Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/621087
Title:
Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief
Authors:
Schofield, Malcolm B. ( 0000-0001-9676-0896 ) ; Baker, Ian S.; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David ( 0000-0001-9121-1783 )
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to establish a new typology of belief in the supernatural; categorising people, based on their levels of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Examining how the various beliefs are defined was a further objective. The reasons for people having different levels of these beliefs were discussed, highlighting ‘Metaphysical Chauvinism’ as a possible explanation. Previous research that used variousmethods to measure religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief were discussed. Participants (n = 307) completed an online survey consisting of the revised Religious Life Inventory (rRLI), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) and the revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS). Two cluster analyses were performed: one on the three main scales and a secondary analysis on the ISS, the subscales of the rRLI and the rPBS. The results revealed a four cluster solution for each analysis. For the main analysis the clusters were ‘believers’, ‘paranormal believers’, ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’. Metaphysical Chauvinism was supported; however, it was acknowledged that there still appears to be a lack of consensus when defining supernatural beliefs. It is proposed that the cluster analysis approach is more effective than a simple scale when trying establish how a person believes.
Affiliation:
University of Derby
Citation:
Schofield, M. B., Baker, I. S., Staples, P., & Sheffield., D. (2016). Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 419–424. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.020
Journal:
Personality and Individual Differences
Issue Date:
Oct-2016
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/621087
DOI:
10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.020
Additional Links:
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0191886916307590
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
01918869
Appears in Collections:
Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby Online (UDOL)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSchofield, Malcolm B.en
dc.contributor.authorBaker, Ian S.en
dc.contributor.authorStaples, Paulen
dc.contributor.authorSheffield, Daviden
dc.date.accessioned2016-12-01T12:51:28Z-
dc.date.available2016-12-01T12:51:28Z-
dc.date.issued2016-10-
dc.identifier.citationSchofield, M. B., Baker, I. S., Staples, P., & Sheffield., D. (2016). Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 419–424. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.020en
dc.identifier.issn01918869-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.020-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/621087-
dc.description.abstractThe aim of the study was to establish a new typology of belief in the supernatural; categorising people, based on their levels of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Examining how the various beliefs are defined was a further objective. The reasons for people having different levels of these beliefs were discussed, highlighting ‘Metaphysical Chauvinism’ as a possible explanation. Previous research that used variousmethods to measure religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief were discussed. Participants (n = 307) completed an online survey consisting of the revised Religious Life Inventory (rRLI), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) and the revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS). Two cluster analyses were performed: one on the three main scales and a secondary analysis on the ISS, the subscales of the rRLI and the rPBS. The results revealed a four cluster solution for each analysis. For the main analysis the clusters were ‘believers’, ‘paranormal believers’, ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’. Metaphysical Chauvinism was supported; however, it was acknowledged that there still appears to be a lack of consensus when defining supernatural beliefs. It is proposed that the cluster analysis approach is more effective than a simple scale when trying establish how a person believes.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0191886916307590en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Personality and Individual Differencesen
dc.subjectSupernaturalen
dc.subjectReligiosityen
dc.subjectSpiritualityen
dc.subjectParanormal beliefen
dc.subjectCluster analysisen
dc.subjectMetaphysical chauvinismen
dc.titleMental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal beliefen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen
dc.identifier.journalPersonality and Individual Differencesen
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