A growing collection of doctoral theses produced by University of Derby researchers. The collection comprises titles digitised from print holdings and items first submitted electronically from 2013.

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  • Thermo-mechanical reliability studies of lead-free solder interconnects

    Mallik, Sabuj; Lu, Yiling; Depiver, Joshua Adeniyi (University of DerbyN/A, 2021-06-03)
    Solder interconnections, also known as solder joints, are the weakest link in electronics packaging. Reliability of these miniature joints is of utmost interest - especially in safety-critical applications in the automotive, medical, aerospace, power grid and oil and drilling sectors. Studies have shown that these joints' critical thermal and mechanical loading culminate in accelerated creep, fatigue, and a combination of these joints' induced failures. The ball grid array (BGA) components being an integral part of many electronic modules functioning in mission-critical systems. This study investigates the response of solder joints in BGA to crucial reliability influencing parameters derived from creep, visco-plastic and fatigue damage of the joints. These are the plastic strain, shear strain, plastic shear strain, creep energy density, strain energy density, deformation, equivalent (Von-Mises) stress etc. The parameters' obtained magnitudes are inputted into established life prediction models – Coffin-Manson, Engelmaier, Solomon (Low cycle fatigue) and Syed (Accumulated creep energy density) – to determine several BGA assemblies' fatigue lives. The joints are subjected to thermal, mechanical and random vibration loadings. The finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in a commercial software package to model and simulate the responses of the solder joints of the representative assemblies' finite element models. As the magnitude and rate of degradation of solder joints in the BGA significantly depend on the composition of the solder alloys used to assembly the BGA on the printed circuit board, this research studies the response of various mainstream lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders (SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405) and benchmarked those with lead-based eutectic solder (Sn63Pb37). In the creep response study, the effects of thermal ageing and temperature cycling on these solder alloys' behaviours are explored. The results show superior creep properties for SAC405 and SAC396 lead-free solder alloys. The lead-free SAC405 solder joint is the most effective solder under thermal cycling condition, and the SAC396 solder joint is the most effective solder under isothermal ageing operation. The finding shows that SAC405 and SAC396 solders accumulated the minimum magnitudes of stress, strain rate, deformation rate and strain energy density than any other solder considered in this study. The hysteresis loops show that lead-free SAC405 has the lowest dissipated energy per cycle. Thus the highest fatigue life, followed by eutectic lead-based Sn63Pb37 solder. The solder with the highest dissipated energy per cycle was lead-free SAC305, SAC387 and SAC396 solder alloys. In the thermal fatigue life prediction research, four different lead-free (SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405) and one eutectic lead-based (Sn63Pb37) solder alloys are defined against their thermal fatigue lives (TFLs) to predict their mean-time-to-failure for preventive maintenance advice. Five finite elements (FE) models of the assemblies of the BGAs with the different solder alloy compositions and properties are created with SolidWorks. The models are subjected to standard IEC 60749-25 temperature cycling in ANSYS 19.0 mechanical package environment. SAC405 joints have the highest predicted TFL of circa 13.2 years, while SAC387 joints have the least life of circa 1.4 years. The predicted lives are inversely proportional to the magnitude of the areas of stress-strain hysteresis loops of the solder joints. The prediction models are significantly consistent in predicted magnitudes across the solder joints irrespective of the damage parameters used. Several failure modes drive solder joints and damage mechanics from the research and understand an essential variation in the models' predicted values. This investigation presents a method of managing preventive maintenance time of BGA electronic components in mission-critical systems. It recommends developing a novel life prediction model based on a combination of the damage parameters for enhanced prediction. The FEA random vibration simulation test results showed that different solder alloys have a comparable performance during random vibration testing. The fatigue life result shows that SAC405 and SAC396 have the highest fatigue lives before being prone to failure. As a result of the FEA simulation outcomes with the application of Coffin-Manson's empirical formula, the author can predict the fatigue life of solder joint alloys to a higher degree of accuracy of average ~93% in an actual service environment such as the one experienced under-the-hood of an automobile and aerospace. Therefore, it is concluded that the combination of FEA simulation and empirical formulas employed in this study could be used in the computation and prediction of the fatigue life of solder joint alloys when subjected to random vibration. Based on the thermal and mechanical responses of lead-free SAC405 and SAC396 solder alloys, they are recommended as a suitable replacement of lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 solder alloy for improved device thermo-mechanical operations when subjected to random vibration (non-deterministic vibration). The FEA simulation studies' outcomes are validated using experimental and analytical-based reviews in published and peer-reviewed literature.
  • Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence and Abundance in the UK Young Adult Population

    Marsh, Elizabeth; Knight, Gillian; Whitton, Aimee (University of DerbySchool of Biomedical & Forensic Science, 2021)
    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of HPV positive oropharyngeal cancers (OPSCCs) are on the rise, yet oral HPV prevalence rates in clinically healthy populations are poorly understood. To determine the risk of healthy adults developing OPSCCs, first we must establish oral HPV prevalence, viral load, persistence, and clearance rates in healthy populations to understand the link between oral HPV and OPSCCs. This is even more pertinent within the young adult population as the HPV vaccination programme has been shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence but not OPSCC incidence. Therefore, other factors that could affect oral HPV contraction and OPSCC development need investigation such as population demographics, lifestyle risk behaviours, HPV screening methods and vaccination status. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were centred on establishing reproducible and sensitive HPV screening methods for the detection of oral HPV in clinically healthy young adults, for determining prevalence and abundance, and establishing if oral HPV was influenced by vaccination status, demographics, and lifestyle risk behaviours. METHODS: The study established a novel and sensitive real-time PCR HPV consensus screening method for the detection of multiple HPV subtypes in the oral cavity of 408 clinically healthy UK-based young adults (92.01%; 18-25 years old in 2016-17). HPV positive or undetermined samples were then screened using qPCR for HPV subtypes, HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18. All results were analysed alongside vaccination status, demographics and lifestyle risk behaviour data collected via questionnaire. RESULTS: An oral HPV prevalence rate of 22.79% was found, with HPV-16 being the most prevalent and abundant subtype at 19.12%; 1.08x105 copies/million cells, followed by HPV-18 at 1.72%; 1.89x104 copies/million cells, HPV-6 at 0.49%; 4.50x102 copies/million cells and HPV-11 at 0.25%; 1.06x102 copies/million cells. Unknown HPV subtypes were detected in 2.21% of the cohort. Oral HPV was found to be significantly associated with open-mouth kissing (p <.001), oral sex (p = .049), masturbation in males (p = .020), sexual intercourse (p = .026), sexual activity diversity (p = .043), frequent smoking (p = .024), wine drinking (p = .045) and drinking ≥2 types of alcohol per sitting (p = .015), especially in males (p = .023). HPV-16 was significantly associated with masturbation (p = .004), whilst there was a reduction in viral load in vaccinated individuals, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Oral HPV is prevalent in the young adult UK population, especially HR-HPV subtype HPV-16, questioning the efficacy of the HPV vaccination on reducing oral prevalence. However, HPV vaccination may instead influence oral HPV viral load, but further research is required, demonstrating the importance of measuring both presence and abundance. Oral HPV prevalence did appear to be influenced by sexual practice, including open-mouth kissing and oral sex, but less so by smoking and alcohol consumption, reaffirming the link between oral HPV and OPSCCs.
  • The educational legacy of colonialism in south-western Nigeria

    Mieschbuehler, Ruth; Lamikanra, Folasade Helen (University of DerbyCollege of Arts, Humanities and Education, 2021-04-23)
    The educational legacy of colonialism in Nigeria is a contested and controversial subject. What do those who lived through the colonial period remember? And what do they think is both positive and negative about education in that period? To allow their voices to be heard, 20 interviews with educationalists, teachers, lecturers and students involved in colonial education were undertaken in Nigeria and the UK. Many of those interviewed are famous and influential figures both in Nigeria and internationally. Their attitude to the legacy of colonialism is not what Western writers and academics may think. As Nobel Prize winner, Wole Soyinka, said in an interview for this thesis, although we must condemn colonialism: “One can’t throw away the baby with the bath water. When we needed education, they brought education. It does not matter how, but education was brought.” There were many aspects of the colonial legacy that those who lived through the period thought benefitted education in Nigeria. The ‘colonial masters’ recognised that all human culture was important, and in the part of Nigeria that formed the focus of this research, all schooling for the first four years was in the local language, Yoruba. The colonialists passionately believed that both men and women should be educated. They enhanced local education by, for example, developing a local counting system as the basis for mathematics. They brought with them the English language, a legacy that has given Nigeria access to a wider range of knowledge and facilitated membership within international communities. Colonial education was an imposition that people wanted; however, there were many limitations to the education offered. When the colonialists established secondary schools, the purpose was not merely to educate people but to train them to be civil servants who would serve the colonial government. The voices from the post-colonial period, discussed and questioned here, say the unsayable: there was a positive legacy of colonialism.
  • Individual differences and medication-mediation in chronic illness conditions: a mixed methods approach to the development of a novel, conceptual framework

    Sheffied, David; Owen, Deborah J (University of DerbyCollege of Health and Social Care, 2021-04)
    Chronic illness is prevalent; adherence to pharmaceutical therapy facilitates an optimal outcome and is the single most influential affect in the individual’s illness trajectory. Hence, a prerequisite of efficacy is that medication is taken as prescribed. Adherence levels are, however, sub-optimal, with rates to pharmacological interventions as low as 17%; this represents a significant challenge to the effectiveness of therapy, undermining the benefits of clinical care. The reasons for nonadherence are various and complex, incorporating demographic factors, such as age and gender, cognitive variables including forgetfulness, as well as illness and treatment concerns, such as disagreeable symptoms and side effects. An underexplored factor, however, is the influence of personality factors on health behaviour, even though individual differences have been noted as central in health psychology. The ambit of this thesis is to explore the determinants of, and barriers to, pharmacological adherence in chronic illness, with a particular emphasis on personality affects; the overarching aims of the research are to develop a taxonomical framework of adherence factors and, further, a conceptual model demonstrating various influences of medication-taking. Two literature reviews were undertaken to establish what is currently known in extant literature; the first review, an expansive historical timeline, encompassed an appraisal of published literature in order to secure an overall understanding of topics that have been considered in relation to the phenomenon of medication adherence, and revealed the foci of adherence studies over the past few decades. This historical timeline evidenced that the biomedical stance is habitually used by researchers at the exclusion of patient’s perspectives, and highlighted a gaping lacuna in terms of individual differences; furthermore, the review formed a novel basis on which to contextualise the second systematic literature review and meta-analysis, which honed in on personality and its causal affects on medication adherence in chronic illness conditions. To substantiate quantitative data attained from the reviews and to expound the core dimensions underlying medication adherence, phenomenological investigation was performed. Emergent themes of experiential notions of adherence, informed by interviews with thirty-one participants, were thematically analysed; motifs included challenges with self-management in chronic illness, coping with an alteration in the self and notions of ‘normality’, together with psychosocial negotiation of the illness itself. Prior to interviews participants also completed psychometric assessments in order to ascertain adherence rates (the Medication Adherence Rating scale) and identify influential personality traits (the Five Factor Model). Data were synthesised to construct a comprehensive taxonomical framework of the diverse determinants of adherence, which deepens our understanding, facilitates an entry-point into adherence research and has significant utility as a research-informed theoretical structure. Additionally, the novel IndEx-MediC conceptual model of adherence was developed, predicated on findings that medication-taking is a mediational process influenced temporally, experientially, and contextually, determined by individual and external factors. The model presents a novel description of patients’ experiences of adherence to pharmaceutical therapy in chronic illness and serves as a foundation to develop a predictive measure to identify individuals potentially at risk of nonadherence, from which tailored interventional strategies may be devised.
  • Exploration of contributing factors to mental health in workers and students

    Van Gordon, William; Sheffield, David; Kotera, Yasuhiro (University of Derby, 2021-04-08)
    Having worked in the field of human resources, my publications focused on mental health and neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). Poor mental health has been reported among workers and university students in the United Kingdom (UK). The costs of poor work mental health are estimated to be £87 billion annually in the UK. In particular, hospitality workers, who comprise 7% of the country’s workforce, are known to suffer from poor mental health. Likewise, more than a quarter of UK university students suffer from a mental health problem. Through a series of cross-sectional studies using correlation, regression, moderation and path analyses, I found that mental health shame was positively related with mental health problems, and self-compassion and intrinsic motivation were negatively related to both mental health shame and mental health problems in a variety of population groups that had not been explored before, including UK workers, UK students and Japanese workers. In my NLP research, I investigated the application of NLP-derived skills for career guidance and critically reviewed psychological outcomes of applying those skills in organisational settings, through a pre-post study, thematic analysis, and systematic review. Two skills, the Disney Strategy and Sponsorship, were regarded particularly useful by the small sample of registered career consultants in Japan investigated in Publication 1. My systematic review (Publication 8) concluded that while NLP may be effective for diverse psychological outcomes, there is a need for rigorous future research. Taken together, my findings suggest the wide applicability of the effects of self-compassion and intrinsic motivation on mental health, and the similarity of Sponsorship to the soothing system in the three emotion regulatory systems. The critical appraisal of my published works identified four areas that are caveats for understanding the findings and could benefit from further work: (a) Lack of consideration for established predictors, (b) Mental health variables being treated as a unitary construct, (c) Balanced discussion of positive and negative aspects of mental health, and (d) Lack of critical appraisal 6 of NLP. Future research should consider these critical insights to improve our understanding of mental health and NLP.
  • Creating a student and patient focused research led environment in diagnostic radiography education

    Forman, Dawn; Hyde, Emma (University of DerbyHead of Diagnostic Imaging, College of Health, Psychology & Social Care, 2021-05-06)
    This critical appraisal explores my published works; how they have informed my development as researcher, diagnostic radiographer and teacher in Higher Education; and how they have changed practice at other institutions both nationally and internationally. Through my practice as a radiography educator and by undertaking research into diagnostic radiography practice, I have used a range of research methods to make a unique contribution to the knowledge base within the radiography profession. This new knowledge focuses on student radiographer’s experiences during their clinical placements and informed measures of patient centred care in diagnostic radiography. Through the research projects, I have influenced discussions about student placements at a national level and developed innovative new clinical placement opportunities. This has led to a secondment opportunity with Health Education England to lead a project on growing the Imaging Workforce in the Midlands. I have contributed to national and international debate about patient centred care in diagnostic radiography and developed theoretical models and audit tools to support patient centred approaches. In August 2020, I was awarded a prestigious National Teaching Fellowship by Advance HE, in recognition of the impact of my work and my research on radiography education within the UK. My research output now totals eight peer reviewed journal articles, one article in an industry magazine, one book chapter and one handbook to support Values Based Radiography education. These publications are helping to grow my research profile on ResearchGate, Scopus and Google Scholar. In addition, I have disseminated the findings of my research via 24 conference papers or posters. Contributions towards a new textbook about patient centred care, further journal articles and a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) are currently in progress based on the findings of my largest research project, which sought to define informed measures of patient centred care in diagnostic radiography.
  • An Ethnographic Account of an Organisational Response To Transformation in a Not for Profit Context

    Amos , Margaret Mary (University of Derby, 2021-04-28)
    This research is an ethnographic account of a longitudinal study in the not-for-profit sector. The collaborating organisation is an Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) provider based in the north west of England and referred to as Company X throughout this thesis to protect its anonymity. Company X is a licensed ADR provider and a Not for Profit (NFP) organisation. It is licensed by the regulator to provide complaint handling services, from initial consumer enquiry through to investigation, for the companies who subscribe to their ADR scheme. The organisation has been struggling in recent years with a loss in market share. This has been caused by the digitalisation of the initial enquiry stage of the complaints handling service by new entrants to the sector. The digitalisation has facilitated new entrants into the market who have not only made the complaint handling process more efficient but maximised the information which they collect during the initial enquiry phase to offer an extended service to the subscribing companies to their ADR service. The additional service which the new competitors offer is outside of the traditional ADR licensed provision and represents an additional revenue opportunity for the ADR provider. The new entrants achieve this by selling data insights into the consumer behaviour which is derived from the consumer information obtained during the enquiry process. This thesis is a study of Company X’s response to this new competitive threat and their subsequent transformation programme.
  • The Dark Side of Humanity Scale: A Reconstruction of the Dark Tetrad Constructs

    Harvey, Caroline; Baker, Ian; Howard, Chris; Katz, Louise F. (University of DerbyCollege of Health, Psychology and Social Care, 2021-05-07)
    A myriad of criticisms have been directed at the widely available scales which measure the Dark Tetrad (DT), constructs of Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism and everyday sadism. These have included construct incongruence, unstable factor structures, sex and age variance. Sex and age are salient variables in research studies and as such, their reported variance was considered to be a weakness of the measures, which contributed to their instability. To ascertain whether this was indeed the case, an investigation of the widely available DT measures was conducted in study one (n=605). Through the use of Classical Test Theories, Exploratory Graph Analysis and Item Response Theory, the criticisms of past research were supported, including variance across age and sex. Mediated by the evidenced issues and in order to address them, the Dark Side of Humanity Scale (DSHS), was developed, which was the main aim of this thesis. The focus of the measure was to assesses the DT personality constructs as they manifest in the general population, whilst also being sex and age invariant. Using a diverse range of statistical methods and guided by theory, expert ratings and past research, where available, the development of the DSHS began in the second study (n=667). During analyses, a divergence from the widely available DT measures emerged, whereby primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were unified. However, this corroborated past research which has discussed the two constructs as being parallel. It further afforded the DSHS with a shift away from the traditional DT conceptualisation. The resulting scale encompasses four factors. The first represents the successful psychopath, factor two addresses the grandiose form of entitlement, factor three taps into everyday sadism and includes sadistic fantasies, direct and vicarious psychological malevolence, whilst factor four pertains to narcissistic entitlement rage. Each factor is specific to the traits and behaviours of the construct they address. Study three reports on the convergent and discriminant validity of the DSHS (n=712), and test-retest validity (n = 413), for which temporal reliability as well as nomological validity was achieved. The unique contributions of this thesis are discussed in the final chapter. The DSHS provides an alternative approach to investigating the dark side of human nature in general population samples, whilst also being sex and age invariant.
  • Adversarial Thresholding Semi-Bandits

    Anjum, Ashiq; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Xue, Yong; Bower, Craig (University of Derby, 2020-12)
    The classical multi-armed bandit is one of the most common examples of sequential decision-making, either by trading-off between exploiting and exploring arms to maximise some payoff or purely exploring arms until the optimal arm is identified. In particular, a bandit player wanting to only pull arms with stochastic feedback exceeding a given threshold, has been studied extensively in a pure exploration context. However, numerous applications fail to be expressed, where a player wishes to balance the need to observe regions of an uncertain environment that are currently interesting (exploit) and checking if neglected regions have become interesting since last observed (explore). We introduce the adversarial thresholding semi-bandit problem: a non-stochastic bandit model, where a player wants to only pull (potentially several) arms with feedback meeting some threshold condition. Our main objective is to design algorithms that meet the requirements of the adversarial thresholding semi-bandit problem theoretically, empirically and algorithmically, for a given application. In other words, we want to develop a machine that learns to select options according to some threshold condition and adapts quickly if the feedback from selecting an option unexpectedly changes. This work has many real-world applications and is motivated by online detector control monitoring in high-energy physics experiments, on the Large Hadron Collider. We begin by describing the adversarial thresholding semi-bandit problem (ATSBP) in terms of a multi-armed bandit with multiple plays and extending the stochastic thresholding bandit problem to the adversarial setting. The adversarial thresholding exponentially-weighted exploration and exploitation with multiple plays algorithm (T-Exp3.M) and an algorithm combining label efficient prediction (LET-Exp3.M), are introduced that satisfy theoretical and computational Research specifications, but either perform poorly or fail completely under certain threshold conditions. To meet empirical performance requirements, we propose the dynamic label efficient adversarial thresholding exponentially-weighted exploration and exploitation with multiple plays algorithm (dLET-Exp3.M). Whilst computational requirements match those for T-Exp3.M, theoretical upper bounds on performance are proven to be worse. We also introduce an ATSBP algorithm (AliceBandit) that decomposes the action of pulling an arm into selection and observation decisions. Computational complexity and empirical performance under two different threshold conditions are significantly improved, compared with exponentially weighted adversarial thresholding semi-bandits. Theoretical upper bounds on performance are also significantly improved, for certain environments. In the latter part of this thesis, we address the challenge of efficiently monitoring multiple condition parameters in high-energy experimental physics. Due to the extreme conditions experienced in heavy-ion particle colliders, the power supply to any device exceeding safe operating parameters is automatically shut down or tripped, to preserve integrity and functionality of the device. Prior to recent upgrades, a device or channel trip would halt data-taking for the entire experiment. Post-trip recovery requires a costly procedure both in terms of expertise and data-taking time. After the completion of the current upgrading phase (scheduled for 2021), the detector will collect data continuously. In this new regime, a channel trip will result in only the affected components of the experiment being shut down. However, since the new upgraded experiment will enable data-taking to increase by a factor of 100, each trip will have a significant impact on the experiments ability to provide physicists with reliable data to analyse. We demonstrate that adversarial thresholding semi-bandits efficiently identify device channels either exceeding a fixed threshold or deviating by more than a prescribed range prior to a trip, extending the state-of-the-art in high-energy physics detector control.
  • The design and feasibility of a work-focused relational group-CBT treatment programme to enhance job retention in employed service-users with moderate-severe recurrent depression.

    Townend, Michael; Strickland-Hodge, Barry; Walker, Nicola (University of DerbyHealth and Social Care, 2020-10-15)
    Background: Employees with moderate-severe recurrent depression are at risk of losing their jobs. A search of the literature revealed that most psychotherapeutic interventions are not work-focused, and there are none that have been specifically designed to enhance job retention in employed service-users of UK Community Mental Health Teams. A subsequent update of the research evidence using the same literature search strategy plus another search with more stringent inclusion criteria found several studies of work-focused psychotherapeutic interventions. However, but there is still a gap in terms of work-focused psychotherapeutic interventions specifically designed for employees with more severe mental health problems. Methods: The Medical Research Council guidance for the development and evaluation of complex interventions was used throughout this study. Firstly, an effectiveness review of relevant psychotherapeutic interventions revealed several over-arching principles which appeared to underpin their effects such as using a care pathway incorporating multi-disciplinary teamwork, guideline concordance, informed clinical decision-making, tracking of progress, and the use of outreach to encourage clients to complete treatment. Secondly, a stakeholder consultation was undertaken during the planning period, and realist analysis of the focus group data identified six plausible mechanisms of change which allowed for modification of the new intervention design and refinement of the programme theory. Thirdly, piloting involved a small feasibility study using a quasi-experimental pre-post design with eight participants which generated both quantitative and qualitative data regarding clinical and work outcomes. Fourthly, a further stakeholder consultation was undertaken during the reviewing period to consider re-design of the new intervention in terms of improving acceptability and accessibility. Finally, a process of mixed methods data integration was used to make recommendations for further implementation and evaluation in a definitive trial. Results: Six provisional Context-Intervention-Mechanism-Outcome (CIMO) configurations were developed into a programme theory. Overall, implementation and evaluation of the new intervention were feasible although problems were encountered in recruiting sufficient numbers for randomisation, and with collecting follow up data. It was also expensive to provide compared to CBT programmes in primary and secondary mental healthcare services. Outcomes suggest the new intervention is a promising treatment for moderate-severe recurrent depression for some women and may help them in maintaining their employment. Acceptability could be improved by making the new intervention more interesting and stimulating, with a focus on coping over the long-term. Accessibility could be improved by making the new intervention more understandable, delivering it at the worksite, and making it peer-led. Conclusions: Job retention for employed service-users may be enhanced if the tertiary individual level Treatment Programme is re-designed as a primary organisational level Training (and staff support) Programme informed by group-CBT.
  • Contractors’ selection criteria for sustainable infrastructure delivery in Nigeria

    Ceranic, Boris; Dean, Angela; Arowosafe, Oluwumi I. (University of Derby, 2020)
    The research reported in this study developed and validated a framework for the pre-evaluation of contractors for sustainable infrastructure projects through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Nigeria. The proposed framework uses the Analytic Network Process (ANP) to select contractors for build-operate-transfer (BOT) contractors. Theoretically grounded on a system theory, a sustainable infrastructure delivery (SID) model is developed in this research. One of its important features is the ability to solve complex decision problems, typical of a decision-making process that involves selection of contractors for PPP projects. At the deductive phase of the proposed model is the integration of the ANP (multi-criteria decision-making technique) for data synthesis. An extensive literature review was conducted with regard to selection criteria for contractors. Furthermore, a web-based questionnaire survey was undertaken, aimed at capturing the perception of the Nigerian construction professionals regarding the importance of these criteria for pre-evaluation of contractors for public infrastructure procurement. A total of 143 questionnaires was received and their feedbacks were analysed with the IBM SPSS statistical package. The findings revealed a broad range of 55 relevant criteria that were linked to sustainable contractor selection. Through the application of factor analysis, the number of the criteria was reduced to 16, after multicollinearity issues in the data set had been resolved. The 16 factors were modelled to pairwise comparison matrices, transforming decision making process from linear to a systemic approach. A purposeful sampling methodology was then applied for the selection of decision-making panel (DM), who completed the pairwise comparison survey. The survey results were synthesised by ANP. The final solution derived order of significance of the two categories of contractors- multinational construction corporations (MCC) and local construction contractors (LCC) in respect to the delivery of a sustainable infrastructure. Sensitivity analysis of the research findings reveals that the 16 criteria have differential comparative advantages, which requires critical judgement during contractors’ pre-evaluation process. Although the overall priorities rank multinational construction corporations (MCC) higher than local construction companies (LCC), it is not absolute that MCC will deliver a better value for money on all tangible and intangible elements of sustainable infrastructure attributes. LCC outperform on some of the key criteria such as local employment creation and local material sourcing, which are essential pre-evaluation criteria. This research proposes a novel framework to harmonise sustainability indicators in contractor selection and offers a new theoretical insight into the approach to contractors’ selection criteria during pre-evaluation process, which contributes to the enhancement of PPP delivery in Nigeria. Overall, the proposed SID model has demonstrated the need for a shift in the modus operandi of the government’s ministries, department and agencies (MDAs) in Nigeria from unidirectional to systemic selection techniques. It clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the ANP to predict the contractor that will deliver more sustainable infrastructure.
  • An investigation into the role of acceptance and related factors in quality of life among renal dialysis patients.

    Mitchell, Kathryn; Elander, James; Stewart, Paul; Stalker, Carol (University of DerbyCollege of Health, Psychology and Social Care, University of Derby, 2020-11-13)
    For patients with end stage renal disease, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is essential to a patient’s survival. Haemodialysis is one RRT, and a growing body of evidence has suggested that how patients relate to this treatment is associated with both clinical and psychological outcomes. Adjusting to illness is a complex process (Dennison, Moss-Morris, & Chalder, 2009; Moss-Morris, 2013; Walker, Jackson, & Littlejohn, 2004) and one factor identified as important in other chronic conditions is acceptance. Evidence supports that acceptance can be important in helping patients manage conditions that cannot be improved through medication or therapies (McCracken, 1998; Veehof, Oskam, Schreurs, & Bohlmeijer, 2011). Findings from studies across a range of chronic conditions (Brassington et al., 2016; Poppe, Crombez, Hanoulle, Vogelaers, & Petrovic, 2013; Van Damme, De Waegeneer, & Debruyne, 2016) suggest that more positive acceptance of illness facilitates improvements in patients overall quality of life (QoL). However, there is limited research addressing the role of acceptance of illness and the impact on dialysis patients. This thesis has evaluated the role of acceptance and associated psychological variables in haemodialysis patients to develop an understanding of the influence of acceptance and to enable the development of targeted acceptance-based interventions. This thesis aims to; gain an understanding of what acceptance means for dialysis patients; compare the influence of acceptance and associated psychological factors on patient outcomes, and examine the longitudinal relationships between acceptance and quality of life for dialysis patients. A mixed-methods approach was utilised and four methodologies were adopted; a systematic review evaluated the impact of acceptance on outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease and how patients viewed acceptance in relation to these outcomes; cross-sectional studies compared the influence of acceptance, psychological and clinical variables on quality of life outcomes; a qualitative study explored patients experiences of accepting dialysis treatment, and a longitudinal study tested the impact of acceptance and psychological variables at 6 and 12 months post baseline. All participants were dialysis patients recruited from a single hospital site; a total of 102 participants were recruited. 98 were retained for analyses at baseline and 50 retained at 12 months. Ethical approval was obtained prior to the commencement of recruitment. The research generated several important findings. Firstly, it highlighted that acceptance in dialysis was complex, with qualitative findings indicating that acceptance of illness in dialysis patients related to themes of ‘accepting the necessity’, ‘accepting the functional aspects’, ‘acceptance from experience’ and ‘acceptance from support’. This resulted in the proposal of a conceptual model utilising acceptance mindset to address how patients reach acceptance and how they interpret their illness and treatment. Secondly, relationships between acceptance, psychological variables and QoL were identified; acceptance is a significant predictor of kidney disease QoL and physical QoL, with depression found to be a significant predictor for kidney disease QoL and mental QoL and was a significant mediator between acceptance and QoL. These findings demonstrate that acceptance is an important component of QoL in dialysis patients but also highlights the associations to other psychological variables. Theses associations in the cross-sectional study were confirmed longitudinally. Thirdly, tests of longitudinal associations demonstrated that although there were no significant changes in overall acceptance levels over time, group changes masked individual differences. The individual changes in acceptance were associated with changes in mental QoL and kidney disease QoL. Changes in acceptance rather than depression were predictive of mental QoL and kidney disease QoL at 6 months. At 12 months changes in acceptance and depression were important predictors of mental QoL and kidney disease QoL. The overall findings identified that acceptance of illness is an important aspect related to QoL for dialysis patients. Acceptance is a complex construct and relates to psychological factors, particularly depression. The qualitative analyses highlighted important areas related to acceptance and these were supported in the more complex analyses of QoL, these are areas that need considering in any future intervention developments. Although group acceptance did not change over time evidence at the individual level suggests that there may be benefit in targeting of interventions. Developing specific acceptance interventions targeted at dialysis patients may improve patients QoL and reduce the overall burden.
  • Humanizing hospitality industry human resources management to improve recruitment and retention of resilient hospitable talents in the sector

    Rawlinson, Sarah; Naisola Ruiter, Victoria (University of Derby, 2021-02-15)
    Attracting, retaining, developing, and motivating hospitable talent is a perennial problem in hospitality industry talent management. This thesis sought to address this problem by examining how human resource (HR) practices can improve talent management (TM) to attract persons with the right personal characteristics and support them to thrive in a hospitality career. There has been a shift in the academic literature from a focus on the organisational practices of talent management to understanding the implications of the employee’s experience as they develop within an organisation. There remains much to be understood about the role of human resources management (HRM) practitioners in the attraction and retention of talents with the right personal attributes to succeed in hospitality careers. This thesis aims to advance the theoretical understanding of HR theories and strategies to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. To meet the aim of this research, a mixed method approach and a sequential data collection approach was adopted. A personality self-profiling questionnaire survey was used to profile 309 students from business management degree programmes on their hospitable personal characteristics to understand whether students selecting hospitality management degrees had more hospitable characteristics. A Delphi study was conducted with 14 hospitality experts with different national and international hospitality leadership and management experience. The study aimed to research consensus on the strategic HR approaches required to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. The main findings of the research study were the need to review HR strategies in the hospitality industry. These strategies need to address recruitment and retention by promoting careers in the sector, investing in training and development, rewards and wellbeing strategies appropriate for a younger work force, closer working with training institutions to develop graduate competencies that are multi-disciplinary HRM practices and policies that humanize HRM throughout the employee journey. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the role of humane HRM strategies in recruitment and retention of a skilled and resilient hospitality workforce. One of the outcomes of this study is the development of a theoretically supported and empirically validated strategic HRM recruitment and retention toolkit. The toolkit is an end-to-end process that operationalizes and maps the HRM strategies throughout the employee experience journey to facilitate HR managers to improve the process of recruitment and retention in the sector. It identifies empirically found strategies and reveals possibilities to integrate an end-to-end strategic approach in talent management prioritizing employee wellbeing, training and development to nurture employee emotional resilience. This is the first research study to illuminate an end-to-end strategic approach towards an employee journey in the hospitality industry. To identify the scope of research to be explored in the future, implications for future research and practice are outlined.
  • A Novel Mathematical Layout Optimisation Method and Design Framework for Modularisation in Industrial Process Plants and SMRs

    Wood, Paul; Hall, Richard; Robertson, Daniel; Wrigley, Paul (University of DerbyInstitute for Innovation in Sustainable EngineeringUniversity of Derby, 2021-01-19)
    Nuclear power has been proposed as a low carbon solution to electricity generation when intermittent wind and solar renewable energy are not generating. Nuclear can provide co-generation through district heating, desalination, hydrogen production or aid in the process of producing synfuels. However, current new large nuclear power plants are expensive, time consuming to build and plagued by delays and cost increases. An emerging trend in the construction industry is to manufacture parts off the critical path, off site in factories, through modular design to reduce schedules and direct costs. A study from shipbuilding estimates work done in a factory may be 8 times more efficient than performing the same work on site. This productivity increase could be a solution to the problems in nuclear power plant construction. It is an emerging area and the International Atomic Energy Agency records over 50 Small Modular Reactor designs in commercial development worldwide. Most Small Modular Reactor designs focus on integrating the Nuclear Steam Supply System into one module. The aim of this Applied Research Programme was to develop an efficient and effective analysis tool for modularisation in industrial plant systems. The objectives were to understand the state of the art in modular construction and automating design through a literature review. The literature review in this thesis highlighted that automating earlier parts of the plant design process (equipment databases, selection tools and modular Process and Instrumentation Diagrams) have been developed in modular industrial process plant research but 3D layout has not been studied. It was also found that layout optimisation for industrial process plants has not considered modularisation. It was therefore proposed to develop a novel mathematical layout optimisation method for modularisation of industrial plants. Furthermore, the integration within the plant design process would be improved by developing a method to integrate the output of the optimisation with the plant design software. A case study was developed to analyse how this new method would compare against the current design process at Rolls-Royce. A systems engineering approach was taken to develop the capabilities of the optimisation by decomposing the three required constituents of modularisation: development of a model to optimise layout of modules utilising the module designs from previous research (Lapp, 1989), development of a model to optimise the layout equipment within modules and development of a combined and integrated model to optimise assignment and layout of equipment to modules. The objective function was to reduce pipe length as it can constitute up to 20% of process plant costs (Peters, Timmerhaus, & West, 2003) and to reduce the number of modules utilised. The results from the mathematical model were compared against previous layout designs (Lapp, 1989), highlighting a 46-88.7% reduction in pipework and considering pipework costs can be up to 20% of a process plant cost, this could be a significant saving. This does not consider the significant schedule and productivity savings by moving this work offsite. The second model (Bi) analysed the layout of the Chemical Volume and Control System and Boron Thermal Regeneration System into one and two modules, reducing pipe cost and installation by 67.6% and 85% respectively compared to the previously designed systems from (Lapp, 1989). The third model (Bii) considered the allocation of equipment to multiple modules, reducing pipe cost and installation by 80.5% compared to the previously designed systems from (Lapp, 1989), creating new data and knowledge. Mixed Integer Linear Programming formulations and soft constraints within the genetic algorithm function were utilised within MATLAB and Gurobi. Furthermore, by integrating the optimisation output with the plant design software to update the new locations of equipment and concept pipe routing, efficiency is vastly improved when the plant design engineer interprets the optimisation results. Not only can the mathematical layout optimisation analyse millions more possible layouts than an engineering designer, it can perform the function in a fraction of the time, saving time and costs. It at least gives the design engineer a suitable starting point which can be analysed and the optimisation model updated in an iterative process. This novel method was compared against the current design process at Rolls-Royce, it was found that an update to a module would take minutes with the novel optimisation and integration with the plant design software method, rather than days or weeks for the manual process. However, the disadvantage is that more upfront work is required to convert engineering knowledge into mathematical terms and relationships. The research is limited by the publicly available nuclear power plant data. Future work could include applying this novel method to wider industrial plant design to understand the broader impact. The mathematical optimisation model can be developed in the future to include constraints in other research such as assembly, operation and maintenance costs.
  • Our School Days: A Narrative Inquiry of the Lived Experiences of Former Pupils in Derbyshire Primary Schools from 1944 to 2009

    Tupling, Claire; Charles, Sarah; Shelton, Fiona (University of Derby, 2021-01-25)
    The aim of this study was to explore narratives of former pupils, who attended primary school between 1944 and 2009, to understand educational change and the everyday experience of educational policy. By exploring education through a lens of experience, the study adopted narrative inquiry as a method to awaken hidden stories of the ordinary, everyday experiences of the participants (narrators) to gain insight into their memories of primary school. Drawn together, these individual experiences form a ‘collected memory’ which provides insight into primary education across the different decades. The findings demonstrate how narrative inquiry offers insight into primary school experiences by examining stories as data sources, which bring to bear the experience of school from the perspective of former pupils. The stories, combined with an examination of literature and legislation, highlight how and why teachers are remembered, the curriculum, educational inequity, memories of playground games and books read at school. An implication for teacher educators is to include the understanding of experience and the impact that teaching methods and policy implementation can have in later life. Significantly, it is the stories themselves which bring to bear the experience of policy as recalled by the narrators and highlights the narrator-researcher relationship in awakening and interpreting the stories, demonstrating the value of story as a method for understanding education. Examination of the literature surfaces the rise of neoliberal ideology in education and the impact of this on children’s learning experiences. In addition, the government’s promulgation of the feminisation of the primary school, constructed through the government’s casting of women in the primary phase is observed. Education makes claims about inclusion, equality, access and social justice, it is hailed as the leveller for a more just and equal society, the stories elicited in this research demonstrate that the many facets of the education system are complicit in the notion of power (James, 2015). Therefore, those in positions of educational and political power in our society should not be generators of prevailing inequalities of policy but seek to identify and remove barriers to raise standards for all. The recommendations call for a repositioning of teachers as experts, and not merely ‘deliverers’ of policy and curriculum context. The performativity agenda of testing and inspections drives behaviours in schools, which are neither allied to the ethos of many teachers, nor to their pedagogical and subject expertise, therefore political and legislative change is required for teachers to be able to reassert themselves, to reclaim their authority and to lobby for greater democracy within the school system, particularly in relation to policy and curriculum development. Raising the profile of teachers and pupils as stakeholders is critical so that all stakes are equally valued and understood. An original contribution of this research demonstrates the value of story in gaining insights into how policy was experienced by the narrators and from which lessons can be learned. Thus, through application of narrative inquiry, it can be argued that story is a powerful method of understanding the experience of policy as remembered by former pupils. The concept of awakening, in bringing the story to bear, is key in this research, expanding Clandinin and Connelly’s (2000) notion of wakefulness. This was evident in the co-production of stories and the artefacts that were presented through the opening of narrative spaces in the interview process to awaken the story. This study therefore makes an original contribution, by using narrative inquiry as a methodological basis for awakening stories from the past, to understand the experience of educational policy set against the lived experience of the narrators over six decades of primary school education.
  • The needs of clients coming to counselling following an experience of second harm: A Q Methodology study

    Whiffin, Charlotte; Townend, Michael; Kenward, Linda (University of DerbyUniversity of Cumbria, 2021-02)
    Introduction Successive reports identified that psychological harm (second harm) can be caused to patients by poor responses of healthcare providers to initial errors or neglect. Aim To explore the needs of clients coming to counselling following experience of second harm. Method A Q methodology study involving ten participants UK wide was undertaken. Participants sorted 42 statements online constructed from a concourse comprising sources on experiences of second harm. Concourse sources focused on the deficits of interpersonal relationships, therefore statements focused on what participants needed from interpersonal relationships with counsellors moving towards recovery. Data analysis Factor Analysis via PQMethod was undertaken on the Q sort data. The interview data was used to elucidate the nuances of the Factors as viewpoints. Findings Two Factors were extracted from the Q sort data that demonstrated the viewpoints of participants: Viewpoint 1 – Needs that are both past and present focused: being understood. Viewpoint 2 – Needs that are both present and recovery focused: making me well. From these two viewpoints 11 perceived needs were identified. Nine were identified as generic needs within the counselling relationship; however, two were identified as specific to those attending counselling for second harm. Counselling needs specific to second harm were; the need for participants to not be blamed for what happened and, the need to have the counsellor understand the impact of the harm and the complaints and litigation system including issues of control, power, and autonomy. Conclusion Findings of this study revealed people who seek counselling following experiences of second harm have specific needs beyond those expected from a general counselling relationship. Furthermore this study was able to define second harm for the first time and offers this to the research and practice community in the hope it will advance the field by helping counsellors to understand the concept, nature, and impact of second harm in addition to the expected skill set for any counsellor supporting those who have experienced second harm. Further research is required to evaluate the impact of educating counsellors in second harm and further testing of the definition of second harm.
  • A Qualitative Exploration of Drug and Alcohol Using Parents’ Experiences in Drug/Alcohol Treatment when Social Services are Involved.

    Montague, Jane; Elander, James; Goddard, Kashmir (University of DerbyCollege of Health, Psychology and Social Care, 2021-02-05)
    This thesis is concerned with the lives of drug and alcohol using parents, who access treatment for their addiction. Parents who are drug and alcohol users may experience stigma, fear, shame, and denial around their misuse, which means that many fail or feel fearful to access any treatment for fear of official intervention. This thesis aims to explore the narratives of Class A drug users and alcohol users who access drug and alcohol treatment and who have been referred to Children’s Social Services when a Child Protection issue has been raised. Qualitative data was generated during the three studies. Semi-structured interviews took place during each study (1, 2 and 3). Study 2 allowed the use of photographs taken by participants to be examined. Study 3 allowed the use of a journal to capture the experience of the participants. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was applied to the verbatim transcripts. Key findings are presented as four superordinate themes in chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8. Each chapter focused on one of the four superordinate themes that were identified in the data analysis, which combined data from all three studies. ‘Risk and vulnerabilities’ in Chapter Five suggested that when these parents were teenagers’ drugs and alcohol were easily accessible, and there was trauma in their lives, which meant exposure to drug and alcohol use was a way of escape. Parents described addiction as a cycle they were continually on, and regardless of what they did the power of this cycle made it difficult to break free. This, for some, developed into committing a crime to fund their addiction. The theme of drug and alcohol use and parenting is discussed in Chapter Six. This chapter suggested that parents’ mental health was severely impacted as a result of their drug and alcohol use. This left the parents feeling stigmatised and experiencing a tainted identity. Parents expressed grief and trauma about their experience and how this impacted on family attachments and affected partner relationships. Parent’s emotional reaction to Social Services and Child Protection in Chapter Seven suggested a loss of control and negative emotions such as anxiety, anger feeling embarrassed, scared, guilt, and frustration when professionals became involved. Parents wanted professionals to understand addiction, and they hoped the professionals supporting them would be supportive to help them change. Recovery and change in Chapter Eight suggested coming to the point of realisation that they had no choice but to change their behaviour. There was also an understanding that their behaviour had impacted their children. Parents expressed the difficulty of treatment without proper effective interventions and, at times, relapse and how this was frowned upon. The subordinate themes linked to one another and some similar themes appeared in several chapters. Chapter Nine, the final chapter summaries the thesis as it provides a glimpse into the complex nature of being a drug/alcohol addicted parent. Key findings suggest a change in professional practice to meet the needs of the user and the wider family.
  • Studies in problem-based hospitality management education

    Rawlinson, Sarah; Zwaal, Wichard (University of DerbyStenden Hotel Management School Leeuwarden, 2021-01-05)
    This critical appraisal discusses and contextualizes the published works in order to demonstrate how the studies contribute to the knowledge about and development of problem-based learning (PBL) in the context of hospitality management education. Studies cover several aspects of problem-based learning illustrating strengths and challenges on both the conceptual and operational level related to the design and delivery of this educational concept in hospitality management education. First an overview will be provided of the basic principles for learning and a rationale for choosing problem-based learning as a promising educational concept for hospitality management education (HME). Next, research is reported on experiences and challenges with implementing and operationalising the key principles of PBL: constructive, collaborative, contextual, self-directed learning. Problem-based learning is an approach to education reflecting a constructivist conception of knowledge, teaching, learning and assessment. Studies were conducted to investigate whether these conceptions are shared and supported by staff and students, as a crucial condition for successful implementation of PBL. Regarding the operational level of PBL, results are reported of studies on some key drivers of the PBL process like the task, the seven-step procedure, teamwork, tutor interventions, and testing. In the final section of this critical appraisal some implications of the studies for the new educational concept design-based education (DBE) and curriculum configuration are discussed, including suggestions for further design-based research. The guiding question for this critical appraisal will be: what did the studies contribute to the knowledge about and development of problem-based learning and innovation in hospitality management education?
  • Mapping Stress and healthy balance with the workable ranges model in mindfulness-based stress reduction: First-person embodied reflections

    Sheffield, David; Hogan, Susan; Rose, Sally (University of Derby, 2021-12-14)
    During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) courses, participants are taught to be more present with stressful experience in order to respond to it more effectively. The meditation-based experiential pedagogy is supported by didactic teaching about stress to increase awareness of patterns of reaction and to support the application of mindfulness to self-regulation. The content of teaching about stress, and how it is best taught within the pedagogy, is an important practical and theoretical consideration. This thesis addresses a gap in knowledge by focussing on this little-regarded area of practice. The aim of this research was to develop practical and theoretical knowledge about the inclusion in the MBSR curriculum of the Workable Ranges Model of stress and emotional regulation, developed by the author. This visual model lays out regulated states and both mobilised and immobilised threat-based reactions in relation to each other. The main research question was: how does the Workable Ranges Model complement MBSR? Three key themes were identified in the literature and began to address the research questions. They were: the role of didactic teaching about stress; the notion that how difficult experiences are negotiated is a paradoxical mechanism; and that the Workable Ranges Model provides a novel perspective on participants’ progression through mindfulness-based programmes. Qualitative research was conducted as an illuminative evaluation of the practice innovation. An enactivist, embodied-mind epistemology was used to consider both embodied and verbal forms of knowledge. The application of mindfulness-based, first-person phenomenological methodology, within the frame of the conceptual encounter method, functioned as both learning and data-collection processes. The first phase focussed on the inclusion of the model in three MBSR courses. Data were gathered from participants in classes using diagrams and a question schedule. A template analysis elucidated engagement and resonance, awareness of the features of regulated and dysregulated states and patterns of reactivity, ways of responding to dysregulated states and applications linked with MBSR. In the second phase, seven course graduates engaged in a diary exercise, post-meditation reflective inquiry and a group discussion. Thematic analysis identified an overarching theme that the Workable Ranges Model provides a dynamic map for the mindful exploration of stability and stress. Three interrelated processes were evident: charting regulated and dysregulated states, embodied application in mindfulness practice, and orienting to and resourcing regulation and self-care. The themes from phase two shaped a broader meaning to both data sets. Three functions of the model as a map were identified and discussed. It worked: (i) as a method for teaching about healthy balance and stress; (ii) as a heuristic for self-exploration and developing insight; and (iii) as a guide for mindfulness-based self-regulation and self-care. Together, these aspects acted as aids to teaching and learning about mindfulness-based self-regulation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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