significantly consistent in predicted magnitudes across the solder joints irrespective of the damage parameters used. Several failure modes drive solder joints and damage mechanics from the research and understand an essential variation in the models' predicted values. This investigation presents a method of managing preventive maintenance time of BGA electronic components in mission-critical systems. It recommends developing a novel life prediction model based on a combination of the damage parameters for enhanced prediction. The FEA random vibration simulation test results showed that different solder alloys have a comparable performance during random vibration testing. The fatigue life result shows that SAC405 and SAC396 have the highest fatigue lives before being prone to failure. As a result of the FEA simulation outcomes with the application of Coffin-Manson's empirical formula, the author can predict the fatigue life of solder joint alloys to a higher degree of accuracy of average ~93% in an actual service environment such as the one experienced under-the-hood of an automobile and aerospace. Therefore, it is concluded that the combination of FEA simulation and empirical formulas employed in this study could be used in the computation and prediction of the fatigue life of solder joint alloys when subjected to random vibration. Based on the thermal and mechanical responses of lead-free SAC405 and SAC396 solder alloys, they are recommended as a suitable replacement of lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 solder alloy for improved device thermo-mechanical operations when subjected to random vibration (non-deterministic vibration). The FEA simulation studies' outcomes are validated using experimental and analytical-based reviews in published and peer-reviewed literature.
  • Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence and Abundance in the UK Young Adult Population

    Marsh, Elizabeth; Knight, Gillian; Whitton, Aimee (University of DerbySchool of Biomedical & Forensic Science, 2021)
    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of HPV positive oropharyngeal cancers (OPSCCs) are on the rise, yet oral HPV prevalence rates in clinically healthy populations are poorly understood. To determine the risk of healthy adults developing OPSCCs, first we must establish oral HPV prevalence, viral load, persistence, and clearance rates in healthy populations to understand the link between oral HPV and OPSCCs. This is even more pertinent within the young adult population as the HPV vaccination programme has been shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence but not OPSCC incidence. Therefore, other factors that could affect oral HPV contraction and OPSCC development need investigation such as population demographics, lifestyle risk behaviours, HPV screening methods and vaccination status. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were centred on establishing reproducible and sensitive HPV screening methods for the detection of oral HPV in clinically healthy young adults, for determining prevalence and abundance, and establishing if oral HPV was influenced by vaccination status, demographics, and lifestyle risk behaviours. METHODS: The study established a novel and sensitive real-time PCR HPV consensus screening method for the detection of multiple HPV subtypes in the oral cavity of 408 clinically healthy UK-based young adults (92.01%; 18-25 years old in 2016-17). HPV positive or undetermined samples were then screened using qPCR for HPV subtypes, HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18. All results were analysed alongside vaccination status, demographics and lifestyle risk behaviour data collected via questionnaire. RESULTS: An oral HPV prevalence rate of 22.79% was found, with HPV-16 being the most prevalent and abundant subtype at 19.12%; 1.08x105 copies/million cells, followed by HPV-18 at 1.72%; 1.89x104 copies/million cells, HPV-6 at 0.49%; 4.50x102 copies/million cells and HPV-11 at 0.25%; 1.06x102 copies/million cells. Unknown HPV subtypes were detected in 2.21% of the cohort. Oral HPV was found to be significantly associated with open-mouth kissing (p <.001), oral sex (p = .049), masturbation in males (p = .020), sexual intercourse (p = .026), sexual activity diversity (p = .043), frequent smoking (p = .024), wine drinking (p = .045) and drinking ≥2 types of alcohol per sitting (p = .015), especially in males (p = .023). HPV-16 was significantly associated with masturbation (p = .004), whilst there was a reduction in viral load in vaccinated individuals, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Oral HPV is prevalent in the young adult UK population, especially HR-HPV subtype HPV-16, questioning the efficacy of the HPV vaccination on reducing oral prevalence. However, HPV vaccination may instead influence oral HPV viral load, but further research is required, demonstrating the importance of measuring both presence and abundance. Oral HPV prevalence did appear to be influenced by sexual practice, including open-mouth kissing and oral sex, but less so by smoking and alcohol consumption, reaffirming the link between oral HPV and OPSCCs.
  • The educational legacy of colonialism in south-western Nigeria

    Mieschbuehler, Ruth; Lamikanra, Folasade Helen (University of DerbyCollege of Arts, Humanities and Education, 2021-04-23)
    The educational legacy of colonialism in Nigeria is a contested and controversial subject. What do those who lived through the colonial period remember? And what do they think is both positive and negative about education in that period? To allow their voices to be heard, 20 interviews with educationalists, teachers, lecturers and students involved in colonial education were undertaken in Nigeria and the UK. Many of those interviewed are famous and influential figures both in Nigeria and internationally. Their attitude to the legacy of colonialism is not what Western writers and academics may think. As Nobel Prize winner, Wole Soyinka, said in an interview for this thesis, although we must condemn colonialism: “One can’t throw away the baby with the bath water. When we needed education, they brought education. It does not matter how, but education was brought.” There were many aspects of the colonial legacy that those who lived through the period thought benefitted education in Nigeria. The ‘colonial masters’ recognised that all human culture was important, and in the part of Nigeria that formed the focus of this research, all schooling for the first four years was in the local language, Yoruba. The colonialists passionately believed that both men and women should be educated. They enhanced local education by, for example, developing a local counting system as the basis for mathematics. They brought with them the English language, a legacy that has given Nigeria access to a wider range of knowledge and facilitated membership within international communities. Colonial education was an imposition that people wanted; however, there were many limitations to the education offered. When the colonialists established secondary schools, the purpose was not merely to educate people but to train them to be civil servants who would serve the colonial government. The voices from the post-colonial period, discussed and questioned here, say the unsayable: there was a positive legacy of colonialism.
  • Individual differences and medication-mediation in chronic illness conditions: a mixed methods approach to the development of a novel, conceptual framework

    Sheffied, David; Owen, Deborah J (University of DerbyCollege of Health and Social Care, 2021-04)
    Chronic illness is prevalent; adherence to pharmaceutical therapy facilitates an optimal outcome and is the single most influential affect in the individual’s illness trajectory. Hence, a prerequisite of efficacy is that medication is taken as prescribed. Adherence levels are, however, sub-optimal, with rates to pharmacological interventions as low as 17%; this represents a significant challenge to the effectiveness of therapy, undermining the benefits of clinical care. The reasons for nonadherence are various and complex, incorporating demographic factors, such as age and gender, cognitive variables including forgetfulness, as well as illness and treatment concerns, such as disagreeable symptoms and side effects. An underexplored factor, however, is the influence of personality factors on health behaviour, even though individual differences have been noted as central in health psychology. The ambit of this thesis is to explore the determinants of, and barriers to, pharmacological adherence in chronic illness, with a particular emphasis on personality affects; the overarching aims of the research are to develop a taxonomical framework of adherence factors and, further, a conceptual model demonstrating various influences of medication-taking. Two literature reviews were undertaken to establish what is currently known in extant literature; the first review, an expansive historical timeline, encompassed an appraisal of published literature in order to secure an overall understanding of topics that have been considered in relation to the phenomenon of medication adherence, and revealed the foci of adherence studies over the past few decades. This historical timeline evidenced that the biomedical stance is habitually used by researchers at the exclusion of patient’s perspectives, and highlighted a gaping lacuna in terms of individual differences; furthermore, the review formed a novel basis on which to contextualise the second systematic literature review and meta-analysis, which honed in on personality and its causal affects on medication adherence in chronic illness conditions. To substantiate quantitative data attained from the reviews and to expound the core dimensions underlying medication adherence, phenomenological investigation was performed. Emergent themes of experiential notions of adherence, informed by interviews with thirty-one participants, were thematically analysed; motifs included challenges with self-management in chronic illness, coping with an alteration in the self and notions of ‘normality’, together with psychosocial negotiation of the illness itself. Prior to interviews participants also completed psychometric assessments in order to ascertain adherence rates (the Medication Adherence Rating scale) and identify influential personality traits (the Five Factor Model). Data were synthesised to construct a comprehensive taxonomical framework of the diverse determinants of adherence, which deepens our understanding, facilitates an entry-point into adherence research and has significant utility as a research-informed theoretical structure. Additionally, the novel IndEx-MediC conceptual model of adherence was developed, predicated on findings that medication-taking is a mediational process influenced temporally, experientially, and contextually, determined by individual and external factors. The model presents a novel description of patients’ experiences of adherence to pharmaceutical therapy in chronic illness and serves as a foundation to develop a predictive measure to identify individuals potentially at risk of nonadherence, from which tailored interventional strategies may be devised.
  • Exploration of contributing factors to mental health in workers and students

    Van Gordon, William; Sheffield, David; Kotera, Yasuhiro (University of Derby, 2021-04-08)
    Having worked in the field of human resources, my publications focused on mental health and neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). Poor mental health has been reported among workers and university students in the United Kingdom (UK). The costs of poor work mental health are estimated to be £87 billion annually in the UK. In particular, hospitality workers, who comprise 7% of the country’s workforce, are known to suffer from poor mental health. Likewise, more than a quarter of UK university students suffer from a mental health problem. Through a series of cross-sectional studies using correlation, regression, moderation and path analyses, I found that mental health shame was positively related with mental health problems, and self-compassion and intrinsic motivation were negatively related to both mental health shame and mental health problems in a variety of population groups that had not been explored before, including UK workers, UK students and Japanese workers. In my NLP research, I investigated the application of NLP-derived skills for career guidance and critically reviewed psychological outcomes of applying those skills in organisational settings, through a pre-post study, thematic analysis, and systematic review. Two skills, the Disney Strategy and Sponsorship, were regarded particularly useful by the small sample of registered career consultants in Japan investigated in Publication 1. My systematic review (Publication 8) concluded that while NLP may be effective for diverse psychological outcomes, there is a need for rigorous future research. Taken together, my findings suggest the wide applicability of the effects of self-compassion and intrinsic motivation on mental health, and the similarity of Sponsorship to the soothing system in the three emotion regulatory systems. The critical appraisal of my published works identified four areas that are caveats for understanding the findings and could benefit from further work: (a) Lack of consideration for established predictors, (b) Mental health variables being treated as a unitary construct, (c) Balanced discussion of positive and negative aspects of mental health, and (d) Lack of critical appraisal 6 of NLP. Future research should consider these critical insights to improve our understanding of mental health and NLP.

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