Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/620662
Title:
Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats
Authors:
Fratangeli, Francesca; Dondi, Nicolò; Segre Reinach, Marco; Serra, Clara; Sweet, Michael J. ( 0000-0003-4983-8333 ) ; Ponti, Massimo ( 0000-0002-6521-1330 )
Abstract:
Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.
Affiliation:
University of Derby
Citation:
Ponti M, Fratangeli F, Dondi N, Segre Reinach M, Serra C, Sweet MJ. (2016) Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats. PeerJ 4:e2614 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2614
Publisher:
PeerJ Inc.
Journal:
PeerJ
Issue Date:
25-Oct-2016
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/620662
DOI:
10.7717/peerj.2614
Additional Links:
https://peerj.com/articles/2614; https://peerj.com/
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
2167-8359
Sponsors:
This research was partially funded by Coral Eye, which hosted FF and covered all field expenses. The non-profit organization Reef Check Italia Onlus sustained the cost for open source publication. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Appears in Collections:
Environmental Sustainability Research Centre

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorFratangeli, Francescaen
dc.contributor.authorDondi, Nicolòen
dc.contributor.authorSegre Reinach, Marcoen
dc.contributor.authorSerra, Claraen
dc.contributor.authorSweet, Michael J.en
dc.contributor.authorPonti, Massimoen
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-28T11:48:00Z-
dc.date.available2016-10-28T11:48:00Z-
dc.date.issued2016-10-25-
dc.identifier.citationPonti M, Fratangeli F, Dondi N, Segre Reinach M, Serra C, Sweet MJ. (2016) Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats. PeerJ 4:e2614 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2614en
dc.identifier.issn2167-8359-
dc.identifier.doi10.7717/peerj.2614-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/620662-
dc.description.abstractWorldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was partially funded by Coral Eye, which hosted FF and covered all field expenses. The non-profit organization Reef Check Italia Onlus sustained the cost for open source publication. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPeerJ Inc.en
dc.relation.urlhttps://peerj.com/articles/2614en
dc.relation.urlhttps://peerj.com/en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PeerJen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/en
dc.subjectCoralen
dc.subjectDiseaseen
dc.subjectConservation biologyen
dc.subjectEcologyen
dc.subjectMarine biologyen
dc.titleBaseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threatsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen
dc.identifier.journalPeerJen
dc.contributor.institutionDipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy-
dc.contributor.institutionReef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy-
dc.contributor.institutionReef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy-
dc.contributor.institutionReef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy-
dc.contributor.institutionReef Check Italia onlus, Ancona, Italy-
dc.contributor.institutionEnvironmental Sustainability Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom-
This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License
Creative Commons
All Items in UDORA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.