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An illness-specific version of the revised illness perception questionnaire in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF-IPQR): Unpacking beliefs about treatment control, personal control and symptom triggersThis study modified the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in patients with persistent Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Qualitative interviews and think-aloud techniques informed modification of the IPQ-R to be specific to AF patients. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) (n=198) examined the validity of the modified IPQ-R (AF-IPQ-R). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) examined the new AF-triggers scale. Construct validity examined associations between the AF-IPQ-R, quality of life (QoL) and beliefs about medicines. Test-retest and internal reliability were examined. Interviews indicated that patients viewed triggers of AF rather than initial causes of illness as more applicable. Patients believed specific behaviours such as rest could control AF. Treatment control beliefs related to pharmacological and procedural treatments. These data were used to modify the IPQ-R subscales and to develop a triggers of AF scale. CFA indicated good model fit. EFA of the triggers scale indicated 3 factors: emotional; health behaviours; and over-exertion triggers. Expected correlations were found between the AF-IPQ-R, QoL and treatment beliefs, evidencing good construct validity. The AF-IPQ-R showed sound psychometric properties. It provides more detailed specification than the IPQ-R of beliefs that may help to understand poor QoL in AF patients, and guidance for future interventions in this area.
El enfoque mosaico, derecho a la participación y la voz de los niños en investigación educativaThis review article explores and discusses some of the methodological in-novations regarding childhood and education by focusing on the mosaic approach. It is a methodological approach -not constituted as a method yet- which has been mainly developed in English and it is founded on concepts such as those of qualitative research, childhood studies, the rights of the child and particularly, their right to participate in research about themselves and their world. A historical framework is presented to facilitate the understanding of the multidisciplinary origins of this approach. The process of the literature review was made in a database that contained 71 million references, out of which 28 references, which identified the mosaic approach as their method, were selected. The analysis of this approach presents a diverse panorama in its use, although it mainly focuses on preschool and early education. To conclude, a reflection about the use of this approach in the future is made and, particularly in Latin America where the incipient use of the mosaic approach seems to be relevant.
Surveillance of modern motherhood: Experiences of universal parenting coursesThis book explores the reflections and experiences of mothers of children aged 0-3 years that have attended universal parenting courses. Simmons considers the factors that motivated mothers to attend a universal parenting course and explore the wider experiences of early modern motherhood in the UK. She investigates participants' perceptions of benefits of attending a parenting course, different forms of parenting advice accessed by mothers, and how this provides an insight into the wider constructs and experiences of modern motherhood. Ultimately, the book considers, through a feminist post-structuralist lens, the social and cultural pressures within modern motherhood in relation to different levels of surveillance, and produces new knowledge for practice within the early years and health sectors in relation to the support currently offered to new mothers. It will be of interest to students and scholars across the sociology of education, gender studies, and childhood studies.
Rapid assembly of high-Mg andesites and dacites by magma mixing at a continental arc stratovolcanoStudies of pre-eruptive processes at active volcanoes require precise petrochronological constraints if they are to contribute to hazard assessment during future eruption events. We present petrological and geochemical data, and orthopyroxene diffusion timescales for samples from late Pleistocene high-Mg andesite dacite lavas (Mg#53–69) at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a case study of rapid magma genesis and eruption at a continental arc stratovolcano. Assembly of Ruapehu high-Mg magmas involved the mixing of primitive magmas plus entrained mantle equilibrated olivines with mid-crustal felsic mush bodies, yielding hybridized magmas with ubiquitous pyroxene reverse-zoning patterns. Orthopyroxene Fe-Mg interdiffusion timescales linked to quantitative crystal orientation data show that most lavas erupted <10 days after resumption of crystal growth following magma mixing events. The eruption of lavas within days of mixing events implies that pre-eruptive warnings may be correspondingly short.
Improving pofessional observers’ veracity judgements by tactical interviewingUnderstanding whether a person of interest is being truthful during an investigative interview is a constant challenge and is of concern to numerous criminal justice professionals, most of whom are not involved in conducting the interview itself. Here we investigated police observers’ veracity detection performance having viewed interviews with truthtellers and deceivers using either the Tactical Use of Evidence (TUE), Strategic Use of Evidence (TUE) or a Control technique. Thirty serving police officers participated as post interview observers and each viewed 12 interviews in a counterbalanced order. Immediately post each interview each officer made a veracity judgment. Overall, untrained police observers were significantly more accurate (68%) when making veracity judgments post TUE interviews whereas for both SUE and Control performance was around chance (51% and 48%, respectively). Veracity performance for liars and truthtellers revealed a similar pattern of results (67% liars; 70% truthtellers) in the TUE condition. These results lend further support to the psychological literature highlighting the importance of how and when to reveal evidence or any other relevant event information during an investigative interview for ‘outing’ deceivers as well as allowing truthtellers early opportunities to evidence their innocence.