Scent-marking investment and motor patterns are affected by the age and sex of wild brown bears

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/584226
Title:
Scent-marking investment and motor patterns are affected by the age and sex of wild brown bears
Authors:
Clapham, Melanie; Nevin, Owen T.; Rosell, Frank; Ramsey, Andrew ( 0000-0002-5550-9977 )
Abstract:
Members of the Carnivora employ a wide range of postures and patterns to mark their scent onto objects and thereby communicate with conspecifics. Despite much anecdotal evidence on the marking behaviour of ursids, empirical evidence of scent-marking motor patterns displayed by wild populations is lacking. Analysing the time that different age and sex classes spend at scent-marking trees and the behaviours involved at different times of year could provide further insight into the function of marking. We used camera traps stationed at scent-marking trees to investigate scent-marking behaviour by wild brown bears, Ursus arctos. Through image-based data, we found evidence to support the hypothesis that time investment and scent-marking motor patterns are dictated by the age and sex of the bear. Adult males spent more time scent marking and displayed a more complex behavioural sequence of marking than adult females and juveniles. Adult male behaviour at marking trees was consistent throughout the year, indicating a continued benefit of chemical signalling outside of the breeding season. Juvenile bear behaviour at marking trees changed with age. Young dependent cubs were more likely to imitate their mother's behaviour, whereas older dependent cubs were more likely to engage in marking behaviour independently. The marking motor patterns of independent subadults were more simplistic than those of younger dependent cubs, suggesting a change in behaviour with independence. We suggest that these findings further support the hypothesis that scent-marking behaviour by brown bears functions in intrasexual competition between adult males. Cub behaviour at marking trees suggests an influence of social learning.
Affiliation:
University of Derby
Citation:
Clapham, M, Nevin, O, Ramsey, A, & Rosell, F 2014, 'Scent-marking investment and motor patterns are affected by the age and sex of wild brown bears', Animal Behaviour, 94, pp. 107-116
Publisher:
Elsevier
Journal:
Animal Behaviour
Issue Date:
Aug-2014
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/584226
DOI:
10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.05.017
Additional Links:
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003347214002371
Type:
Article
Language:
en
Series/Report no.:
Vo. 94
ISSN:
33472
Appears in Collections:
Environmental Sustainability Research Centre

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorClapham, Melanieen
dc.contributor.authorNevin, Owen T.en
dc.contributor.authorRosell, Franken
dc.contributor.authorRamsey, Andrewen
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-21T10:10:43Zen
dc.date.available2015-12-21T10:10:43Zen
dc.date.issued2014-08en
dc.identifier.citationClapham, M, Nevin, O, Ramsey, A, & Rosell, F 2014, 'Scent-marking investment and motor patterns are affected by the age and sex of wild brown bears', Animal Behaviour, 94, pp. 107-116en
dc.identifier.issn33472en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.05.017en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/584226en
dc.description.abstractMembers of the Carnivora employ a wide range of postures and patterns to mark their scent onto objects and thereby communicate with conspecifics. Despite much anecdotal evidence on the marking behaviour of ursids, empirical evidence of scent-marking motor patterns displayed by wild populations is lacking. Analysing the time that different age and sex classes spend at scent-marking trees and the behaviours involved at different times of year could provide further insight into the function of marking. We used camera traps stationed at scent-marking trees to investigate scent-marking behaviour by wild brown bears, Ursus arctos. Through image-based data, we found evidence to support the hypothesis that time investment and scent-marking motor patterns are dictated by the age and sex of the bear. Adult males spent more time scent marking and displayed a more complex behavioural sequence of marking than adult females and juveniles. Adult male behaviour at marking trees was consistent throughout the year, indicating a continued benefit of chemical signalling outside of the breeding season. Juvenile bear behaviour at marking trees changed with age. Young dependent cubs were more likely to imitate their mother's behaviour, whereas older dependent cubs were more likely to engage in marking behaviour independently. The marking motor patterns of independent subadults were more simplistic than those of younger dependent cubs, suggesting a change in behaviour with independence. We suggest that these findings further support the hypothesis that scent-marking behaviour by brown bears functions in intrasexual competition between adult males. Cub behaviour at marking trees suggests an influence of social learning.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.relation.ispartofseriesVo. 94en
dc.relation.urlhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003347214002371en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Animal Behaviouren
dc.subjectCamera trappingen
dc.subjectChemical signallingen
dc.subjectDevelopmenten
dc.subjectIntrasexual competitionen
dc.titleScent-marking investment and motor patterns are affected by the age and sex of wild brown bearsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen
dc.identifier.journalAnimal Behaviouren
All Items in UDORA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.